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Unit 6:  Market Failures and the Role of the Government Length 3 Weeks TOTAL Assignments Problem Set #6
When should the government get involved in the economy? Worker Safety Laws Barber Shop Licenses Every society needs to dec...
What is the Free Market? (Capitalism)
5 Characteristics of Free Markets <ul><li>Little government involvement in the economy.  (Laissez Faire = Let it be)   </l...
<ul><li>Example of the INVISIBLE HAND </li></ul><ul><li>of the free market: </li></ul><ul><li>If society wants computers a...
Does the Free Market ever  FAIL  to meet society’s needs?
<ul><li>What is a Market Failure? </li></ul><ul><li>A situation in which the free-market system fails to satisfy society’s...
How does the free market  FAIL ?
The Four Market Failures <ul><li>We will focus on four different market failures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Goods </li>...
Market Failure #1: PUBLIC GOODS
If there was no government, how would schools, parks, and freeways be different?  Would there be enough to meet our needs?...
<ul><li>Why must the government provide public goods and services? </li></ul><ul><li>It is impractical for the free-market...
What’s wrong with this picture?
The Free Rider Problem <ul><li>Examples:  </li></ul><ul><li>People who download music illegally </li></ul><ul><li>People w...
<ul><li>Canadian Military Spending:  $21.8 Billion  </li></ul><ul><li>US Military Spending:  $660 Billion </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Free-Riders keep firms from making profits. </li></ul><ul><li>If left to the free market, essential services would...
<ul><li>The Final Exam </li></ul><ul><li>I am willing to give an 100% on the final exam to whichever class gives me $1000....
Definition of Public Goods
<ul><li>To be considered a true public good, it must meet two criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Nonexclusion </li></ul>Defin...
<ul><li>Identify which of the following are </li></ul><ul><li>TRUE public goods </li></ul><ul><li>(have non-exclusion  and...
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Ap micro 6 1 intro to unit and public goods

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Ap micro 6 1 intro to unit and public goods

  1. 1. Unit 6: Market Failures and the Role of the Government Length 3 Weeks TOTAL Assignments Problem Set #6
  2. 2. When should the government get involved in the economy? Worker Safety Laws Barber Shop Licenses Every society needs to decide how much government involvement is desirable Bank Bailouts
  3. 3.
  4. 4. What is the Free Market? (Capitalism)
  5. 5. 5 Characteristics of Free Markets <ul><li>Little government involvement in the economy. (Laissez Faire = Let it be) </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals OWN resources and determine what to produce, how to produce, and who gets it. </li></ul><ul><li>The opportunity to make PROFIT gives people INCENTIVE to produce quality items efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>Wide variety of goods available to consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>Competition and Self-Interest work together to regulate the economy . </li></ul>The government’s job is to enforce contracts, secure property rights, and defend the country.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Example of the INVISIBLE HAND </li></ul><ul><li>of the free market: </li></ul><ul><li>If society wants computers and people are willing to pay high prices then… </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses have the INCENTIVE to start making computers to earn PROFIT. </li></ul><ul><li>This leads to more COMPETITION…. </li></ul><ul><li>Which means lower prices, better quality, and more product variety. </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain profits, firms find most efficient way to produce goods and services. </li></ul><ul><li>The government doesn’t need to get involved since the needs of society are automatically met. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Does the Free Market ever FAIL to meet society’s needs?
  8. 8. <ul><li>What is a Market Failure? </li></ul><ul><li>A situation in which the free-market system fails to satisfy society’s wants. </li></ul><ul><li>(When the invisible hand doesn’t work.) </li></ul><ul><li>Private markets do not efficiently bring about the allocation of resources. </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the result… </li></ul><ul><li>The government must step in to satisfy society’s wants. </li></ul><ul><li>Circular Flow Model Review </li></ul>
  9. 9. How does the free market FAIL ?
  10. 10. The Four Market Failures <ul><li>We will focus on four different market failures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Externalities (third person side effects) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Monopolies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Unfair distribution of income </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In each of the above situations, </li></ul><ul><li>the government step in to </li></ul><ul><li>allocate resources efficiently. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Market Failure #1: PUBLIC GOODS
  12. 12. If there was no government, how would schools, parks, and freeways be different? Would there be enough to meet our needs? Public Goods Video: Fire Department Auction
  13. 13. <ul><li>Why must the government provide public goods and services? </li></ul><ul><li>It is impractical for the free-market to provide these goods because there is little opportunity to earn profit . </li></ul><ul><li>This is due to the Free-Rider Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Free Riders are individuals that benefit without paying. </li></ul>Public Goods
  14. 14. What’s wrong with this picture?
  15. 15. The Free Rider Problem <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>People who download music illegally </li></ul><ul><li>People who watch a street performer and don’t pay </li></ul><ul><li>Teenagers that live at home and don’t have a job </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Canadian Military Spending: $21.8 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>US Military Spending: $660 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>Why doesn’t Canada spend more on their military? </li></ul>Does anyone free ride off you?
  17. 17. <ul><li>Free-Riders keep firms from making profits. </li></ul><ul><li>If left to the free market, essential services would be under produced. </li></ul><ul><li>To solve the problem, the government can: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Find new ways to punish free-riders. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Use tax dollars to provide the service to everyone. </li></ul>What’s wrong with Free Riders?
  18. 18. <ul><li>The Final Exam </li></ul><ul><li>I am willing to give an 100% on the final exam to whichever class gives me $1000. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone in the class will get 100% even if they don’t pay. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is willing to pay? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about those that refuse to pay? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution? </li></ul><ul><li>EVERYONE pays a mandatory tax </li></ul><ul><li>and all receive the same benefits. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Definition of Public Goods
  20. 20. <ul><li>To be considered a true public good, it must meet two criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Nonexclusion </li></ul>Definition of Public Goods 2. Shared Consumption (Nonrivalry) <ul><ul><li>Everyone can use the good. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot exclude people from enjoying the benefits (even if they don’t pay). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: National Defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One person’s consumption of a good does not reduce the usefulness to others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Kit Carson Park </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Identify which of the following are </li></ul><ul><li>TRUE public goods </li></ul><ul><li>(have non-exclusion and non-rival consumption): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Hamburgers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Satellite TV </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Free Public Education </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Homes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Street lights </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. Highways </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>

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