explains how people from different cultures handle conflict
It assumes that all
cultures try to maintain
face and negotiate
is defined as the difference of values, expectations,
processes , and outcomes between two or more parties
over relational issues (Ting-Toomey and Kurogi, 1998)
are the social behaviors of Face
Face is the image we see ourselves in our
culture ,and how we want others to see us (Ting-
Ting- Toomey and Kurogi, 1998) .
Face work is the verbal and non-verbal ways
people promote to protect face (Ting-Toomey and
Why is FaCe
important in communication studies ?
If we know the culture’s social behavior,
we can probably predict the conflict style
The United States is considered an Individualist culture
Primarily concern with their own interest/self face
(Ting Toomey, 2003).
Japanis an example of a Collectivistic culture
Willing to give priority to the group over their own personal goals
(Oetzel and Ting-Toomey, 2003).
What is the
Culture –general predictors varied
across cultural groups.
Theory is in its beginning stage of
More studies needed.
(Oetzel and Ting-Toomey, 2003)
When dealing with conflict, be mindful of
the other person’s communications
style, and try to change your approach
so that it’s a win win for everyone.
Let’s start doing this today!
Are we ALL IN?
Oetzel, J. G., & Ting-Toomey, S. (2003). Face Concerns in
Interpersonal Conflict A Cross-Cultural Empirical Test of
the Face Negotiation Theory. Communication Research,
Ting-Toomey, S. (2005). “Identity negotiation theory: Cross
cultural boundaries”. Theorizing about intercultural
Ting-Toomey, S., & Kurogi, A. (1998). Facework
competence in intercultural conflict: An updated face-
negotiation theory. International Journal of Intercultural
Relations, 22(2), 187-225.