9/2/2012                                      By- Jitendra Bhangale                                    Assistant Professor...
9/2/2012 Cells are not all the same All cells share general structures Cells are organized into three main regions    ...
9/2/2012 Barrier of nucleus Consists of a double   phospholipid membrane Contain nuclear pores   that allow for exchang...
9/2/2012 Composed of DNA and   protein Scattered throughout   the nucleus Chromatin condenses to   form chromosomes   w...
9/2/2012                                                                                     9                            ...
9/2/2012 Membrane junctions    Tight junctions    Desmosomes    Gap junctions                                         ...
9/2/2012                                                                                    13                            ...
9/2/2012 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)    Fluid-filled tubules for carrying substances    Two types of ER        Rough En...
9/2/2012                                                                                    17                            ...
9/2/2012 Mitochondria    “Powerhouses” of the cell    Change shape continuously    Carry out reactions where oxygen is...
9/2/2012 Cytoskeleton    Three different types        Microfilaments        Intermediate           filaments        M...
9/2/2012 Not found in all cells Used for movement    Cilia moves materials across the cell surface    Flagellum propel...
9/2/2012                                                                                    25                            ...
9/2/2012                                                                                    27                            ...
9/2/2012 Solution – homogeneous mixture of two or more   components    Solvent – dissolving medium    Solutes – compone...
9/2/2012 Diffusion    Particles tend to distribute themselves evenly within     a solution    Movement is     from high...
9/2/2012 Types of diffusion    Osmosis – simple diffusion of water        Highly polar water easily crosses the plasma ...
9/2/2012 Filtration    Water and solutes are forced through a membrane       by fluid, or hydrostatic pressure    A pre...
9/2/2012 Solute pumping    Amino acids, some sugars and ions are transported       by solute pumps    ATP energizes pro...
9/2/2012 Bulk transport    Exocytosis        Moves materials out of the cell        Material is carried in a membranou...
9/2/2012 Bulk transport    Endocytosis        Extracellular substances are engulfed by being          enclosed in a mem...
9/2/2012 Cells have two major periods    Interphase        Cell grows        Cell carries on metabolic processes    C...
9/2/2012 Mitosis    Division of the nucleus    Results in the formation of two daughter nuclei Cytokinesis    Divisio...
9/2/2012 Metaphase    Spindle           from       centromeres             are      attached         to       chromosome...
9/2/2012                                                                                    49                            ...
9/2/2012 Gene – DNA segment that carries a blueprint for   building one protein Proteins have many functions    Buildin...
9/2/2012 Transcription    Transfer of information from DNA’s base sequence       to the complimentary base sequence of m...
9/2/2012                               By Jitendra Bhangale                                                               ...
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Cells by JITENDRA BHANGALE

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Anatomy of Cell, Transport mechanism, Protein synthesis, Plasma membrane

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Cells by JITENDRA BHANGALE

  1. 1. 9/2/2012 By- Jitendra Bhangale Assistant Professor & Head, Department of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, Ahmedabad 1 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life. Cells are the building blocks of all living things. Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function. 2 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 1
  2. 2. 9/2/2012 Cells are not all the same All cells share general structures Cells are organized into three main regions Nucleus Cytoplasm Plasma membrane 3 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Control center of the cell Contains genetic material (DNA) Three regions Nuclear membrane Nucleolus Chromatin 4 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 2
  3. 3. 9/2/2012 Barrier of nucleus Consists of a double phospholipid membrane Contain nuclear pores that allow for exchange of material with the rest of the cell 5 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Nucleus contains one or more nucleoli Sites of ribosome production  Ribosomes then migrate to the cytoplasm through nuclear pores 6 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 3
  4. 4. 9/2/2012 Composed of DNA and protein Scattered throughout the nucleus Chromatin condenses to form chromosomes when the cell divides 7 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Barrier for cell contents Double phospholipid layer Hydrophilic heads Hydrophobic tails Other materials in plasma membrane Protein Cholesterol Glycoproteins 8 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 4
  5. 5. 9/2/2012 9 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Microvilli Finger-like projections that increase surface area for absorption 10 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 5
  6. 6. 9/2/2012 Membrane junctions Tight junctions Desmosomes Gap junctions 11 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane Cytosol Fluid that suspends other elements Organelles Metabolic machinery of the cell Inclusions Non-functioning units 12 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 6
  7. 7. 9/2/2012 13 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Ribosomes Made of protein and RNA Sites of protein synthesis Found at two locations Free in the cytoplasm Attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum 14 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 7
  8. 8. 9/2/2012 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Fluid-filled tubules for carrying substances Two types of ER Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Studded with ribosomes Site where building materials of cellular membrane are formed Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Functions in cholesterol synthesis and breakdown, fat metabolism, and detoxification of drugs 15 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Golgi apparatus Modifies and packages proteins Produces different types of packages Secretory vesicles Cell membrane components Lysosomes 16 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 8
  9. 9. 9/2/2012 17 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Lysosomes Contain enzymes that digest nonusable materials within the cell Peroxisomes Membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes Detoxify harmful substances Break down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals) Replicate by pinching in half 18 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 9
  10. 10. 9/2/2012 Mitochondria “Powerhouses” of the cell Change shape continuously Carry out reactions where oxygen is used to break down food Provides ATP for cellular energy 19 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Cytoskeleton Network of protein structures that extend throughout the cytoplasm Provides the cell with an internal framework 20 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 10
  11. 11. 9/2/2012 Cytoskeleton Three different types Microfilaments Intermediate filaments Microtubules 21 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Centrioles Rod-shaped bodies made of microtubules Direct formation of mitotic spindle during cell division 22 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 11
  12. 12. 9/2/2012 Not found in all cells Used for movement Cilia moves materials across the cell surface Flagellum propels the cell 23 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 24 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 12
  13. 13. 9/2/2012 25 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 26 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 13
  14. 14. 9/2/2012 27 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Membrane Transport – movement of substance into and out of the cell Transport is by two basic methods Passive transport No energy is required Active transport The cell must provide metabolic energy 28 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 14
  15. 15. 9/2/2012 Solution – homogeneous mixture of two or more components Solvent – dissolving medium Solutes – components in smaller quantities within a solution Intracellular fluid – nucleoplasm and cytosol Interstitial fluid – fluid on the exterior of the cell 29 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad The plasma membrane allows some materials to pass while excluding others This permeability includes movement into and out of the cell 30 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 15
  16. 16. 9/2/2012 Diffusion Particles tend to distribute themselves evenly within a solution Movement is from high concentration to low concentration, or down a concentration gradient 31 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Types of diffusion Simple diffusion Unassisted process Solutes are lipid-soluble materials or small enough to pass through membrane pores 32 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 16
  17. 17. 9/2/2012 Types of diffusion Osmosis – simple diffusion of water Highly polar water easily crosses the plasma membrane Facilitated diffusion Substances require a protein carrier for passive transport 33 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 34 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 17
  18. 18. 9/2/2012 Filtration Water and solutes are forced through a membrane by fluid, or hydrostatic pressure A pressure gradient must exist Solute-containing fluid is pushed from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area 35 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Transport substances that are unable to pass by diffusion They may be too large They may not be able to dissolve in the fat core of the membrane They may have to move against a concentration gradient Two common forms of active transport Solute pumping Bulk transport 36 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 18
  19. 19. 9/2/2012 Solute pumping Amino acids, some sugars and ions are transported by solute pumps ATP energizes protein carriers, and in most cases, moves substances against concentration gradients 37 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 38 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 19
  20. 20. 9/2/2012 Bulk transport Exocytosis Moves materials out of the cell Material is carried in a membranous vesicle Vesicle migrates to plasma membrane Vesicle combines with plasma membrane Material is emptied to the outside 39 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 40 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 20
  21. 21. 9/2/2012 Bulk transport Endocytosis Extracellular substances are engulfed by being enclosed in a membranous vescicle Types of endocytosis Phagocytosis – cell eating Pinocytosis – cell drinking 41 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 42 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 21
  22. 22. 9/2/2012 Cells have two major periods Interphase Cell grows Cell carries on metabolic processes Cell division Cell replicates itself Function is to produce more cells for growth and repair processes 43 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Genetic material duplicated and readies a cell for division into two cells Occurs toward the end of interphase DNA uncoils and each side serves as a template 44 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 22
  23. 23. 9/2/2012 Mitosis Division of the nucleus Results in the formation of two daughter nuclei Cytokinesis Division of the cytoplasm Begins when mitosis is near completion Results in the formation of two daughter cells 45 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Interphase No cell division occurs The cell carries out normal metabolic activity and growth Prophase First part of cell division Centromeres migrate to the poles 46 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 23
  24. 24. 9/2/2012 Metaphase Spindle from centromeres are attached to chromosomes that are aligned in the center of the cell 47 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Anaphase Daughter chromosomes are pulled toward the poles The cell begins to elongate Telophase Daughter nuclei begin forming A cleavage furrow (for cell division) begins to form 48 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 24
  25. 25. 9/2/2012 49 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 50 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 25
  26. 26. 9/2/2012 Gene – DNA segment that carries a blueprint for building one protein Proteins have many functions Building materials for cells Act as enzymes (biological catalysts) RNA is essential for protein synthesis 51 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Transfer RNA (tRNA) Transfers appropriate amino acids to the ribosome for building the protein Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Helps form the ribosomes where proteins are built Messanger RNA Carries the instructions for building a protein from the nucleus to the ribosome 52 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 26
  27. 27. 9/2/2012 Transcription Transfer of information from DNA’s base sequence to the complimentary base sequence of mRNA Translation Base sequence of nucleic acid is translated to an amino acid sequence Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins 53 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 54 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 27
  28. 28. 9/2/2012 By Jitendra Bhangale 55Asst. Prof. Dept of Pharmacology, Delmar, Cengage Learning Pharmacy College, Ahmedabad © 2010 Smt N. M. Padalia 28

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