Biodiversity status in gujarat by jitendra kumar singh
Biodiversity status in Gujarat By Jitendra Kumar Singh M.PhilSchool of Environment and Sustainable Development Central University of Gujarat
INTRODUCTION Biodiversity Bio = Life Diversity = Varietydiversity is the variety of life in a given unit of ar According to U.S office of technology assessment (1987), biological diversity is “the variety and variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur”.
components of biodiversity1. Genetic biodiversity: Genetic variation or diversity within a Species.2. Species biodiversity: Diversity between different Species.3. Ecosystem biodiversity: Diversity within a Region.
BIODIVERSITY STATUS IN GUJARATThe state of Gujarat having rich biodiversity, has exclusive strengths in marine resources.The longest coastline confers enviable richness in terms of species diversity with about 462 marine species of flora and 782 species of marine fauna.4 National parks, 23 Wildlife sanctuaries, 8 Wetlands and longest costal line are mostly covers the total Biodiversity of Gujarat.
Plant biodiversity in Gujarat In Gujarat total 4320 Plant Species are present and about 1315 medicinal plants species are identified in Gujarat region. Group Species in World Species in India Species in SI/SW (%) SG/SI (%) (SI) Gujarat (SG) Algae 40000 6500 1933 16.25 29.74 Fungi 89000 16500 164 18.94 0.99 Bryophyte 16000 2850 8 17.81 0.28 Pteridophyta 13000 1100 16 8.46 1.45 Gymnosperm 750 64 1 8.53 1.56 Angiosperms 250000 17500 2198 7.0 12.56 Total Species 408750 46286 4320 11.32 9.33 Source: BSI and CBD, 2006; GEC About 9.33 % of the total Indian plant biodiversity found in Gujarat.
Animal biodiversity in Gujarat Total 2728 Animal Species are present in Gujarat state and about 37 % of the total Indian bird species are identified in Gujarat region. Group Species in Species in Species in SI/SW (%) SG/SI (%) World India (SI) Gujarat (SG) Lower 1255584 76455 1706 6.09 2.23 animal Mammals 4629 372 94 8.04 25.27 Birds 9672 1228 454 12.69 36.97 Reptiles 5680 485 91 8.54 18.76 Amphibians 5145 206 19 4.0 9.22 Fish 21723 2546 364 11.72 14.29 Total 1302442 81292 2728 6.24 3.35 Species Source: BSI and CBD, 2006; GEC About 3.35 % of the total Indian faunal biodiversity found in Gujarat.
Important biodiversity area of Gujarat On the basis of certain indicator species and the available information on the biota, important biodiversity area of Gujarat divided into three categories namely
1. Biodiversity in Unique area of Gujarat An area has been considered as Unique if it is a habitat for any threatened species of Plant or Animal listed in the Red data book and either not found elsewhere or found only at few other place. Flamingo city (b/w Khadir & Pahchham belts in Great Ran of Kachchh) which is the nesting and breeding ground of migratory flamingos. North arid regions of Kachchh is the habitate of the spiny tailed lizard and Uromastix hard wickii. Wild Ass Sanctuary of little ran of kachchh is the home for last surviving population of Indian wild Ass. Gaga great Indian bustard Sanctuary is the grasslands supporting the majestic bird like great Indian bustard.
2. Biodiversity in Rich area of Gujarat The rich area includes forest and wetland where the flora and faunal components are abundant and it is frequented by migratory birds. Vansda national park, valsad district. Vajpur forests of surat district. Vijayanagar forest of Sabarkantha district. Velvadar national park. Girnar forests of junagadh district. Narayan sarovar chinkara Sanctuary. Ratanmal sloth bear Sanctuary. Nal sarovar bird sanctuary.
3. Biodiversity in Unique & Rich area of GujaratUnique and Rich category includes those areas which possess both the category 1st and 2nd. Gir wildlife sanctuary and national park, Junagadh district. Purna wildlife sanctuary, Dangs district. Shoolpaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Bharuch district. Marine National Park in the Gulf of Kachchh.
Loss of biodiversity in GujaratThe population growth and increased economic activities over the past several generations significantly reduced the biodiversity throughout the Gujarat state.• Extinction of hunting leopard from the grassland ecosystems.• Widely distributed Asiatic lions are now only sheltered in the narrow forest of Gir.• The rusty spotted cat and flying squirrels which were once found in the wastern ghat extensions of south Gujarat are seldom sighted in these forests.
• According to national wild life data base, WII 9 species of threatened plants present in Gujarat.• The Gujarat having rich diversity of mangrove vegetation. Presently 8 Sp. of mangroves are present in the Gujarat and 3 Sp. are extinct.• Several birds (Great Indian Bustard, Lesser florican, Houbara Bustard) which were common in Gujarat state have become Rare and listed in the Rad Data Book.
Cause of biodiversity Loss Habitat destruction Pollution Introductions of Exotic Species Global climate change Population growth Over exploitation
Case Study of Banni (Kachchh) Gujarat – (Sastry 2003)Biodiversity threat through exotic species (prosopisjuliflora) monitoring and management using Remote Sensingdata and GIS techniques. In this case study 1st identified the exotic species by the help of RS and GIS techniques and generated map then the Phase wise removal of exotic species and maintaining the Grassland diversity.
Mangrove conservation in Gujarat– a case study:With a long coastline, Gujarat needs to protect its coastalbiodiversity including mangroves. ONGC – BNHS collaboration hasbeen successfully restoring of mangroves in Gandhar area of Gujarat.Over 17 lakh mangrove saplings have been planted, nurtured and aresurviving. This saved the oil and gas wells of ONGC from damage byerosion.mangrove planting is carried out for three purposes: (i) coastalprotection, (ii) fish production, and (iii) biodiversity enrichment.