Marine fishing policy

252 views

Published on

Marine fishing policy

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Marine fishing policy

  1. 1. Marine Fisheries Policy in India- Features & Challenges for implementation Jitendra Kumar College of Fisheries, Mangalore
  2. 2. •Globally India second – largest producer of fish. •Fish production 8.29 million tonnes (2010-11) •Globally second largest in aquaculture. • Export earnings of fish & fishery products ;  Rs. 12,901 crore by value and  8,13,091 tonnes by volume. • Growth rate of fisheries sector about 6 % . Current Status of Fisheries
  3. 3. Traditional Craft 1,07,448 Motorized Craft 76,748 Mechanized Vessels 59,743 Total craft 2,43,939 Fisher population 144,850,00 Marine Fishers 3.52 Million Marine Fishing Villages 3202 Traditional fish landing centers 1,896 Minor fishing harbors 33 Major fishing harbors 6   India- Fishing Craft,Fisher Population and Landing Centres.
  4. 4. Marine Fisheries Scenario  Depleting Marine resources  Over fishing in coastal waters  Poor infrastructure  High Post–harvest losses  Weak presence in the EEZ and high seas  Low levels of investment  Sustainability in production  Mariculture demonstration initiated
  5. 5. COMPREHENSIVE MARINE FISHERIES POLICY -Background The marine fishing policy announced by the Govt. of India in the past focused only on the developmental needs of the deep-sea sector. Substantial assistance was channelized through Central and Centrally Sponsored Schemes in to the States/ UT’s for the development of coastal fisheries.  Non-existence of an integrated policy for this sector was found to hamper fulfillment of the national objectives.
  6. 6. COMPREHENSIVE MARINE FISHERIES POLICY -Focus In the present policy the Government seeks to bring the traditional and coastal fishermen also in to the focus together with stakeholders in the deep-sea sector so as to achieve harmonized development of marine fishery both in the territorial and EEZ waters of our country.
  7. 7. Objectives to augment marine fish production of the country up to the sustainable level in a responsible manner so as to boost export of sea food from the country and also to increase per capita fish protein intake of the masses. to ensure socio-economic security of the artisanal fishermen whose livelihood solely depends on this vocation. to ensure sustainable development of marine fisheries with due concern for ecological integrity and bio– diversity.
  8. 8. Contents Marine fisheries resources  Harvesting of marine fish resources  Post-harvest operations  Resource management Fishermen welfare  Environmental aspects  Infrastructure development for marine fisheries  Legislative support  Policy for development of fisheries in the UTs Lakshadweep & AN
  9. 9. MARINE FISHERIES RESOURCES The policy underscores the need for a departure from the open access concept in the territorial waters to limited access. Envisages incorporation of principles of the Code of conduct for responsible fisheries. Putting in place stringent management regimes.  Promoting exploitation in the deep sea and oceanic waters for reducing fishing pressure in the territorial waters.
  10. 10. HARVESTING OF MARINE FISH RESOURCES 3 categories  (i) subsistence fishing  (ii) small-scale fishing  (iii) industrial fishing The policy advocates protection, consideration and encouragement of subsistence level fishermen and technology transfer to small scale sector and infrastructure support to industrial sector. There would be exclusive area in terms of depth and (or) distance earmarked for non-mechanised (non-motorised) traditional craft. An area beyond this would be demarcated for mechanised and motorised craft.
  11. 11. Schemes  To motorize the traditional craft and also providing better material and technology for their traditional craft.  Envisages motorization of about 50% of traditional craft allowing the remaining to carry on subsistence fishing in the near shore waters.  The small mechanised sector would be encouraged by providing incentives for acquisition of multi-day fishing units.   Deep sea vessels would be provided with infrastructure support in terms of landing and berthing facilities.  Encourage introduction of more resource specific vessels of above 20 m length.  Joint venture initiatives with specified equity norms for package proposals involving catching fish from the EEZ for processing at shore and export.
  12. 12. POST-HARVEST OPERATIONS  total utilization of harvested fish for food and non-food.  comply with international requirements in post harvest care of catch so as to achieve highest standards in food safety.  to ensure that the post-harvest losses are minimized.   Packaging and bar coding would be made mandatory for authorised sale of fish and fish products through registered outlets.  Hygiene in fishing harbour/pre-processing and processing centres would be streamlined through legislation.
  13. 13. FISHERMEN WELFARE  The policy attaches top priority to ensuring the social security and economic well being of fishers.  Each household would be given a card for easy identification and for settlement of claims.  Apex bodies of cooperatives of each state would be up- linked to the national body.  Artisanal fisheries deploying OBMs and small-mechanised boats up to 12m would be treated at par with agriculture while small scale fisheries involving mechanised boats under 20m OAL would be treated at par with small scale industries. Fishing vessels above 20 m and fishing activity involving mother ships or factory vessels would be treated as industrial activity. The admissibility and extent of concessions for each category would be re- determined accordingly.  Programmes to improve safety at sea and also to have an early weather warning system.
  14. 14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS  In order to minimise impact on coastal waters by industrial effluents, close liaison need to be maintained with Central and State Pollution Control Board for considering suitable legislation for all industrial establishments discharging effluents in to the sea.  The Coastal Regulation Zone notification would review the present zonation of areas keeping in view the topography of each region and ensure that any human activity in the high tide limit (HTL) which may cause degradation of the coastal environment would not be permitted. 
  15. 15. INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT FOR MARINE FISHERIES The facilities include jetties, landing centres, provision for fuel, water, ice, repairs to vessels and gear. Alternatives to the present system of financing of the infrastructure projects by the centre and the state with cost sharing would be tried out. Build-Operate-Own and Build- Operate-Transfer systems through private sector initiative also would b e explored. Management of most of the facilities already created calls for improvements in terms of internal resource generation, maintenance and upkeep.
  16. 16. LEGISLATIVE SUPPORT  Introduction of additional legal instruments in areas such as operation of Indian flag vessels in the EEZ, introduction of new fishing units, ensuring conservation of resources, limited access fishery, fishery harbour management etc.  Endorsing international laws and conventions in the marine fisheries sector and harmonizing the national laws with the international ones wherever necessary with active participation in the regional fisheries management bodies.
  17. 17.  Harmonized development of coastal and deep sea sectors  Ensure sustainable development of marine fisheries   Lay down norms for making EEZ a limited access fishery  Evolve procedures for monitoring and control of fishing operations  Sensitizing the stake holders about the need for Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF) MAIN FEATURES OF THE COMPREHENSIVE MARINE FISHING POLICY (CMFP)
  18. 18. Main Features of CMFP contd…..  To curb Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) fishing  To manage fishing capacity to prevent over capitalization in the sector and over exploitation of resources  To be responsive to regional and international regimes in Marine Fisheries Conservation and Management.  Address the requirements of ancillary and complementary activities such as post harvest care, marketing etc.
  19. 19. CENTRALLY SPONSORED SCHEMES ON MARINE FISHERIES Development of Marine Fisheries a) Motorization of Traditional Craft b) Safety of Fishermen at Sea c) Fishermen Development Rebate on HSD d) Introduction of Intermediate Craft of improved design e) Promoting resource specific fishing vessels
  20. 20. CENTRALLY SPONSORED SCHEMES ON MARINE FISHERIES contd…. f) Promoting fuel efficient and environment friendly fishing practices (new component) g) Development of Infrastructure and Post-harvest operations (new component) h) Establishment of fishing harbours and Fish Landing Centers i) Strengthening of Post-Harvest Infrastructure j) Assistance for dredging of fishing harbours/ fish landing Centers
  21. 21. CENTRALLY SPONSORED SCHEMES ON MARINE FISHERIES contd…. Fisher Welfare a) Development of model fisher villages b) Group accident insurance for active fishermen c) Saving cum relief
  22. 22. Policy initiatives during 11th five year plan Objective Increasing profitability of fishers through an integrated approach from production to consumption while providing importance to the safety of fishermen at sea and coastal security issues of the Nation.  Promoting fish as health food  Strengthening of Infrastructure in harvest, post-harvest and marketing.  Issuance of Biometric Identity Cards to coastal fishermen to enable regulation of fishing activities besides facilitating identification of individual fishers during the distress. The registered fisher’s strength would facilitate drawing up more focused schemes/programmes.
  23. 23. Policy initiatives during 11th five year plan contd…  Registration of fishing vessels along with other coastal security issues to have a uniform system for registration of all types of fishing vessels, irrespective of their size and tonnage.  Considering the need for a unified National fishery policy, Ministry has now drafted the ‘Marine Fisheries (Regulation & Management) Bill’, which will be finalised only after detailed discussions are undertaken with the representatives of the stakeholders.
  24. 24. INDIAN EEZ MUMBAI COCHI N CHENNA I VISAKHAPATNAM PORT BLAIR KOLKATA
  25. 25. The Marine capture fisheries resource development in India has passed through 3 clear phases since independence. Now it is going through a fourth phase characterized by declining fish catches, depleted fish stocks, increasing conflict over fish resources
  26. 26. Sustainable production Strategies Regulated fishing and capacity management in mechanized sector. Conservation measures  Sea ranching  FAD’s  Mariculture Diversified fishing in Deep sea & Oceanic resources
  27. 27. Challenges for implementation  The enforcement of Marine Fishing Regulation Act in relation to the limited manpower available in most of the States including closed season and gear mesh size.  Deciding the distance in the sea (3 nautical miles, 8 km, 5 km, 23 km & so on) given the lack of minimum navigational equipment even in mechanised boats, though some of the states procured patrolling boats through central schemes, none could effectively use the boats along the long coast to enforce zone regulations.  Regularization of common property rights and introduction of the concept of responsible fishing as the marine fisheries sector has enjoyed free access to the resources, is not prepared to face stringent restrictive management measures..
  28. 28. Challenges for implementation contd…  Production vis-à-vis Potential Yield Potential yield estimates indicate that the annual harvestable potential yield from Indian EEZ is 3.9 m t. As the production is approaching the potential yield, the country has reached a stage in which further increase in production may have to be viewed with caution.  The Fishermen population depending directly on fishing is so very great in India that there may not be any quick solution to the problem of overcrowding.
  29. 29. Some other Challenges • Overcapacity is an issue in capital-intensive mechanised fishing sector as well as in the employment-oriented motorized sector. • Inadequate utilization of potential • Public investment in fisheries inadequate . • Poor Management Practices. • Lack of incentives for aquaculture as compared to agriculture is depriving the public to take up fish farming.

×