IUCN – International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural ResourcesIUCN was founded in October 1948
Global diversity patterns and loss of biodiversity
Global diversity patterns and
loss of biodiversity
Department of FRM
College of Fisheries, Mangalore
• Refers to the numbers, variety and
variability of living organisms and
• Includes all terrestrial, marine and
other aquatic organisms
• Covers diversity within species,
between species as well as variations
Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an
Global Patterns of Biodiversity
• main factors determining species richness
• also increased with the need to understand how
biodiversity might change
– under different scenarios of global climate change
Global biodiversity hotspots
• A biodiversity hotspot is a region with a high level of endemic species.
• Hotspots were first named in 1988 by Dr. Sabina V.
• To qualify as a hotspot, an area must hold at least 1500 endemic species
– Brazil's Atlantic Forest is containing roughly 20,000 plant species &1,350
• ! All 34 hotspots contain 50% plant species, 42% terrestrial vertebrates.
• ! Hotspots cover 15.7% of the land surface.
• ! Intact hotspot habitat equals 2.5 of the total land surface.
Major problems with biodiversity
• Low priority for con-tion of living natural res.
• Exploitation of living natural res.
• Values and knowledge about the spp. and ecosystem
in adequately known
• Uncontrolled Urbanization and Industrialization
• “the place
where it lives”
Habitat = Address or home of an
• Term coined
by Elton in
• Habitat loss and degradation
– Destruction of biodiversity rich areas like tropical
– Destruction of coral reefs and Wetlands.
– Ploughing of grasslands.
– Aquatic ecosystem is threatened.
– Pollution of freshwater streams, lakes, and marine
Habitat loss and degradation
Most pervasive threatImpacting 86% of threatened mammals,
86% of threatened birds and
88% of threatened amphibians
Habitat loss and degradation is the greatest threat to
global diversity among
mammals, birds, amphibians, and gymnosperms
Threats to Reefs
10% of the coral reefs around the world are already dead.
Deforestation is the clearing of trees off an area of land.
It includes any forestry practice that results in a long-term
land use change.
• Types of change:
• –Forest -agriculture
• –Forest -human settlements
• –Forest -non-forest uses e.g.,
urban, industrial, livestock, etc.
33% of mammals and 30% of birds are affected by
Invasive are affecting 67% of threatened birds on
29% of amphibians are affected by pollution and
17% by disease
Current Patterns of Global Endangerment
• Best data on global endangerment are collated in the
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (www.redlist.org)
• All species placed into one of 9 categories
3 primary categories:
• To date, only 2.5% of species evaluated (and 41%
What groups are in endangered?
Current Pattern of Global
IUCN, Red List of Threatened
• Classifies species according to their extinction
• Searchable online database containing the global
status and supporting information on about 45,000
• Primary goal is to identify and document the
species most in need of conservation attention and
provide an index of the state of biodiversity
IUCN Red List
• Contains 784 documented extinctions
• 60 extinctions in the wild since 1500 AD
• Over the past 20 years, 27 documented
extinctions or extinctions in the wild
• Rates of extinctions 100 to 1,000 times natural
background extinction rates
IUCN Red List – 2008 Update
• 2008 assessment includes 44,838
• 869 (2%) are extinct or extinct in the
• 16,928 (38%) are threatened with
3,246 critically endangered
5,570 have insufficient info to
determine their status (data deficient)
– Rates of extinctions 100 to 1,000
times natural background extinction
Why are we losing biodiversity?
• INCREASING POPULATION
INCREASING USE OF FINITE
• INCREASING POLLUTION
HUMAN POPULATION GROWTH
Time to Attain Year Attained
2-5 Million Years About 1880
Approx. 130 Years
BIODIVERSITY IN INDIA
Himalayas - This majestic range of
mountains is the home of a diverse range
of flora and fauna. Eastern Himalayas is
one of the two biodiversity hotspots in
Chilika - This wetland area is protected
under the Ramsar convention.
Sunder bans - The largest mangrove
forest in India.
Western Ghats - One of the two
biodiversity hotspots in India.
Thar desert - The climate and vegetation
in this area
is a contrast to the Himalayan region.
Comparative statement of recorded number of
animal species in India and the World
Percentage of India to
Source: MoEF 2002.
IS THE BIODIVERSITY OF INDIA
• 10% of India’s plant species are under threat.
• More than 150 medicinal plants have
disappeared in recent decades.
• About 10% of flowering plants,20% of
mammals and 5% of the birds are threatened.
Impact of loss of Biodiversity
• Increased vulnerability of species extinction
• Ecological imbalance
• Reduced sources of food, structural materials, medicinal
and genetic resources
• Cost increase to the society
Solutions will include
– Establishing protected areas
– Targeted interventions at the genetic,
– species, and ecosystems levels
– Restoration of damaged ecosystems
– Recovery of endangered species
– Creation of sustainable forms of development