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Global diversity patterns and
loss of biodiversity

Jitendra Kumar
Department of FRM
College of Fisheries, Mangalore

jite...
Biodiversity
• Refers to the numbers, variety and
variability of living organisms and
ecosystem

• Includes all terrestria...
Global Patterns of Biodiversity
• main factors determining species richness
• also increased with the need to understand h...
Global biodiversity hotspots
• A biodiversity hotspot is a region with a high level of endemic species.

• Hotspots were f...
Major problems with biodiversity
conservation
• Low priority for con-tion of living natural res.
• Exploitation of living ...
jitenderanduat@gmail.com
Major biodiversity threats
•
•
•
•
•

Habitat destruction
Overexploitation
Deforestation
Anthropogenic climate change
Bioa...
Habitat
• “the place
where it lives”

Habitat = Address or home of an
organism

• Term coined
by Elton in
1927.
jitenderan...
• Habitat loss and degradation
– Destruction of biodiversity rich areas like tropical
forests.
– Destruction of coral reef...
Habitat loss and degradation
Most pervasive threatImpacting 86% of threatened mammals,

86% of threatened birds and
88% of...
Habitat loss and degradation is the greatest threat to
global diversity among
mammals, birds, amphibians, and gymnosperms
...
Threats to Reefs
10% of the coral reefs around the world are already dead.

jitenderanduat@gmail.com
Deforestation
Deforestation is the clearing of trees off an area of land.
It includes any forestry practice that results i...
jitenderanduat@gmail.com
DESERTIFICATION

jitenderanduat@gmail.com
Estimated DEFORESTED areas(brown) vs.
Remaining Forested areas (green)
jitenderanduat@gmail.com
NORTH AMERICASOUTH AMERICA
Brown = deforested
Green = remaining forested areas
jitenderanduat@gmail.com
jitenderanduat@gmail.com
Overexploitation
33% of mammals and 30% of birds are affected by
overexploitation
Invasive are affecting 67% of threatened...
Pollution
29% of amphibians are affected by pollution and
17% by disease

jitenderanduat@gmail.com
Current Patterns of Global Endangerment
• Best data on global endangerment are collated in the
IUCN Red List of Threatened...
What groups are in endangered?

jitenderanduat@gmail.com
Current Pattern of Global
Endangerment

jitenderanduat@gmail.com
jitenderanduat@gmail.com
IUCN, Red List of Threatened
Species
• Classifies species according to their extinction
risk
• Searchable online database ...
IUCN Red List
• Contains 784 documented extinctions
• 60 extinctions in the wild since 1500 AD
• Over the past 20 years, 2...
IUCN Red List – 2008 Update
• 2008 assessment includes 44,838
species
• 869 (2%) are extinct or extinct in the
wild
• 16,9...
jitenderanduat@gmail.com
jitenderanduat@gmail.com
Why are we losing biodiversity?

• INCREASING POPULATION
•

INCREASING USE OF FINITE
RESOURCES

• INCREASING POLLUTION

ji...
HUMAN POPULATION GROWTH
Time to Attain Year Attained
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

1st Billion
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
6.7

2-5 Million Years...
jitenderanduat@gmail.com
BIODIVERSITY IN INDIA
Himalayas - This majestic range of
mountains is the home of a diverse range
of flora and fauna. East...
244/18664
88/390
72/458
25/521
03/231
09/5749

jitenderanduat@gmail.com
Source: www.earthtrends.wri.org/2002-03
Comparative statement of recorded number of
animal species in India and the World
Taxa

Species

World

Percentage of Indi...
IS THE BIODIVERSITY OF INDIA
UNDER THREAT?
• 10% of India’s plant species are under threat.
• More than 150 medicinal plan...
Impact of loss of Biodiversity
• Increased vulnerability of species extinction
• Ecological imbalance
• Reduced sources of...
Solutions will include
– Establishing protected areas

– Targeted interventions at the genetic,
–
– species, and ecosystem...
References
• www.redlist.org
• http://math.berkeley.edu/~galen/popclk.html
• www.earthtrends.wri.org
• www.earthtrends.wri...
Thank You

jitenderanduat@gmail.com
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Global diversity patterns and loss of biodiversity

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Global diversity patterns and loss of biodiversity

  1. 1. Global diversity patterns and loss of biodiversity Jitendra Kumar Department of FRM College of Fisheries, Mangalore jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  2. 2. Biodiversity • Refers to the numbers, variety and variability of living organisms and ecosystem • Includes all terrestrial, marine and other aquatic organisms • Covers diversity within species, between species as well as variations among ecosystems. Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an jitenderanduat@gmail.com entire planet.
  3. 3. Global Patterns of Biodiversity • main factors determining species richness • also increased with the need to understand how biodiversity might change – under different scenarios of global climate change jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  4. 4. Global biodiversity hotspots • A biodiversity hotspot is a region with a high level of endemic species. • Hotspots were first named in 1988 by Dr. Sabina V. • To qualify as a hotspot, an area must hold at least 1500 endemic species – Brazil's Atlantic Forest is containing roughly 20,000 plant species &1,350 vertebrates etc • ! All 34 hotspots contain 50% plant species, 42% terrestrial vertebrates. • ! Hotspots cover 15.7% of the land surface. • ! Intact hotspot habitat equals 2.5 of the total land surface. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  5. 5. Major problems with biodiversity conservation • Low priority for con-tion of living natural res. • Exploitation of living natural res. • Values and knowledge about the spp. and ecosystem in adequately known • Uncontrolled Urbanization and Industrialization jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  6. 6. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  7. 7. Major biodiversity threats • • • • • Habitat destruction Overexploitation Deforestation Anthropogenic climate change Bioaccumulation and Synergetic effects etc.. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  8. 8. Habitat • “the place where it lives” Habitat = Address or home of an organism • Term coined by Elton in 1927. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  9. 9. • Habitat loss and degradation – Destruction of biodiversity rich areas like tropical forests. – Destruction of coral reefs and Wetlands. – Ploughing of grasslands. – Aquatic ecosystem is threatened. – Pollution of freshwater streams, lakes, and marine habitats. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  10. 10. Habitat loss and degradation Most pervasive threatImpacting 86% of threatened mammals, 86% of threatened birds and 88% of threatened amphibians jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  11. 11. Habitat loss and degradation is the greatest threat to global diversity among mammals, birds, amphibians, and gymnosperms jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  12. 12. Threats to Reefs 10% of the coral reefs around the world are already dead. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  13. 13. Deforestation Deforestation is the clearing of trees off an area of land. It includes any forestry practice that results in a long-term land use change. • Types of change: • –Forest -agriculture • –Forest -human settlements • –Forest -non-forest uses e.g., urban, industrial, livestock, etc. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  14. 14. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  15. 15. DESERTIFICATION jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  16. 16. Estimated DEFORESTED areas(brown) vs. Remaining Forested areas (green) jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  17. 17. NORTH AMERICASOUTH AMERICA Brown = deforested Green = remaining forested areas jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  18. 18. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  19. 19. Overexploitation 33% of mammals and 30% of birds are affected by overexploitation Invasive are affecting 67% of threatened birds on islands jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  20. 20. Pollution 29% of amphibians are affected by pollution and 17% by disease jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  21. 21. Current Patterns of Global Endangerment • Best data on global endangerment are collated in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (www.redlist.org) • All species placed into one of 9 categories – – – – 3 primary categories: Critically Endangered, Endangered & Vulnerable • To date, only 2.5% of species evaluated (and 41% considered endangered) jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  22. 22. What groups are in endangered? jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  23. 23. Current Pattern of Global Endangerment jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  24. 24. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  25. 25. IUCN, Red List of Threatened Species • Classifies species according to their extinction risk • Searchable online database containing the global status and supporting information on about 45,000 species • Primary goal is to identify and document the species most in need of conservation attention and provide an index of the state of biodiversity jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  26. 26. IUCN Red List • Contains 784 documented extinctions • 60 extinctions in the wild since 1500 AD • Over the past 20 years, 27 documented extinctions or extinctions in the wild • Rates of extinctions 100 to 1,000 times natural background extinction rates jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  27. 27. IUCN Red List – 2008 Update • 2008 assessment includes 44,838 species • 869 (2%) are extinct or extinct in the wild • 16,928 (38%) are threatened with extinction – – – – 3,246 critically endangered 4,770 endangered 8,912 vulnerable 5,570 have insufficient info to determine their status (data deficient) – Rates of extinctions 100 to 1,000 times natural background extinction rates jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  28. 28. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  29. 29. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  30. 30. Why are we losing biodiversity? • INCREASING POPULATION • INCREASING USE OF FINITE RESOURCES • INCREASING POLLUTION jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  31. 31. HUMAN POPULATION GROWTH Time to Attain Year Attained • • • • • • • 1st Billion 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 6.7 2-5 Million Years About 1880 Approx. 130 Years 1930 30 Years 1960 15 Years 1975 12 Years 1987 12 Years 1999 10 Years 2009 Source: http://math.berkeley.edu/~galen/popclk2009.html jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  32. 32. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  33. 33. BIODIVERSITY IN INDIA Himalayas - This majestic range of mountains is the home of a diverse range of flora and fauna. Eastern Himalayas is one of the two biodiversity hotspots in India. Chilika - This wetland area is protected under the Ramsar convention. Sunder bans - The largest mangrove forest in India. Western Ghats - One of the two biodiversity hotspots in India. Thar desert - The climate and vegetation in this area is a contrast to the Himalayan region. Source: earthtrends.wri.org jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  34. 34. 244/18664 88/390 72/458 25/521 03/231 09/5749 jitenderanduat@gmail.com Source: www.earthtrends.wri.org/2002-03
  35. 35. Comparative statement of recorded number of animal species in India and the World Taxa Species World Percentage of India to the world Protista 2577 31259 8.24 Mollusca 5070 66535 7.62 68389 987949 6.9 Other Invertebrates 8329 87121 9.56 Protochordata 119 2106 5.65 2546 21723 11.72 Amphibia 209 5150 4.06 Reptilia 456 5817 7.84 1232 9026 13.66 390 4629 8.42 Arthropoda Pisces Aves Mamalia jitenderanduat@gmail.com Source: MoEF 2002.
  36. 36. IS THE BIODIVERSITY OF INDIA UNDER THREAT? • 10% of India’s plant species are under threat. • More than 150 medicinal plants have disappeared in recent decades. • About 10% of flowering plants,20% of mammals and 5% of the birds are threatened. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  37. 37. Impact of loss of Biodiversity • Increased vulnerability of species extinction • Ecological imbalance • Reduced sources of food, structural materials, medicinal and genetic resources • Cost increase to the society jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  38. 38. Solutions will include – Establishing protected areas – Targeted interventions at the genetic, – – species, and ecosystems levels – Restoration of damaged ecosystems – Recovery of endangered species – Creation of sustainable forms of development jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  39. 39. References • www.redlist.org • http://math.berkeley.edu/~galen/popclk.html • www.earthtrends.wri.org • www.earthtrends.wri.org/2002-03 • MoEF 2002 • http://esl.jrc.it/envind/pf_intro/pf_int07.htm • http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectur es/kling/ecosystem/ecosystem.html • www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  40. 40. Thank You jitenderanduat@gmail.com

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