Ecosystem@ jitendra


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Ecosystem@ jitendra

  1. 1. ECOSYSTEM Jitendra Kumar Jr. M.F.Sc. (Fisheries Resource Management) College of Fisheries, Mangalore
  2. 2. Some Definitions  Ecosystem: Defined area in which a community lives with interactions taking place among the organisms between the community and its non-living physical environment.  An ecosystem is formed by the interactions between all living and non-living things  Ecosystem is the basic functional unit of ecology in which include both living and non-living things
  3. 3. This term was introduced by Ernst Haeckl in 1869. The word ecosystem was coined by Tansley, A.G. (1935).
  4. 4. What is an ecosystem? Eco= Environment System = Regularly interacting and interdependent components forming a unified whole Ecosystem = an ecological system; = a community and its physical environment treated together as a functional system Page  4
  5. 5. Components of an Ecosystem ABIOTIC COMPONENTS Sunlight Temperature Precipitation Water or moisture Soil or water chemistry etc. BIOTIC COMPONENTS Primary producers Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Detritivores etc.
  7. 7. TYPES OF AN ECOSYSTEM • Natural – Terrestrial ecosystem – Aquatic ecosystem • Lentic, the ecosystem of a lake, pond or swamp. • Lotic, the ecosystem of a river, stream or spring. • Artificial, ecosystems created by humans.
  8. 8. Terrestrial ecosystem A terrestrial ecosystem is an ecosystem found only on a landform. Four primary terrestrial ecosystems exist: tundra, taiga, temperate deciduous forest, and grassland.
  9. 9. Aquatic Ecosystem • The two main types of aquatic ecosystems are marine ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems. • Marine ecosystems cover approximately 71% of the Earth's surface and contain approximately 97% of the planet's water.
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  11. 11. • Freshwater ecosystems cover 0.80% of the Earth's surface and inhabit 0.009% of its total water. They generate nearly 3% of its net primary production. • Lentic: slow-moving water, including pools, ponds, and lakes. • Lotic: rapidly-moving water, for example streams and rivers.
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  13. 13. Pond Ecosystem
  14. 14. Lake Ecosystem
  15. 15. Trophic level: All the organisms that are the same number of food-chain steps from the primary source of energy
  16. 16. • The trophic level interaction involves three concepts namely • Food Chain • Food Web • Ecological Pyramids
  17. 17. Food Chains • The producers, consumers, and decomposers of each ecosystem make up a food chain. • There are many food chains in an ecosystem. • Food chains show where energy is transferred and not who eats whom.
  18. 18. Types of Food Chain • Grazing Food Chain • Detritus Food Chain
  19. 19. Example of a Food Chain
  20. 20. Food Webs • All the food chains in an area make up the food web of the area.
  21. 21. Food web of a hot spring
  22. 22. Food web of the harp seal.
  23. 23. Trophic Levels Found on an Energy Pyramid • The greatest amount of energy is found at the base of the pyramid. • The least amount of energy is found at top of the pyramid.
  24. 24. Summary • Ecosystems are made up of abiotic (non-living, environmental) and biotic components, and these basic components are important to nearly all types of ecosystems. • Energy is continually input into an ecosystem in the form of light energy, and some energy is lost with each transfer to a higher trophic level. • Energy is moved through an ecosystem via a food web, which is made up of interlocking food chains.
  25. 25. References • Odum, E.P.(1971), Fundamental of Ecology, Principles and concept pertaining to the ecosystem. pp 8-33. • Odum, E.P.(1983), Basic ecology, The ecosystem, pp 1382. • Shrivastava, C.B.L. (1999), A Text Book of Fisheries Science and Inland Fisheries, Ecology of Aquatic Ecosystem, pp 160-206. • Jhingran, V.G. (1991), Fish and Fisheries of India, Fish culture in fresh water pond, Ecology, pp 273-328 • • urrent/lectures/kling/ecosystem/ecosystem.html •
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