Ecosystem@ jitendra

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Ecosystem

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Ecosystem@ jitendra

  1. 1. ECOSYSTEM Jitendra Kumar Jr. M.F.Sc. (Fisheries Resource Management) College of Fisheries, Mangalore jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  2. 2. Some Definitions  Ecosystem: Defined area in which a community lives with interactions taking place among the organisms between the community and its non-living physical environment.  An ecosystem is formed by the interactions between all living and non-living things  Ecosystem is the basic functional unit of ecology in which include both living and non-living things jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  3. 3. This term was introduced by Ernst Haeckl in 1869. The word ecosystem was coined by Tansley, A.G. (1935). jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  4. 4. What is an ecosystem? Eco= Environment System = Regularly interacting and interdependent components forming a unified whole Ecosystem = an ecological system; = a community and its physical environment treated together as a functional system Page  4 jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  5. 5. Components of an Ecosystem ABIOTIC COMPONENTS Sunlight Temperature Precipitation Water or moisture Soil or water chemistry etc. BIOTIC COMPONENTS Primary producers Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Detritivores etc. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  6. 6. STRUCTURE OF AN ECOSYSTEM jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  7. 7. TYPES OF AN ECOSYSTEM • Natural – Terrestrial ecosystem – Aquatic ecosystem • Lentic, the ecosystem of a lake, pond or swamp. • Lotic, the ecosystem of a river, stream or spring. • Artificial, ecosystems created by humans. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  8. 8. Terrestrial ecosystem A terrestrial ecosystem is an ecosystem found only on a landform. Four primary terrestrial ecosystems exist: tundra, taiga, temperate deciduous forest, and grassland. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  9. 9. Aquatic Ecosystem • The two main types of aquatic ecosystems are marine ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems. • Marine ecosystems cover approximately 71% of the Earth's surface and contain approximately 97% of the planet's water. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  10. 10. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  11. 11. • Freshwater ecosystems cover 0.80% of the Earth's surface and inhabit 0.009% of its total water. They generate nearly 3% of its net primary production. • Lentic: slow-moving water, including pools, ponds, and lakes. • Lotic: rapidly-moving water, for example streams and rivers. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  12. 12. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  13. 13. Pond Ecosystem jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  14. 14. Lake Ecosystem jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  15. 15. Trophic level: All the organisms that are the same number of food-chain steps from the primary source of energy jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  16. 16. • The trophic level interaction involves three concepts namely • Food Chain • Food Web • Ecological Pyramids jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  17. 17. Food Chains • The producers, consumers, and decomposers of each ecosystem make up a food chain. • There are many food chains in an ecosystem. • Food chains show where energy is transferred and not who eats whom. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  18. 18. Types of Food Chain • Grazing Food Chain • Detritus Food Chain jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  19. 19. Example of a Food Chain jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  20. 20. Food Webs • All the food chains in an area make up the food web of the area. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  21. 21. Food web of a hot spring jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  22. 22. Food web of the harp seal. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  23. 23. Trophic Levels Found on an Energy Pyramid • The greatest amount of energy is found at the base of the pyramid. • The least amount of energy is found at top of the pyramid. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  24. 24. Summary • Ecosystems are made up of abiotic (non-living, environmental) and biotic components, and these basic components are important to nearly all types of ecosystems. • Energy is continually input into an ecosystem in the form of light energy, and some energy is lost with each transfer to a higher trophic level. • Energy is moved through an ecosystem via a food web, which is made up of interlocking food chains. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  25. 25. References • Odum, E.P.(1971), Fundamental of Ecology, Principles and concept pertaining to the ecosystem. pp 8-33. • Odum, E.P.(1983), Basic ecology, The ecosystem, pp 1382. • Shrivastava, C.B.L. (1999), A Text Book of Fisheries Science and Inland Fisheries, Ecology of Aquatic Ecosystem, pp 160-206. • Jhingran, V.G. (1991), Fish and Fisheries of India, Fish culture in fresh water pond, Ecology, pp 273-328 • http://www.scribd.com/doc/14179924/13-Structureand-Function-of-Ecosystem • http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/c urrent/lectures/kling/ecosystem/ecosystem.html • www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosystem jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  26. 26. jitenderanduat@gmail.com

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