DNA Marker:

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What is molecular marker ?
DNA sequence used to mark a particular location on a particular chromosomes

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  • Jitendra Kumar
  • Dominant= A primer amplifying a dominant marker could amplify at many loci in one sample of DNA with one PCR reaction.
  • DNA Marker:

    1. 1. DNA marker Jitendra Kumar MFK-1109 Department of Fisheries Resource Management) College of Fisheries, Mangalore jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    2. 2. What is molecular marker ? DNA sequence used to mark a particular location on a particular chromosomes genetic marker jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    3. 3. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    4. 4. DNA markers = direct reflection of genotype • Two Fish can display similar phenotypes, but be very different from a genetic point of view e.g. Given fish genotypes with similar yield. In each genotype different genomic regions can be responsible for the high yield potential Genotype A Genotype B Same Phenotype jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    5. 5. How can molecular markers help? Molecular markers allow working with genotype information directly Analyze the effect of the genotype on the phenotype Provide the breeder a tool to look into the ‘black box’ of the genotype jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    6. 6. Types of Marker by their origin Soluble Proteins- the gene products (Isozymes / Allozymes) DNA Marker (nDNA and mt DNA ) DNA 100% 0% 1% 99% jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    7. 7. There are 2 main categories of DNA marker: Type I and Type II Markers Type I • Type I marker are the coding gene loci conserved across the species • Slightly polymorphic Type II • Type II marker are derived mostly from noncoding sequences and are highly polymorphic • exp. Micro & Minisatellites jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    8. 8. Two basic types of DNA-markers Mutations: Exp. the mutation is responsible for the change in the color of the Fish Mutation = Marker -The most useful - Difficult to find jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    9. 9. Understanding Germplasm Relationships Markers are useful in four types of measurements needed in this field: • Identity: correct label of Animal? • Similarity: degree of relatedness among Animal? • Structure: is possible to identify groups of related Animal? • Detection: posses some Animal of the collection a particular allele of a gene? jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    10. 10. Genetic marker • In Ichthyotaxonomy, DNA based molecular marker (Genetic Marker) plays an important role to identify the phylogenic trends of evolution • It can be described as a variation (which may arise due to mutation or alteration in the genomic loci) that can be observed. • A genetic marker may be a short DNA sequence, such as a sequence surrounding a single base-pair change (single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP), or a long one, like minisatellites. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    11. 11. Now a days it is being replaced by various other methods of DNA-marker like • • • • • • • • • • RFLP SSLP AFLP RAPD VNTR SNP STR SFP DArT RAD Restriction fragment length polymorphism Simple sequence length polymorphism Amplified fragment length polymorphism Random amplification of polymorphic DNA Variable number tandem repeat Single nucleotide polymorphism Short tandem repeat Single feature polymorphism Diversity Arrays Technology markers Restriction site associated DNA markers jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    12. 12. They can be further categorized as dominant or co-dominant. Dominant markers allow for analyzing many loci at one time, e.g. RAPD. Co-dominant markers analyze one locus at a time. Co-dominant markers (RFLPs, microsatellites, etc) jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    13. 13. Markers: desired properties • Highly polymorphic: able to detect many different alleles • Highly informative; if one individual carries two different alleles we can visualize both (co-dominant) • Easy, fast and inexpensive to screen jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    14. 14. Basic functions of all markers  Genetic markers can be used to study the relationship between an inherited disease and its genetic cause  Genetic Markers have also been used to measure the genomic response to selection in livestock  Identify the phylogenetic relationship between the different species of fishes  Monitoring of inbreeding or other changes in the genetic composition of the stocks  Comparisons between hatchery and wild stocks jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    15. 15. Conclusion • To identify the stock accuracy • To study genetic variation • To study the phylogenetic relationship jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    16. 16. References • Ibrahim Okumus and Y. Çiftci / Turk. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 3: 51-79 (2003) • ARIAGNA LARA,* JOSE LUIS PONCE DE, Molecular Ecology Resources (2010) 10, 421–430 • Handbook of fisheries and Aquaculture, 2006 • www.google.co.in/dnamarker/wikipedia/in • MOLECULAR MARKERS IN ANIMAL GENOME ANALYSIS, Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry 25 (5-6), p 1267-1284, 2009 • URL: http://www.jove.com/index/Details.stp?ID=1871 • http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/docs.htm?docid=7203&pf=1&cg_id=0 • http://www.google.co.in/imgres?q=gene+marker&hl=en&safe=active&gbv=2&biw=1280&bih=699 &tbm=isch&tbnid=3O8vlSiXUk-IoM:&imgrefurl=http://medicineworld.org/news/newsarchives/research-news/Oct-292007.html&docid=HOgYHw05OJswVM&imgurl=http://medicineworld.org/images/blogs/92007/gene-technology-7830.jpg&w=300&h=249&ei=KukmT9OhK4quiAe4qtjnBA&zoom=1 jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    17. 17. jitenderanduat@gmail.com

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