Presentation on Urban scale retrofitting in the conservation of Georgian buildings in Edinburgh given by Cristina Gonzalez-Longo and Dimitris Theodossopoulos, both from the School of Architecture at the University of Edinburgh, as part of the JISC GECO/STEEV Green Energy Tech Event (#e3vis) on Thursday 13th October 2011.
What is the technical innovation in Edinburgh? It has values on its own.
Urban scale retrofitting in the conservation of Georgian buildings in Edinburgh - Cristina Gonzalez-Longo and Dimitris Theodossopoulos, Architecture, Univ. Edinburgh
Urban scale retrofitting in the conservation of Georgian buildings in Edinburgh Cristina Gonzalez-Longo Dimitris Theodossopoulos University of Edinburgh GECO/STEEV 'Green Energy Tech' Workshop 13 October 2011
CONSERVATION v SUSTAINABILITY ? Permanent Change CONSERVATION (British Standard 1998): ‘ The action to secure the survival or preservation of objects of acknowledged value for the future’. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: “Our common Future “ or Brundtland Report): ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’. CONSERVATION = SUSTAINABILITY ? Future
Conservation/ Sustainability Principles? <ul><li>NOT DAMAGING to the established values of the existing building. Techniques used should be well tested. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that building materials do not pollute the external and internal environment </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing the environmental impact of buildings </li></ul><ul><li>REVERSIBLE , or at least not prejudice a future intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>NEW ADDITIONS should be IDENTIFIABLE . Be harmonious in colour, tone, texture, form and scale with the existing. </li></ul><ul><li>Not be undertaken by conservators/restorers who are insufficiently TRAINED and/or experienced. experienced . </li></ul>
Retrofitting- is it appropriate for historic buildings? Yes, in the sense to adapt and protect them in the face of climate change, improving energy efficiency However, First, look at the building and urban fabric Study impact on conservation of retrofitting measures at urban and building scale assumptions can build in inaccuracies
<ul><li>BUILDING </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation and use of buildings accounts for approximately half of the UK’s CO2 emissions </li></ul><ul><li>and has a wide impact on resource use , water consumption , flood risk , ecology and human health . </li></ul>UK has an ambitious target of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 80% by 2050 85% of the building stock which we will have in 2050 is existing
<ul><li>Traditional buildings are more sensitive to climate : </li></ul><ul><li>more porous, </li></ul><ul><li>in contact with the ground number of </li></ul><ul><li>freeze/thaw cycles </li></ul><ul><li>timber and other organic building subject to increased biological infestation </li></ul><ul><li>increases in storminess, extreme precipitation </li></ul><ul><li> and wind can lead to structural damage </li></ul><ul><li>force populations to migrate (sea-level rise, desertification, flooding, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Air tightness- condensation issues </li></ul>
EDINBURGH World Heritage Site Conservation Area
1766- One of Europe’s best example of classical town planning
World Heritage Sites No explicit mention of sustainable development in World Heritage Convention (1972) – but preserve balance between people and nature. Budapest Declaration 2002: “ensure an appropriate and equitable balance between conservation, sustainability and development, so that World Heritage properties can be protected through appropriate activities contributing to the social and economic development and the quality of life of our communities”. Operational Guidelines (2005) and Sustainable Development : 6. “The protection and conservation of the natural and cultural heritage are a significant contribution to sustainable development.” 119 . … uses that are ecologically and culturally sustainable … (which) do not adversely impact the outstanding universal value, integrity and/or authenticity of the property . … (and must be) culturally sustainable “ Communities” added in 2007 ( Christchurch)
<ul><li>Not translated into actual policies and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Focus primarily on maintaining the heritage value of World Heritage properties ( Outstanding Universal Value, or OUV ), without considering wider social, economic and environmental implications </li></ul><ul><li>World Heritage Convention, conservation and sustainable development (Paraty 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Defining Sustainable Development: A careful balance of environmental, social and economic dimensions, in order to meet the needs of current and future generations (Natural capital remains intact, social sustainability in a fair and equitable society working together, Economic sustainability, Cultural sustainability ) </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental role of World Heritage in fostering strong communities, supporting the physical and spiritual well-being of its individuals and promoting mutual understanding and peace. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable development as a condition for successful conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstreaming Sustainable Development in conservation should fulfil the spirit of the Convention </li></ul>
Scottish Building Standards- updates for Energy Performance Critical policy updates Part L A Low Carbon Building Standards Strategy For Scotland Sullivan Report, 2007 Ultimate aspiration of ‘total life’ zero carbon buildings by 2030 Panel (Austria, Denmark, Norway) appointed by Scottish Ministers to advise on a low carbon building standards strategy Recommend for existing buildings: Consideration of developing practical performance standards for existing buildings (aligned with the energy performance certificates). Existing Non-domestic Buildings: Carbon and energy assessment and produce a programme for upgrading. The empowerment of local authorities The publication of guidance Consideration of ways to encourage owners Rating on the Energy Performance Certificate in the procurement of buildings Existing Domestic Buildings: Consideration of measures and targets and incentives to encourage owners Existing carbon and energy efficiency programmes more carbon focussed Building regulations continue to set the minimum standards Scottish Building Standards Agency continue to provide guidance and should give consideration to joint ‘badging’ with industry bodies of such material.
Energy efficiency in Edinburgh- Pilot studies Energy Heritage – in partnership with Lister Housing Cooperative and Changeworks, EWH funded an pilot study of introducing simple energy saving measures to a block of category B listed Georgian tenements in Lauriston Place Renewable Heritage - in partnership with Lister Housing Cooperative and Changeworks, EWH funded an pilot study fitting solar water heating panels to the roof of the Georgian tenements in Lauriston Place.
<ul><li>Energy efficiency in Edinburgh- Energy Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Council aims to reduce energy consumption by 15% and CO2 emissions by 30%, based on 1990 levels </li></ul><ul><li>The Carbon, Climate & Sustainability Team commissioned the Sustainable Design Guide to help designers adopt approach to reduce demand for energy and materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy education and EcoSchools </li></ul><ul><li>Refurbishing existing buildings: </li></ul><ul><li>Additional insulation using mineral wool. </li></ul><ul><li>Wooden framed argon-filled secondary double glazing. </li></ul><ul><li>A new heating system utilising condensing gas boilers. </li></ul><ul><li>A heat recovery system incorporating solar technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimise water consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally sustainable materials from local suppliers. </li></ul><ul><li>New roof lights on the top floor to increase natural daylight. </li></ul>
Current practices and key players (architects, engineers, LA, contractors, users) in retrofitting and conservation Lister Housing
Target Edinburgh: Europe most sustainable city in northern Europe by 2015
The architecture of the existing Georgian (1714 to 1837) residential building stock in Edinburgh: Tenements Terraced Houses Town Houses
Structural scheme Heat loss in a typical home : 10% windows 15% draughts 15% floors 25% roof 35% walls
Where is it located? How it has been built? When it was built? Has it been altered? Is its current use adequate? heating, cooling, ventilation
Historic Scotland Technical Paper 10: U‐values and traditional buildings Heat flow can be measured, and subsequently expressed, as U‐value (or thermal transmittance co‐efficient) being the heat flow through one square metre of a structure when the temperature on either side of the structure differs by one degree Celsius. The study found that software tends to overestimate U‐values of traditional building elements – they should extend their baseline database Traditional building elements tend to perform better thermally Increased wall thickness improves the thermal resistance: lower U‐value. Internal drylining and insulating of solid stonewalls can improve the thermal performance of the wall significantly The overall mix of stone to mortar might be up to 60/40%. The difference between the U‐value calculated assuming 40% mortar, and that allowing for 0% mortar (i.e. 100% stone), is 30%. Thermal benefits of retrofitting insulation depends on correct installation
BREEAM: the Environmental Assessment Method environmental impacts: * Management * Health and Wellbeing * Energy * Transport * Water * Material and Waste * Landuse and Ecology * Pollution Credits are awarded in each of the above areas according to performance. A set of environmental weightings then enables the credits to be added together to produce a single overall score. The building is then rated on a scale of: PASS, GOOD, VERY GOOD, EXCELLENT or OUTSTANDING and a certificate awarded to the development.
The way forward: Material conservation, an inherently waste-avoidance activity Sustainability as the reduction of environmental impact by not consuming non renewable resources Align the principles and practice of conservation in the twenty-first century fully with sustainability principles Improving the energy efficiency of heritage assets without compromising their character and value
Looking beyond the building: urban context Evaluating the balance between heritage and energy conservation Setting and the local area –social and economic impacts of conservation Exploring how conservation can regenerate an area of deprivation and raise its profile
Mapping To study and map climate and environmental conditions, including sun path, wind directions Record and embed available architectural and construction data Lister Housing
Very positive impact of : “ Care and conservation of Georgian houses in Edinburgh” (or, internationally, “Manuale di recupero della Cittá di Roma”) They can be updated, considering also modern means to disseminate information, like interactive tools and modelling proposed. Who such means are addressed to? Designers, contractors or home owners?
Focus <ul><li>Survey of energy retrofitting in Edinburgh at single building or urban scale </li></ul><ul><li>The need for centralised control? Reflect on role of Council or World Heritage Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor current practice: upgrade of single-pane, sash-and-case windows, U-values calculations (HS), debate on traditional/ low-energy materials (lime). Is it enough/ efficient/ working? </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor current energy usage at the pilot areas, in collaboration with WHT and Council </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare “visual means” to investigate spatio-temporal change and past building energy use; aimed to architects and building owners </li></ul>