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Seizure

Know about seizure!
what is seizure, what are the different types of seizure, first aid in grandmal seizure, differentiate epilepsy and seizure

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Seizure

  1. 1. SEIZUREJireh Jessieca Faith A. Bascuña •INTRODUCTION •CLASSIFICATIONS
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION A"seizure"results"from" sudden,'explosive,' disorderly)discharge)of) cerebral'neurons.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Characterized+by:"" !sudden,!transient!alteration! in#brain#function,#involving## MOTOR,&SENSORY,& AUTONOMIC)OR)PHYSICAL) CLINICAL&MANIFESTATION
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION PEDIATRIC)NEUROLOGY) !high%incidence% Most% people:first% episode% starts%before%20%yrs%old.% After& 20& y.o:& caused& by! structural( change,trauma,( tumor,'or'stroke.'
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION POSSIBLE(CAUSES( Metabolic*derangements,*Infections,* tumors,( Drug( abuse,( Vascular( lesions,(Congenital(deformities,(and( Brain%injury
  6. 6. SEIZURE VS EPILEPSY SEIZURE:" single' event! of! abnormal! discharge! that$ results$ in$ an$ abrupt," altered" state%of%cerebral%function.! EPILEPSY:"" chronic' disorder! of! recurrent! discharges* from* neurons.! Present! when% 2" or" more" unprovoked! seizures' occur' at' an' interval' greater' than%24%hours%apart.
  7. 7. • measured( by( the$EEG.$!! • usually&brief • periodic( recurrence( of( seizures' with' or' without' convulsions)
 • • are$ violent,$ involuntary$ contractions) of) the) voluntary*muscles.*! • A" patient" may" have" epilepsy' or' a' seizure' d i s o r d e r' w i t h o u t' convulsions.*
 SEIZURE | EPILEPSY | CONVULSION
  8. 8. •Clinical'manifestations' •Site%of%origin% •EEG#correlates,#or# •Response'to'therapy CLASSIFICATIONS based on:
  9. 9. Generalized! occurring( in( and( rapidly( engaging( bilaterally( distributed)networks.) Focal&(Partial)!! within&networks&limited&to&one&hemisphere&and&either& discretely*localized*or*more*widely*distributed.* CLASSIFICATIONSInternational*League*Against*Epilepsy
  10. 10. I.#Partial! a.#Simple# b.#Complex# CLASSIFICATIONS International*Classi&ication+of+Epileptic+Seizures II.#Generalized! a.#Absence# b.#Myoclonic# c.#Tonic# d.#Clonic# e.#Tonic)#Clonic# f.#Atonic III.#Unclassi+ied!
  11. 11. I. PARTIAL SEIZURES No#loss#of#consciousness • Motor convulsive*jerking,*chewing*motions,! !and!lip$smacking.$ • Sensory(&(somatosensory paresthesias)and)auras • Autonomic sweating,*+lushing,*and*pupil*dilation.* • Behavioral sometimes' accompanied' by' impaired' consciousness,) include) déjà) vu) experiences,* structured* hallucinations,* and$dysphasia.$ a.#SIMPLE#PARTIAL#SEIZURES:
  12. 12. b.#COMPLEX(PARTIAL(SEIZURES I. PARTIAL SEIZURES b.#COMPLEX(PARTIAL(SEIZURES violence aggressive(behavior Purposeless)behavior glassy&stare speak&unintelligibly! !with&loss$of$consciousness.
  13. 13. B. GENERALIZED SEIZURES Three%types affecting)both)cerebral)hemispheres.) (1) Idiopathic epilepsies (2) Symptomatic epilepsies (3) Cryptogenic epilepsies
  14. 14. *Incidence:)Some)patients)experience)100)or)more)absences)daily.)) *Onset:(age(3(to(16(years;(in(most(patients,(may(disappear(by(age(40.( Typical:!blank!stare,!motionlessness,!and!unresponsiveness Automatisms:"lip"smacking,"mild"clonic"motion"(usually"in"eyelids) !ABSENCE!(PETIT!MAL)!SEIZURES! alterations*of*consciousness*(absences)*for*10330*secs.*
  15. 15. Myoclonic((bilateral(massive(epileptic(myoclonus)!seizures(!involuntary!jerking!of!the!facial,! limb,&or&trunk&muscles,&possibly&in&a&rhythmic&manner.& Myoclonic( (bilateral( massive( epileptic( myoclonus)! seizures(! involuntary! jerking(of(the(facial,(limb,(or(trunk(muscles,(possibly(in(a(rhythmic(manner.(

  16. 16. TONIC&SEIZURE CLONIC!SEIZURES !"sustained"tonic"muscle" extension((stiffening). !"sustained"muscle"contractions" alternating) with) relaxation.! (jerking)
  17. 17. TONIC&PHASE CLONIC&PHASE POSTICTAL)PHASE GRAND&MALGRAND&MAL headache,'confusion,'disorientation,'nausea,'drowsiness,'and'muscle'soreness
  18. 18. a"sudden"loss"of"postural"tone"so"the"individual"falls" to#the#ground.#They#occur#primarily#in#children. Atonic'seizures!(drop!attacks)
  19. 19. TRADITIONAL TERMINOLOGY NEW NOMENCLATURE Focal; Jacksonian Seizure Partial Temporal lobe or Psychomotor seizure Complex Petit mal Absence Grand mal Tonic-clonic Drop attack Atonic
  20. 20. FYI!
  21. 21. LABORATORY(TEST:( After&GTC&seizures:&Serum&prolactin&levels&is&elevated.!! Importance+of+Lab+test—!to!rule!out!treatable!causes!of!seizures!! (e.g.,& hypoglycemia,& altered& serum& electrolyte& concentrations,& infections,*etc.)*that*do*not*represent*epilepsy.**

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