Respiratory System Unit 13 – 9-1-1
I. Respiratory System <ul><li>A. Structures / Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.  Nasal Cavity  – warm, moisten and filter...
 
 
 
I. Respiratory System <ul><ul><li>5.  Bronchi  – main branches to the trachea, lead to each lung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
 
 
lung larynx trachea Cartilage rings bronchus bronchioles Page 40 Unit 13
 
Nasal cavity epiglottis larynx trachea alveoli bronchi diaphragm
I. Respiratory System <ul><li>B.  Mechanics of Breathing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Muscles = diaphragm, intercostals (betwe...
I. Respiratory System <ul><ul><li>3. Exhalation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intercostals relax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul>...
 
II. Exchange of Gases <ul><li>A. Diffusion  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>movement of gases from high concentration to low concent...
 
Transport of O 2  and CO 2 <ul><li>C. Hemoglobin – molecule in red blood cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red colored, oxygen ca...
III. Respiratory Control <ul><li>How is breathing rate controlled? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N.S. needs way to figure out if t...
IV. Respiration in Extreme Circumstances <ul><li>A. CO (carbon  monoxide) = poison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar chemical ...
Extreme, contd. <ul><li>B.  Extreme Altitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At higher altitudes, atmospheric pressure drops </li><...
Extreme, contd. <ul><li>C. Diving:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At higher pressures below ocean’s surface, divers must carry tan...
Extreme, contd. <ul><li>Mammalian Diving Reflex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowing of breathing and pulse, triggered by exposur...
V. Common Respiratory Diseases (UP 42) <ul><li>Bronchitis </li></ul><ul><li>Emphysema </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></u...
 
 
 
 
 
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Unit 13 resipration

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Unit 13 resipration

  1. 1. Respiratory System Unit 13 – 9-1-1
  2. 2. I. Respiratory System <ul><li>A. Structures / Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Nasal Cavity – warm, moisten and filter air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mucus, hairs = trap dust, dirt and pathogens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Epiglottis – prevents food from going into windpipe when swallowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Larynx – voice box, contains the vocal chords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Trachea = wind pipe, passage for air to the lungs </li></ul></ul>
  3. 6. I. Respiratory System <ul><ul><li>5. Bronchi – main branches to the trachea, lead to each lung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lined with cilia that move mucus up out of the lungs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Bronchioles – smaller branches of the bronchi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Alveoli – small grape-like clusters of air sacs where gas exchange occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Diaphragm – large muscle that aids in breathing </li></ul></ul>
  4. 9. lung larynx trachea Cartilage rings bronchus bronchioles Page 40 Unit 13
  5. 11. Nasal cavity epiglottis larynx trachea alveoli bronchi diaphragm
  6. 12. I. Respiratory System <ul><li>B. Mechanics of Breathing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Muscles = diaphragm, intercostals (between ribs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Inhalation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intercostals contract pulling ribs up and out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragm contracts pushing abdomen down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both muscular contractions increase volume of thoracic cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lowers air pressure w/in lungs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outside air pressure > inside air pressure = air moves in </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>http://www.freewebs.com/shadow)(world/vader.wav
  7. 13. I. Respiratory System <ul><ul><li>3. Exhalation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intercostals relax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragm relaxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both decrease volume of thoracic cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increases air pressure w/in lungs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inside air pressure > outside air pressure = air moves out </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Volumes of Breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vital capacity - maximum inhalation/exhalation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tidal volume - amount in “normal “ breath </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory reserve - amount that can be exhaled forcefully after normal exhalation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 15. II. Exchange of Gases <ul><li>A. Diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>movement of gases from high concentration to low concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. CO 2 / O 2 exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capillaries/Bloodstream = CO 2 high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveoli = O 2 high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 moves into blood, CO 2 moves out of blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>300 million alveoli in a healthy lung </li></ul></ul>
  9. 17. Transport of O 2 and CO 2 <ul><li>C. Hemoglobin – molecule in red blood cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red colored, oxygen carrying molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without it, the blood only carries about 2% of O2 needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As blood flows through capillaries around alveoli, O 2 is picked up by the hemoglobin of RBCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxyhemoglobin: oxygen rich hemoglobin </li></ul></ul>
  10. 18. III. Respiratory Control <ul><li>How is breathing rate controlled? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N.S. needs way to figure out if there is enough O2 in the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled by the level of CO2 in the bloodstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CO2 is an acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High levels of CO2 stimulate nerve cells to send message to MEDULLA OBLONGATA, which sends messages to respiratory muscles to increase breathing rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try it! Hold your breath! What’s happening? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 19. IV. Respiration in Extreme Circumstances <ul><li>A. CO (carbon monoxide) = poison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar chemical reactions as oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attaches to hemoglobin more strongly than oxygen => RBC cannot deliver O 2 cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms of CO poisoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flushed appearance, tired, nauseous, aches/pains </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 20. Extreme, contd. <ul><li>B. Extreme Altitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At higher altitudes, atmospheric pressure drops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total amount of gases is much less, difficult to obtain enough oxygen (hypoxia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to compensate by hyperventilating or breathing more quickly or deeply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Mountain climbers use oxygen masks to help them breathe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary edema: low pressure causes lung capillaries to leak fluid that drowns the person in own secretions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Native Andeans: barrel shaped chests, large lungs, more capillaries around alveoli, strong diaphragms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 21. Extreme, contd. <ul><li>C. Diving: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At higher pressures below ocean’s surface, divers must carry tanks, which release oxygen-containing air at a pressure that matches the pressure of the ocean water on diver’s body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Otherwise, it would be impossible for them to inhale/inflate lungs at such high external pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>D. Drowning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Death from suffocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water cuts off oxygen supply </li></ul></ul>
  14. 22. Extreme, contd. <ul><li>Mammalian Diving Reflex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowing of breathing and pulse, triggered by exposure of cold water to face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood is shunted from gut, skin, muscles and sent to brain, heart, lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When face removed from water, MDR shuts down and CPR must be administered for survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPR is administered for underwater exposure up to one hour! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Younger people more apt to recover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example, Jimmy T (UP 43) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 23. V. Common Respiratory Diseases (UP 42) <ul><li>Bronchitis </li></ul><ul><li>Emphysema </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul><ul><li>Lung Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul>

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