Sts photosynthesis

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Sts photosynthesis

  1. 1. STS Biology - Unit 11 Energy Flow, Photosynthesis, and Respiration
  2. 3. How do atoms combine to provide living things with energy?
  3. 4. VI. Carbohydrates <ul><li>A. Composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. Chemical Formula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mono sacharrides (Simple sugars) = C x H 2x O x </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples = glucose, fructose (found in fruit) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Di sacharrides = C x H 2x-2 O x-1 (formed by removing water) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples = sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poly saccharides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples = glycogen (stored in animal livers), starches (plant leaves and roots), cellulose (plants) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Monosaccharide: Glucose Disaccharide: Lactose Polysaccharide: Starch
  5. 6. VII. Photosynthesis <ul><li>A. Definition - conversion of sunlight energy into the energy in the chemical bonds of carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>B. Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Reactants = what is needed for photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight, Water, Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Products = what is produced by photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen (O 2 ), Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Chemical Equation - shows ratio of each substance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O -----> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. VII. Photosynthesis <ul><li>C. Light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A form of radiant energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Travels in waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wavelength – distance between crests </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. VII. Photosynthesis <ul><li>D. Visible Spectrum – </li></ul><ul><li> - Range of colors that make up white light </li></ul><ul><li> - “ROY G BIV” </li></ul><ul><li> - red = longest wavelength, lowest energy </li></ul><ul><li> - violet = the shortest wavelength, highest energy </li></ul>(Hyperlink to: http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/photosynth/electro.html )
  8. 9. <ul><li>E. Chlorophyll -   green pigment that absorbs light energy, necessary for photosynthesis </li></ul>
  9. 10. VII. Photosynthesis <ul><li>F. Process: 2 Parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Light Reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reactants = H 2 O, sunlight, ADP,P,NADP + </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Products = ATP, NADPH (energy carriers),O 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water is split to make hydrogen ions and O 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll and energizes an electron </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The electron loses energy step by step to form ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen ions are trapped to form NADPH </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. PHOTOSYNTHESIS PHOTOSYNTHETIC EQUATION 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O C 6 H 12 0 6 +6 O 2 Objective 6 & 7 ( http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/photosynth/overview.html ) enzymes, chlorophyll light energy
  11. 12. VII. Photosynthesis <ul><li>F. Process: 2 Parts (Cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Calvin Cycle - Dark Reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reactants = ATP, NADH (energy carriers), CO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Products = Glucose, ADP, P, NADP + , H 2 O </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 is added to a 5 carbon sugar -> 6 carbon sugar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 - C breaks down to 2 3 -c sugars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NADPH, ATP are used to form useable carbon sugars </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 14. VII. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Virtual Tour of Photosynthesis by: Forest Biology Virginia Tech ( http://www.fw.vt.edu/dendro/forestbiology/photosynthesis.swf ) Harvesting Light Animation Essential Cell Biology, 2 nd Edition ( http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anisamples/majorsbiology/harvestinglight.swf )
  13. 17. How do compounds break down to provide living things with energy?
  14. 18. VIII. Glycolysis / Respiration <ul><li>A. Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Definition = breaking down of glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 ATP is added to glucose (makes molecule unstable) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose breaks into two 3-carbon molecules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As 3-carbon breaks down into pyruvic acid 4-ATP and 2 NADH are released </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pyruvic acid then can be used in Respiration or Fermentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NET GAIN : 2 ATP </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 19. GLYCOLYSIS
  16. 20. VIII. Glycolysis / Respiration <ul><li>B. Respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Definition = process involving oxygen and breaks down food to release energy (ATP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pyruvic acid crosses the mitochondrion membrane and then changes into a 2-carbon molecule, acetyl Co-A. CO 2 is then released </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acetyl Co-A enters the Krebs cycle where 9 reactions take place producing NADH, FADH, GTP and CO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NADH, FADH go to the electron transport chain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GTP is converted into ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electron transport chain turns NADH, FADH into ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen is the final electron acceptor - making water </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 21. Net Gain: 2 ATP Net Gain: 34 ATP TOTAL: 36 ATP
  18. 24. Self-quiz <ul><li>Compare the energy flow in photosynthesis to the energy flow in cellular respiration. </li></ul>
  19. 25. IX. Fermentation <ul><li>A. Defintion - process of producing energy w/o O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>B. 2 Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Alcoholic - pyruvic acid is changed into ethanol and CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in bacteria and yeast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Lactic Acid - pyruvic acid is changed into lactic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in animals, ie sore muscles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 27. X. Greenhouse Effect <ul><li>Heat coming from the Earth is trapped by greenhouse gases, ex. CO 2 </li></ul>

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