Unit 3 Risky Business
Cell Theory <ul><li>All living things are composed of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic units of structure and f...
Cells <ul><li>Prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Cells that have genetic material that is not contained in the nucleus, ex. bac...
Prokaryotic Cell Nucleus Organelles Eukaryotic Cell Cell membrane Cell membrane Cytoplasm Cytoplasm
Plant Cell Organelle  – specialized organs, “little organs” Nuclear envelope Ribosome (attached) Ribosome (free) Smooth en...
Animal Cell Centrioles Nucleolus Nucleus Nuclear envelope Rough  endoplasmic  reticulum Golgi apparatus Smooth  endoplasmi...
Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Cell membrane Contain DNA Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Mitochon...
Organelles in Plant & Animal Cells <ul><li>Nucleus  – contains nearly all the cells DNA with coded </li></ul><ul><li>instr...
Organelles in Plants & Animal Cells <ul><li>Chromatin  – DNA bound to protein, material you can see in the nucleus </li></...
Organelles in Plants & Animal Cells <ul><li>Ribosomes  –  make proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum  – assembl...
Organelles in Plants & Animal Cells <ul><li>Golgi apparatus  – modify, sort and package proteins and other materials from ...
Organelles in Plants & Animal Cells <ul><li>Lysosome  – digestion or breakdown of lipids carbohydrates and proteins into s...
Organelles in Plants & Animal Cells <ul><li>Cytoskeleton  – support the cell, involved in maintaining shape and involved i...
Organelle in Plants Only <ul><li>Chloroplasts  – captures the suns energy from sunlight and convert it to chemical energy ...
Organelle in Animals Only <ul><li>Centrioles  – microtubules that aid in cell division </li></ul>
Structure of the Cell Membrane Cell membrane  – regulates what enters and leaves the cell, lipid bilayer, mosaic of differ...
Cell Wall <ul><li>Cell Wall  -  in plants only , provides protection and support for the cell </li></ul>
How do compounds break down to provide living things with energy?
VIII.  Glycolysis / Respiration <ul><li>A. Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Definition = breaking down of glucose </li>...
GLYCOLYSIS
VIII. Glycolysis / Respiration <ul><li>B. Respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Definition = process involving oxygen and b...
Net Gain: 2 ATP Net Gain:  34 ATP TOTAL: 36 ATP
 
 
Plants v. Animal Cells <ul><li>PLANTS </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>Large vacuoles </li></ul><ul><li>Ce...
High Concentration Low Concentration Cell Membrane Glucose molecules Protein channel Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries Dif...
Osmosis Osmosis  – diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
 
Facilitated Diffussion <ul><li>Facilitated Diffusion  movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein...
<ul><li>Active transport  - requires energy, low concentration to high concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Endocytosis </li></...
 
Phagocytosis
 
Cell Specialization <ul><li>Cell Specialization  – cells throughout an organism can develop in different ways to perform d...
Muscle cell Smooth muscle tissue Stomach Digestive system Levels of Organization Atom – Molecule - Organelle – Cell –Tissu...
Examples Nervous, digestive Brain, stomach nerves, muscle neuron, smooth muscle cell Organelles, nucleus Water, sugar, fat...
<ul><li>Enzymes  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proteins  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lock and key theory, specific </l...
Catalyst  – speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
 
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Divisions
Ratio of Surface Area to Volume in Cells Cell Size Surface Area (length x width x 6) Volume  (length x width x height) Rat...
Concept Map includes is divided into is divided into Cell Cycle M phase  (Mitosis) Interphase G 1  phase S phase Prophase ...
<ul><li>During Interphase (S phase), each chromosome is replicated, consisting of two identical “sisters” or  sister chrom...
  The Cell Cycle M phase G 2   phase S phase G 1  phase
Mitosis and Cytokinesis Centrioles Chromatin Interphase Nuclear envelope Cytokinesis Nuclear envelope reforming Telophase ...
Mitosis and Cytokinesis Centrioles Chromatin Interphase Nuclear envelope Cytokinesis Nuclear envelope reforming Telophase ...
plant
animal
Mitosis and Cytokinesis Centrioles Chromatin Interphase Nuclear envelope Cytokinesis Nuclear envelope reforming Telophase ...
plant
Asters Spindle fibers animal
Mitosis and Cytokinesis Centrioles Chromatin Interphase Nuclear envelope Cytokinesis Nuclear envelope reforming Telophase ...
plant
animal
  Mitosis and Cytokinesis Centrioles Chromatin Interphase Nuclear envelope Cytokinesis Nuclear envelope reforming Telophas...
plant
animal
Mitosis and Cytokinesis Centrioles Chromatin Interphase Nuclear envelope Cytokinesis Nuclear envelope reforming Telophase ...
<ul><ul><li>M Phase or Mitosis (Nuclear division): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophase-  the longest phase of mitosis;  </...
Control of Cell Division Cells have contact inhibition, they will continue growing until in contact with other cells.
  Effect of Cyclins A sample of cytoplasm is removed from a cell in mitosis. The sample is injected into a second cell in ...
Cancer <ul><li>Definition / Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Cancer <ul><li>Normal vs. Cancerous  (pages 36-38 in Unit 3 Packet) </li></ul>no no Rounded, globular Cancer Cell yes yes ...
Cancer <ul><li>Tumors - 2 types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benign  - slow growing, noninvasive, no    metastasis </li></ul></ul...
Stem Cells <ul><li>Stem Cells – undifferentiated cells. </li></ul><ul><li>In embryonic development form tissuesin every pa...
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Cells

  1. 1. Unit 3 Risky Business
  2. 2. Cell Theory <ul><li>All living things are composed of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things </li></ul><ul><li>New cells are produced from existing cells. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cells <ul><li>Prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Cells that have genetic material that is not contained in the nucleus, ex. bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Contain a nucleus in which their genetic material is separated from the rest of the cell, more recent evolution </li></ul>
  4. 4. Prokaryotic Cell Nucleus Organelles Eukaryotic Cell Cell membrane Cell membrane Cytoplasm Cytoplasm
  5. 5. Plant Cell Organelle – specialized organs, “little organs” Nuclear envelope Ribosome (attached) Ribosome (free) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Nucleus Rough endoplasmic reticulum Nucleolus Golgi apparatus Mitochondrion Cell wall Cell Membrane Chloroplast Vacuole
  6. 6. Animal Cell Centrioles Nucleolus Nucleus Nuclear envelope Rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondrion Cell Membrane Ribosome (free) Ribosome (attached)
  7. 7. Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Cell membrane Contain DNA Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Mitochondria Cytoskeleton Animal Cells Plant Cells Centrioles Cell membrane Ribosomes Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Mitochondria Cytoskeleton Cell Wall Chloroplasts
  8. 8. Organelles in Plant & Animal Cells <ul><li>Nucleus – contains nearly all the cells DNA with coded </li></ul><ul><li>instructions for making proteins and other important molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope – surround nucleus, composed of two membranes, allow materials to move in and out of the nucleus </li></ul>                                                                     
  9. 9. Organelles in Plants & Animal Cells <ul><li>Chromatin – DNA bound to protein, material you can see in the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes – condensed chromatin, contains genetic information that is passed from one generation to the next </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleolus – where assembly of ribosomes begins </li></ul>
  10. 10. Organelles in Plants & Animal Cells <ul><li>Ribosomes – make proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum – assemble lipids of the cell membrane, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Rough ER – contains ribosomes on the outside of the ER </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth ER – ribosomes are not found of the surface of the ER </li></ul>
  11. 11. Organelles in Plants & Animal Cells <ul><li>Golgi apparatus – modify, sort and package proteins and other materials from the ER for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell, the “UPS guys” of the cell </li></ul>                                                                                                                         
  12. 12. Organelles in Plants & Animal Cells <ul><li>Lysosome – digestion or breakdown of lipids carbohydrates and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuoles – store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochiondria – powerhouse of the cell, contain own DNA, endosymbiotic theory, possible descendent of ancient prokaryotes </li></ul>
  13. 13. Organelles in Plants & Animal Cells <ul><li>Cytoskeleton – support the cell, involved in maintaining shape and involved in movement </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilament – threadlike structures made of protein called actin, framework of cell, help with movement </li></ul><ul><li>Microtubules – hallow structures made up of protein, maintain cell shape, important in cell division help build projections from the cell surface such as cilia, flagella </li></ul>Cell membrane ER microtubule microfilament ribosomes mitochondria
  14. 14. Organelle in Plants Only <ul><li>Chloroplasts – captures the suns energy from sunlight and convert it to chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis </li></ul>
  15. 15. Organelle in Animals Only <ul><li>Centrioles – microtubules that aid in cell division </li></ul>
  16. 16. Structure of the Cell Membrane Cell membrane – regulates what enters and leaves the cell, lipid bilayer, mosaic of different molecules Outside of cell Inside of cell (cytoplasm) Cell membrane Proteins Protein channel Lipid bilayer Carbohydrate chains
  17. 17. Cell Wall <ul><li>Cell Wall - in plants only , provides protection and support for the cell </li></ul>
  18. 18. How do compounds break down to provide living things with energy?
  19. 19. VIII. Glycolysis / Respiration <ul><li>A. Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Definition = breaking down of glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 ATP is added to glucose (makes molecule unstable) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose breaks into two 3-carbon molecules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As 3-carbon breaks down into pyruvic acid 4-ATP and 2 NADH are released </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pyruvic acid then can be used in Respiration or Fermentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NET GAIN : 2 ATP </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. GLYCOLYSIS
  21. 21. VIII. Glycolysis / Respiration <ul><li>B. Respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Definition = process involving oxygen and breaks down food to release energy (ATP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pyruvic acid crosses the mitochondrion membrane and then changes into a 2-carbon molecule, acetyl Co-A. CO 2 is then released </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acetyl Co-A enters the Krebs cycle where 9 reactions take place producing NADH, FADH, GTP and CO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NADH, FADH go to the electron transport chain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GTP is converted into ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electron transport chain turns NADH, FADH into ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen is the final electron acceptor - making water </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Net Gain: 2 ATP Net Gain: 34 ATP TOTAL: 36 ATP
  23. 25. Plants v. Animal Cells <ul><li>PLANTS </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>Large vacuoles </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>No centriole </li></ul><ul><li>Does not usually have lysosomes </li></ul><ul><li>ANIMALS </li></ul><ul><li>No chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller vacuoles </li></ul><ul><li>No cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Centriole </li></ul><ul><li>Lysosomes </li></ul>
  24. 26. High Concentration Low Concentration Cell Membrane Glucose molecules Protein channel Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries Diffusion – particles tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated until they reach equilibrium, no energy required
  25. 27. Osmosis Osmosis – diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
  26. 29. Facilitated Diffussion <ul><li>Facilitated Diffusion movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels, does not require energy, only if there is a higher concentration of a particular molecule on one side than the other side </li></ul>
  27. 30. <ul><li>Active transport - requires energy, low concentration to high concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Endocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Pinocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Exocytosis </li></ul>Active Transport Molecule to be carried Molecule being carried Energy
  28. 32. Phagocytosis
  29. 34. Cell Specialization <ul><li>Cell Specialization – cells throughout an organism can develop in different ways to perform different tasks. </li></ul>
  30. 35. Muscle cell Smooth muscle tissue Stomach Digestive system Levels of Organization Atom – Molecule - Organelle – Cell –Tissue – Organ – Organ System - Organism
  31. 36. Examples Nervous, digestive Brain, stomach nerves, muscle neuron, smooth muscle cell Organelles, nucleus Water, sugar, fat Oxygen, carbon Proton, electron
  32. 37. <ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lock and key theory, specific </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>effected by temp. pH… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can build or break down molecules </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 38. Catalyst – speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
  34. 40. Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Divisions
  35. 41. Ratio of Surface Area to Volume in Cells Cell Size Surface Area (length x width x 6) Volume (length x width x height) Ratio of Surface Area to Volume Section 10-1 Limits to Cell Growth – cannot move nutrients and waste through the cell, “DNA overload”
  36. 42. Concept Map includes is divided into is divided into Cell Cycle M phase (Mitosis) Interphase G 1 phase S phase Prophase G 2 phase Metaphase Telophase Anaphase
  37. 43. <ul><li>During Interphase (S phase), each chromosome is replicated, consisting of two identical “sisters” or sister chromatids. </li></ul><ul><li>Centromere attaches the sister chromatids. </li></ul>
  38. 44.   The Cell Cycle M phase G 2 phase S phase G 1 phase
  39. 45. Mitosis and Cytokinesis Centrioles Chromatin Interphase Nuclear envelope Cytokinesis Nuclear envelope reforming Telophase Anaphase Individual chromosomes Metaphase Centriole Spindle Centriole Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Prophase Centromere Spindle forming Interphase – cell grows and replicates its DNA and centrioles
  40. 46. Mitosis and Cytokinesis Centrioles Chromatin Interphase Nuclear envelope Cytokinesis Nuclear envelope reforming Telophase Anaphase Individual chromosomes Metaphase Centriole Spindle Centriole Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Prophase Centromere Spindle forming Prophase – chromatin condenses in to the chromosomes, centrioles separate, spindle forms, nuclear envelope disappears
  41. 47. plant
  42. 48. animal
  43. 49. Mitosis and Cytokinesis Centrioles Chromatin Interphase Nuclear envelope Cytokinesis Nuclear envelope reforming Telophase Anaphase Individual chromosomes Metaphase Centriole Spindle Centriole Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Prophase Centromere Spindle forming Metaphase – chromosomes line up in the center of the cell, each chromosome is connected at the centromere to the spindle fiber.
  44. 50. plant
  45. 51. Asters Spindle fibers animal
  46. 52. Mitosis and Cytokinesis Centrioles Chromatin Interphase Nuclear envelope Cytokinesis Nuclear envelope reforming Telophase Anaphase Individual chromosomes Metaphase Centriole Spindle Centriole Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Prophase Centromere Spindle forming Anaphase – sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes and are moved apart
  47. 53. plant
  48. 54. animal
  49. 55.   Mitosis and Cytokinesis Centrioles Chromatin Interphase Nuclear envelope Cytokinesis Nuclear envelope reforming Telophase Anaphase Individual chromosomes Metaphase Centriole Spindle Centriole Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Prophase Centromere Spindle forming Telophase – chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell, two nuclear envelopes will form.
  50. 56. plant
  51. 57. animal
  52. 58. Mitosis and Cytokinesis Centrioles Chromatin Interphase Nuclear envelope Cytokinesis Nuclear envelope reforming Telophase Anaphase Individual chromosomes Metaphase Centriole Spindle Centriole Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Prophase Centromere Spindle forming Cytokinesis – the cytoplasm pinches in half, each daughter cell has duplicate chromosomes.
  53. 59. <ul><ul><li>M Phase or Mitosis (Nuclear division): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophase- the longest phase of mitosis; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appearance of chromosomes; centrioles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appear at opposite sides of the cell; the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spindle begins development; the nucleolus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and nuclear envelope disappears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphase- the shortest phase of mitosis; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the chromosomes line up across the center, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or equator, of the cell; formation of the aster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaphase- the paired chromosomes split </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and move to opposite sides, or poles, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telophase- the nucleus divides; chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uncoil; the spindle breaks apart; and the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleolus and nuclear envelope reappear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytokinesis (Cytoplasm division): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants- formation of the cell plate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals- formation of the cell furrow </li></ul></ul>
  54. 60. Control of Cell Division Cells have contact inhibition, they will continue growing until in contact with other cells.
  55. 61.   Effect of Cyclins A sample of cytoplasm is removed from a cell in mitosis. The sample is injected into a second cell in G 2 of interphase. As a result, the second cell enters mitosis. Cyclins – regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eularyotic cells along with internal and external regulators RESULT : Caused non-dividing cells to divide
  56. 62. Cancer <ul><li>Definition / Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in a cells’ DNA can lead to unrestrained cell reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells are produce a growth factor and never stops dividing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells do not produce a suppressor protein and it never stops dividing </li></ul></ul>
  57. 63. Cancer <ul><li>Normal vs. Cancerous (pages 36-38 in Unit 3 Packet) </li></ul>no no Rounded, globular Cancer Cell yes yes Flattened, monolayer Normal Cell Contact inhibition Anchorage dependent Shape of cell
  58. 64. Cancer <ul><li>Tumors - 2 types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benign - slow growing, noninvasive, no metastasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malignant - rapid growth, invasive, metastatic </li></ul></ul>
  59. 65. Stem Cells <ul><li>Stem Cells – undifferentiated cells. </li></ul><ul><li>In embryonic development form tissuesin every part of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Stem cells found in adult bone marrow. </li></ul><ul><li>Stem cells have reversed the effects of paralysis in mice. </li></ul><ul><li>Hope – cure diabetes, spinal cord injuries, damaged livers… </li></ul><ul><li>Stem cells obtained from human embryos. </li></ul>

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