Prospects For Solid Biomass Certification For


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The Prospects for Solid Biomass Certification for Sustainability, presented at the 2nd Heat and Power Conference in Brussels in October 2010

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Prospects For Solid Biomass Certification For

  1. 1. The Prospects for SolidBiomass Certification forSustainability2nd Biomass for Heat and Power 2010Brussels, Belgium
  2. 2. Index  Sustainability of bioenergy and solid biomass: the current context;  Recent initiatives in certification of bioenergy, and specifically solid biomass;  Overcoming the challenges;  Implications for trade;  Recommendations and conclusions.
  3. 3. Why bioenergy?  Tackle climate change and reducing GHG emissions;  Energy security (less dependence)  Rural development and development of the agricultural sector;  Employment generation
  4. 4. Sustainability of bioenergyBioenergy – especially 1st generation biofuels – has beenheavily criticized last years.  Critics on sustainability problems include:  GHG balances not OK  Endless subsidies needed  Land and water constrain bioenergy to marginal levels;  Increased food prices are not good for farmers
  5. 5. Sustainability of solid biomass: Current situation (1)  Biomass = 5% of total final energy consumption;  Less than 5% solid/ gaseous biomass is imported to EU (for electricity, heating and cooling).  Many small sized energy-producers in the EU(~48,000 above 1MW)  EU forestry and agriculture and waste management subject to environmental rules at national / EU level and voluntary schemes;  Solid biomass / biogas: High GHG savings;
  6. 6. Sustainability of solid biomass: Current situation (2)  Solid biomass and pellets are increasingly traded and imported to EU;  Imported solid biomass from outside the EU might show significant sustainability issues: (Central Africa, Brazil, Indonesia, ...) and contribute to deforestation;  Solid biomass as feedstock for heat and power may originate soon from the same feedstock as the biofuel, considering the expected development and deployment of 2nd generation biofuels.
  7. 7. Trading routes of wood pellets: © EUBIONET III Project
  8. 8. How can sustainability of bioenergy beguaranteed OR promoted?Various approaches are possible: Voluntary (Combined Regulations certification with) policy systems * National Market parties NGOs Government International
  9. 9. When will certification take off in bioenergy market?  Now! Ongoing developments on policy, company and NGO level….;  Recent overview has included 67 initiatives worldwide, from which 37 for bioenergy;  In addition, various initiatives for development GHG and ILUC methodology;  Some of them include legislation to restrict unsustainable use of bioenergy.© Dam et al, 2010
  10. 10. Key characteristics of initiatives and certification systems on biomass and bioenergy certification in overview…. Includ e s gree n elec tricity l abels!© Dam et al, 2010
  11. 11. Initiatives to guarantee certification of solid biomass:  Recent (government) initiatives have their main focus on the development of sustainability criteria for  Biofuels;  Initiatives focused on solid biomass and bioenergy for heat and power are (still) limited;Some examples follow…..© Dam et al, 2010
  12. 12. European Commission (1):Report COM (2010)11:  No binding EU scheme: o  Production: Existing EU legislation + low imports; o  GHG: normally high savings; o  Efficiency: for all energy resources  Cost of meeting sustainability criteria can be high;  National schemes can be developed but with international market and renewable energy targets in mind; Commission recommendations for criteria
  13. 13. European Commission (2):Report recommended criteria:No criteria for wastes and criteria to apply to 1MW+ plants  Common GHG methodology;  Minimum requirement for GHG saving, relative to fossil fuel of at least 35%, 50% in 2017 (60% for new installations);  No conversion of highly biodiverse and high carbon stock land; ‘Cross-compliance’ rules in the EU’s common agricultural policy to apply; Member states to support efficient uses of biomass.
  14. 14. European Commission (3):Next steps:  Some MS will develop national schemes – Commission encourages harmonious development; Study on developments of national schemes impacts on internal market;  Commission evaluation to see national policies and measures for biomass promotion;  Commission will review in 2011 whether further measures are needed to ensure sustainability.
  15. 15. Communication Benelux MS (2009):Joint position Paper:  A European framework for sustainability criteria will be the most effective way of ensuring that imported biomass originates from sources that are both sustainable and stable;  A European framework will make it easier for MS to reach their 2020 targets by enhancing the efficient functioning of the internal market for biomass and by guaranteeing stable and sustainable supply chains. A harmonized system will also facilitate sustainable export by member States of their own indigenous biomass products.© Dam et al, 2010
  16. 16. Initiatives from individual Member States:Examples:  Belgium: electricity sales submitted to a renewable obligation of 6% RES by 2010 in the frame of targeted green certificate systems. The system in Wallonia and in the Brussels region is based upon avoided CO2 emissions; Netherlands: The Dutch standard NTA808 includes sustainability criteria for biomass and bioenergy for heat and power; Germany: Biomass Sustainability Ordinance for the Electricity Sector is designed to grant feed-in-tariffs for electricity production from liquid biomass on the basis of the EC-RED Directive requirements.© Dam et al, 2010
  17. 17. Initiatives from companies:Examples business-to-business standards:  Drax: sustainability principles for biomass, until delivery at the end-user, for power generation in the UK  Green Gold Label: traceable system for biomass from (by-) products from the power plant (and its green power it produces) back to the sustainable source;  Electrabel/Laborelec: implements, amongst other sustainability principles, the energy and CO2 balance of the supply chain including electricity use, fossil primary energy use and transport© Dam et al, 2010
  18. 18. Initiatives from stakeholder initiatives:Examples:  ISCC: an international certification system to guarantee the sustainability of bioenergy. ISCC includes 10 sustainability principles; GBEP: aims to develop a set of global science-based criteria and indicators, which are intended to guide any analysis undertaken of bioenergy at the national level;  ISO and CENTC/383: Project committee on ‘‘Standardization in the field of sustainability criteria for production, supply chain and application of bioenergy’’.© Dam et al, 2010
  19. 19. Overcoming the challenges (1):Initiatives highly appreciated but harmonizationrequired! © Dam et al, 2010
  20. 20. Overcoming the challenges (2):Example  for  required  harmoniza3on:  Iden3fied  parameters  for  analysis  water  quality  and  quan3ty  for  selected  standards:  © Dam et al, 2010
  21. 21. Overcoming the challenges (3):Still methodological issues to be resolved.Some of the examples are:  New issues solid biomass related to sustainable forest management: stump extraction, climate mitigation;  Regional differences (e.g. forest management in Sweden or in tropical countries as Brazil);  Avoiding negative impacts of indirect land use change  Sustainability impacts on micro-, regional and (inter-) national level (example follows);© Dam et al, 2010
  22. 22. Example of one of the methodological issues:Sustainability impacts on micro-, regional and (inter-)national level
  23. 23. Implications on trade:Overview of main barriers to overcome forincreased utilization and trade of solid biomassfuels by traders in different EU countries: © EUBIONET III Project
  24. 24. Indicated implications current certification initiatives on trade: an opportunity or obstacle (1)?Uneven level playing field and future uncertainties…  No certification system yet in place for some biomass streams (limits expansion in trade);  Uneven level playing field in Europe because of different (obligatory) requirements per country; Uncertainties about sustainability requirements: What to expect and when… Proliferation of standards creates market confusion and risk for shopping between standards; Proliferation of standards with different demands creates different market playing fields.© Junginger et al, 2010, Dam et al, 2010
  25. 25. Indicated implications current certification initiatives on trade: an opportunity or obstacle (2)?Possible impacts related to costs and strictness: Criteria, especially related to environmental and social issues, could be too stringent or inappropriate for the local context;  Risk for (too) high costs for implementing measures to meet the sustainability criteria Costs for monitoring and certification of the biomass produced may also worsen the economic competitiveness.© Junginger et al, 2010, Dam et al, 2010
  26. 26. Possible impacts on trade (3):Also opportunities!  Separates the “good” from the “bad”  Avoiding negative publicity (also from general public and NGOs)Advantages front-runners in current developments:  Pro active (not reactive)  Track and trace system already established  Smooth transition to meet policy requirements© Junginger et al, 2010, Dam etal, 2010
  27. 27. EU Survey questionnaire indicates for trade: A biomass and bioenergy certification system will contribute to….. te d o ne xp e c n dents er respo rade tie s und cts on t U nc ertain impa* Based on 288 responses from 25 European countries and 9 non-European countries, EUBIONET III project
  28. 28. Conclusions and recommendations (1):Where are we now:  Limited developments certification solid biomass compared to initiatives for biofuels;  Current sustainability initiatives for solid biomass mainly developed in European region;  Opinions on need (obligatory) system in Europe for solid biomass are divided;  This leads to uncertainties in the market and an un- even level playing field….
  29. 29. Conclusions and recommendations (2):Recommendations  Given developments in trade and technologies of solid biomass, the need to guarantee its sustainability is expected to increase;  To be ahead of critics and negative publicity, it can be recommended to prepare in time a reliable and efficient system for solid biomass.. …. also given the methodological challenges to be resolved (see experiences from biofuels);  Addressing unwanted sustainability impacts requires first of all sustainable land use production and good governance, regardless of the end-use of the product.
  30. 30. Thank you for your attention? Questions?Jinke van Dam ConsultancyAssociate from SQ ConsultE: / j.vandam@sqconsult.comSkype: jinkevandamMore information on: or