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Overview Relevant Sustainability Certification Systems Worldwide Nov2010


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Overview Relevant Sustainability Certification Systems Worldwide for bioenergy, presented in Brussels, November 2010

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Overview Relevant Sustainability Certification Systems Worldwide Nov2010

  1. 1. Overview of relevantsustainability certificationsystems worldwideSustainable Biomass for European EnergyBrussels, Belgium
  2. 2. THE CONTEXT:Sustainability of bioenergyBioenergy – especially 1st generation biofuels – has beenheavily criticized last years.  Critics on sustainability problems include:  GHG balances not OK  Endless subsidies needed  Land and water constrain bioenergy to marginal levels;  Increased food prices are not good for farmers
  3. 3. Sustainability of solid biomass:  Received less criticism than biofuels  Solid biomass & biogas: Generally have high GHG savings;  Less than 5% solid & gaseous biomass is currently imported to EU (for electricity, heating and cooling).  When produced within EU: subject to environmental rules at national / EU level and voluntary schemes;  Many small sized energy-producers in the EU
  4. 4. Expected trends:  Solid biomass and pellets are increasingly traded and imported to EU;  Imported solid biomass from outside the EU might show significant sustainability issues: (Central Africa, Brazil, Indonesia, ...) and contribute to deforestation;  Solid biomass for heat and power may soon also be used on larger scale as feedstock source for biofuels, this considering the expected development and deployment of 2nd generation biofuels.
  5. 5. How can sustainability of bioenergy beguaranteed OR promoted?Various approaches are possible: Voluntary (Combined Regulations certification with) policy systems * National Market parties NGOs Government International
  6. 6. When will certification take off in bioenergy market?  Now! Ongoing developments on policy, company and NGO level….;  Recent overview has included 67 initiatives worldwide, from which 37 for bioenergy;  In addition, various initiatives for development GHG and ILUC methodology;  Some of them include legislation to restrict unsustainable use of bioenergy.© Dam et al, 2010
  7. 7. Key characteristics of initiatives and certification systems on biomass and bioenergy certification in overview…. Includ e s gree n elec tricity l abels!© Dam et al, 2010
  8. 8. Indication of key regions where governments (develop to) includesustainability principles for biomass and bioenergy in their policies andindication of the type of principles to be included. © Dam et al, 2010
  9. 9. Initiatives to guarantee certification of solid biomass:  Recent (government) initiatives have their main focus on the development of sustainability criteria for biofuels;  Initiatives focused on solid biomass and bioenergy for heat and power are (still) limited;Some examples follow…..© Dam et al, 2010
  10. 10. Ongoing policy developments in the US:Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) in US:  Applies to Renewable Fuels (all including biofuels);  Criteria involve GHG emission reduction requirements for the production ofbiofuels; Also specific feedstock availability criteria (preclude e.g. the use of woodybiomass from large parts of federally-owned forestland). The RFS2 applies not only to domestically sourced biofuels, but also toforeign produced biofuels sold into U.S. commerce. Compliance through record keeping requirements States with Renewable Portfolio Standard legislation have given utilitiesincentives to purchase electricity from biomass-fired generation resources; It is up to the state legislature whether any sustainability criteria attach tothe feedstock used for such plants. Dam et al (2010)
  11. 11. Ongoing policy developments in Europe (1):Renewable Energy Directive: Required GHG emission reduction biofuels and other bioliquids comparedto fossil fuels; Exclusion of biodiversity-rich lands and lands with high carbon stocks; Good agricultural practices (within Europe) and various reportingobligations  Compliance through 3rd party certification (including voluntary schemes tobe recognized by EC)Examples of other initiatives from EU Member States (see nextpresentations):•  NTA8080/81 standard (Netherlands);•  Biomass sustainability Ordinance for biofuels (Germany)•  Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (UK) Dam et al (2010)
  12. 12. Ongoing policy developments in Europe (2):For solid biomass:  Report COM (2010)11: No binding EU scheme for solid biomass  Recommended criteria for wastes and criteria to apply to 1MW+ plants * Common GHG methodology; * Minimum requirement for GHG saving * No conversion of highly biodiverse and high carbon stock land * Cross-compliance’ rules in the EU common agricultural policy apply * Support efficient uses of biomass  Some MS will and are developing national schemes – Commission encourages harmonious development;  Commission will review in 2011 whether further measures are needed to ensure sustainability. Dam et al (2010)
  13. 13. Initiatives from individual EU Member States on solid biomass (see also next presentations):Examples:  Belgium: electricity sales submitted to a renewable obligation of 6% RES by 2010 in the frame of targeted green certificate systems. The system in Wallonia and in the Brussels region is based upon avoided CO2 emissions;  Netherlands: The Dutch standard NTA8080 includes sustainability criteria for biomass and bioenergy for heat and power;  Germany: Biomass Sustainability Ordinance for the Electricity Sector is designed to grant feed-in-tariffs for electricity production from liquid biomass on the basis of the EC-RED Directive requirements  UK: sustainability reporting part of Renewables Obligation, in debate whether sustainability criteria become mandatory in 2013© Dam et al, 2010
  14. 14. Some other examples from policy initiatives outside Europe:Social Fuel Seal Brazil:  Forms part of the National Biodiesel program.  Gives biodiesel producers incentives to source their raw materials from smallholders and family farmers.China:  Biofuels should not jeopardize food production.  Current policies imply to discourage food crops in biofuels productionBiofuels Industrial Strategy South Africa:  Focus is on the promotion of farming in areas that were previously neglected by the Apartheid system  Focus on areas of the country that did not have market access for their products.© Dam et al, 2010
  15. 15. Initiatives from companies:Examples business-to-business standards:  Drax: sustainability principles for biomass, until delivery at the end-user, for power generation in the UK  Green Gold Label (Essent): traceable system for biomass from (by-) products from the power plant;  Electrabel/Laborelec: implements, amongst other sustainability principles, the energy and CO2 balance of the supply chain including electricity use, fossil primary energy use and transport© Dam et al, 2010
  16. 16. Initiatives from stakeholder initiatives:Examples: GBEP: aims to develop a set of global science-based criteria and indicators, which are intended to guide any analysis undertaken of bioenergy at the national level;  ISO and CENTC/383: Project committee on ‘‘Standardization in the field of sustainability criteria for production, supply chain and application of bioenergy’’. Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels (RSB): multi- stakeholder platform developing sustainability criteria for biofuels© Dam et al, 2010
  17. 17. Where do we stand now?Initiatives highly appreciated but harmonizationrequired! © Dam et al, 2010
  18. 18. Example  for  required  harmoniza3on:  Iden3fied  parameters  for  analysis  water  quality  and  quan3ty  for  selected  standards:  © Dam et al, 2010
  19. 19. But….EC-­‐RED  has  also  started  a  first  harmoniza3on  process  for  those  voluntary  schemes  that  aim  to  meet  sustainability  requirements  for  biofuels   Guidelines  EC-­‐RED  Recognized schemes: ISCC   Others  to   follow..   REDcert  © Dam et al, 2010
  20. 20. Where do we stand now?Still methodological issues to be resolved.Some of the examples are:  New issues solid biomass related to sustainable forest management: stump extraction, climate mitigation;  Regional differences (e.g. forest management in Sweden or in tropical countries as Brazil);  Avoiding negative impacts of indirect land use change  Sustainability impacts on micro-, regional and (inter-) national level (example follows);© Dam et al, 2010
  21. 21. Example of one of the methodological issues:Sustainability impacts on micro-, regional and (inter-)national level
  22. 22. Where do we stand now?Uneven level playing field and future uncertainties…  No certification system yet in place for some biomass streams (limits expansion in trade);  Uneven level playing field in Europe because of different (obligatory) requirements per country; Uncertainties about sustainability requirements solid biomass: What to expect and when… Proliferation of standards creates market confusion and risk for shopping between standards; Proliferation of standards with different demands creates different market playing fields.© Junginger et al, 2010, Dam et al, 2010
  23. 23. BUT ALSO….   First pilots (NTA8080, ISCC, Dam et al 2009) show that it is possible to assess sustainability impacts from bioenergy production;   The need for certification of bioenergy is acknowledged.Do you think that a European certification system for biomass and bioenergyis needed? EUBIONET III
  24. 24. Conclusions and recommendations (1):Where are we now: An impressive amount of initiatives have started Limited developments certification solid biomass compared to initiatives for biofuels;  Current sustainability initiatives for solid biomass mainly developed in European region;  Opinions on need (obligatory) system in Europe for solid biomass are divided;  This leads to uncertainties in the market and an un- even level playing field….
  25. 25. Conclusions and recommendations (2):Further actions are needed on: Unification of approaches, further development of methodologies and a sound methodology to weigh individual criteria More international cooperation Getting experience on implementation certification and verification in the market: learning by doing! And…Addressing unwanted sustainability impacts requires first of all sustainable land use production and good governance, regardless of the end-use of the product.
  26. 26. Thank you for your attention? Questions?Jinke van Dam ConsultancyAssociate from SQ ConsultE: /© Dam et al (2010): The overview was supported by IEABioenergy Task 40 and implemented by J. van Dam whenworking at Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University