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Flammability Testing Of Plastics Jinish Doshi

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Flammability Testing Of Plastics Jinish Doshi

  1. 1. Flammability Testing of Plastics By Jinish Doshi Matrikulation Nr. : 26869 M. Sc. In Polymer Technology Aalen University of Applied Sciences
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Why add flame retardants? </li></ul><ul><li>Types of flame retardants </li></ul><ul><li>Standards for flammability testing </li></ul><ul><li>UL 94 Flame Classifications </li></ul><ul><li>UL 94 Test: Sample Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal, Vertical burning tests </li></ul><ul><li>Glow Wire Flammability Index (GWFI) </li></ul><ul><li>Glow Wire Ignition Temperature (GWIT) </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Oxygen Index </li></ul><ul><li>RoHS Compliant materials </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why add flame retardants? <ul><li>Flame retardants </li></ul><ul><li>Slow down polymer combustion and degradation (fire extinction) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce smoke emission </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids dripping </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Flame Retardants <ul><li>Brominated FR (widely used) </li></ul><ul><li>Organo Phosphorous FR (for thermoplastics and PU foams) </li></ul><ul><li>Melamine based FR </li></ul><ul><li>Metal Hydroxides FR (polyolefins, TPE, PVC, rubbers, thermosets and polyamides) </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonium Polyphosphate (polyolefins, thermosets) </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc Borate (polyolefins, elastomers, epoxy resins) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Standards for Flammability Testing of Plastic Materials <ul><li>UL 94 Flammability Testing ( For parts in devices and appliances) </li></ul><ul><li>ISO (TC61 for plastic materials) </li></ul><ul><li>IEC (For electrotechnical products) </li></ul><ul><li>MVSS 302 (For automotive industry) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Flammability Tests ISO 4589-1, -2 Limiting Oxygen Index IEC 60695-2, -13 Glow Wire Ignition Temperature (GWIT) IEC 60695-2, -12 Glow Wire Flammability Index (GWFI) UL 94 - Flame Rating Other ISO Flammability
  7. 7. Types of pre-selection test programs <ul><li>Material’s tendency either to extinguish or to spread the flame once the specimen has been ignited </li></ul><ul><li>(UL 94, The Standard for Flammability of Plastic Materials for Parts in Devices and Appliances, now harmonized with IEC 60707, 60695-11-10 and 60695-11-20 and ISO 9772 and 9773) </li></ul><ul><li>The second test program measures the ignition resistance of the plastic to electrical ignition sources </li></ul><ul><li>(The material’s resistance to ignition and surface tracking characteristics is described in UL 746A, which is similar to the test procedures described in IEC 60112,60695 and 60950) </li></ul>
  8. 8. UL 94 Flame Classifications <ul><li>12 Flame Classifications </li></ul><ul><li>For materials commonly used in manufacturing enclosures, structural parts and insulators in electrical and consumer goods industry </li></ul><ul><li>5VA V0 </li></ul><ul><li>5VB V1 </li></ul><ul><li>HB V2 </li></ul>
  9. 9. UL 94 Flame Classifications <ul><li>HF-1, HF-2, HBF relate to low-density foam materials commonly used in fabricating speaker grills and sound-deadening material </li></ul><ul><li>VTM-0, VTM-1, VTM-2 are assigned to very thin films, generally not capable of supporting themselves in a horizontal position (Usually assigned to substrates on flexible PCB’s) </li></ul>
  10. 10. UL 94 Test: Sample Preparation <ul><li>150 x 105 x d sheets : Variable thickness with hot runner </li></ul>Note : All dimensions are in mm
  11. 11. Horizontal Testing (HB) Flame applied only once
  12. 12. Horizontal Testing (HB) Specimens must stop burning before the flame reaches the 100 mm mark Specimens must not have a burning rate greater than 40 mm/minute for thicknesses between 3 and 13 mm and 75 mm/minute for thicknesses less than 3 mm HB Requirements Horizontal Rating
  13. 13. Vertical Testing (V0, V1, V2) Flame is applied twice
  14. 14. Vertical Testing (V0, V1, V2) No specimen can have glowing combustion remain for longer than 30 seconds after removal of the test flame Specimens must not drip flaming particles that ignite the cotton Specimens must not burn with flaming or glowing combustion up to the specimen holding clamp Total flaming combustion time must not exceed 50 seconds for each set of 5 specimens Specimens must not burn with flaming combustion for more than 10 seconds after either test flame application V-0 Requirement Vertical Rating
  15. 15. Vertical Testing (V-0, V-1, V-2) No specimen can have glowing combustion remain for longer than 60 seconds after removal of the test flame Total flaming combustion time must not exceed 250 seconds for each set of 5 specimens Specimens can drip flaming particles that ignite the cotton V-2 Specimens must not burn with flaming combustion for more than 30 seconds after either test flame application V-1 Requirement Vertical Rating
  16. 16. Vertical Testing (5V-A, 5V-B) Flame is applied 5 times at an interval of 5 seconds
  17. 17. Vertical Testing (5V-A, 5V-B) Specimens must not have any flaming or glowing combustion for more than 60 seconds after the five flame applications 5V-A Plaque specimens may exhibit burn through (a hole) 5V-B Plaque specimens must not exhibit burn through (a hole) Specimens must not drip flaming particles that ignite the cotton Requirements Vertical Rating
  18. 18. Horizontal v/s Vertical Positioning <ul><li>Horizontal Burning (HB) </li></ul><ul><li>Material tested in horizontal position </li></ul><ul><li>Material found to burn at a rate less than specified maximum </li></ul><ul><li>Test flame is applied only once </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical Burning (V0, V1, V2, 5VA, 5VB) </li></ul><ul><li>Material tested in vertical position </li></ul><ul><li>Material self extinguishes within a specified time after the test flame is removed </li></ul><ul><li>Test flame is applied twice or more </li></ul><ul><li>Indicates wether the test specimen dripped flamming particles </li></ul>
  19. 19. Vertical Testing of Thin Materials (VTM-0, VTM-1, VTM-2) Flame applied at an interval of 3 seconds twice for a set of 5 specimens
  20. 20. Vertical Testing of Thin Materials (VTM-0, VTM-1, VTM-2) No specimen shall have flaming or glowing combustion up to a mark 125 mm from the bottom of the specimen No specimen can have glowing combustion remain for longer than 30 seconds after removal of the test flame Specimens must not drip flaming particles that ignite the cotton Specimens must not burn with flaming or glowing combustion up to the specimen holding clamp Total flaming combustion time must not exceed 50 seconds for each set of 5 specimens Specimens must not burn with flaming combustion for more than 10 seconds after either test flame application VTM-0 Requirements Vertical Rating
  21. 21. Vertical Testing of Thin Materials (VTM-0, VTM-1, VTM-2) Specimens can drip flaming particles that ignite the cotton VTM-2 No specimen can have glowing combustion remain for longer than 60 seconds after removal of the test flame Total flaming combustion time must not exceed 250 seconds for each set of 5 specimens Specimens must not burn with flaming combustion for more than 30 seconds after either test flame application VTM-1 Requirements Vertical Rating
  22. 22. Glow Wire Flammability Index (GWFI) <ul><li>Pre-treatment: 48 h/23 °C/50 % relative humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Test criterion for three consecutive test pieces of the same thickness: </li></ul><ul><li>Highest temperature at which the flames or glowing are extinguished within 30s of removing the glow wire </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, the tissue paper underlay beneath the test specimen must not ignite </li></ul><ul><li>The test specimen does not ignite </li></ul>(˚C) Contact Time Test Temperatures 30 seconds 960 900 850 800 750 700 650 600 550
  23. 23. Glow Wire Flammability Index (GWFI) With Flame Without Flame
  24. 24. Glow Wire Ignition Temperature (GWIT) <ul><li>´Pre-treatment: 48 h/23 °C/50 % relative humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Test criterion for three consecutive test pieces of the same thickness: </li></ul><ul><li>The highest temperature at the end of the glow wire at which there is no ignition during the contact time (ignition that lasts for longer than 5s) </li></ul><ul><li>The glow wire ignition temperature is the temperature that is 25 °C higher (30°C higher if between 900°C and 960°C) than the highest temperature measured at the end of the glow wire </li></ul>30 seconds Contact Time 960 900 850 800 750 700 650 600 550 Test (˚C) Temperatures
  25. 25. Limited Oxygen Index (LOI) <ul><li>The minimum concentration of oxygen that will just support flaming combustion in a flowing mixture of oxygen and nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>A supported specimen is ignited with a pilot flame, which is then removed </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen concentration is reduced to a point where the sample can no longer support combustion </li></ul><ul><li>LOI value, likelihood of combustion </li></ul>
  26. 26. Limited Oxygen Index: Sample Preparation Thin Film 0.02-0.1 20 140-200 6 Flexible Film or Sheet 10.5 52 140 5 Alternative size for molding or sheet materials. For electrical purposes. 3 6.5 70-150 4 Sheet Materials <10.5 10 80-150 3 Cellular Materials 10 10 80-150 2 Molding Materials 4 10 80-150 1 Usage Thickness (mm) Width (mm) Length (mm) Specimen Test Specimens
  27. 27. RoHS Compliant Materials <ul><li>Restriction of Hazardous substances </li></ul>1000 Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) 1000 Polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) 1000 Mercury (Hg) 1000 Lead (Pb) 1000 Hexavalent Chromium (Cr+6) 100 Cadmium (Cd) ppm Restricted Substance
  28. 28. References <ul><li>Websites </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ides.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ttc.bayermaterialscience.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.omnexus.com </li></ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Handbook of Polymer Testing (By Roger Brown) </li></ul><ul><li>Hanbook of Plastic Testing Technology ( By Vishu Shah) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Thank You

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