Scratch pcduino

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Scratch pcduino

  1. 1. Port Scratch to pcDuino with Hardware Support
  2. 2. pcDuino hardware interfaces
  3. 3. Overview   Scratch is a tile-based visual programming environment and toolkit. It lets kids make games, animated stories, interactive art, and share with others on the Net. In this poster, we explain the work needed to let Scratch have access to Arudino compatible hardware interface on pcDuino when Scratch itself runs on pcDuino.
  4. 4. Introduction    Scratch is based on squeak ( a type of smalltalk) virtual machine. Scratch provides a mechanism to call host API, named plugin. Through plugin, Scratch can access devices, such as camera, sound, on host. pcDuino already implemented Arduino style API (in C/C++), so the key is to pacakge pcDuino’s Arduino-ish API into a form of plugin.
  5. 5. UI   Scratch uses block to organize the programming elements. Currently, there are 8 blocks. We add a new block ‘hardware’ to hold the new elements.
  6. 6. Hardware functions implemented  A portion of pcDuino hardware interface is implemented:     GPIO 0-23: Set input/output mode, high/low output signal level, Read Status PWM5-6: Set the output frequency, duty cycle, turn off PWM ADC0-5: Read the voltage level Referring to the UI, the following items are implemented:       set pin (0-23) to (INPUT/OUTPUT) mode set pin (0-23) to (HIGH/LOW) level pin (0-23) level is (HIGH/LOW)? Voltage(mV) of pin (A0-A5) set pwm (5/6) (781/520/390/260/195) Hz (0-256) step stop pwm (5/6)
  7. 7. Screen Shot
  8. 8. Add a new block “Hardware”  Open system browser in squeak, find method ‘blockSpecs’ in class Scratch-Objects -> ScratchSpriteMorph -> block specs.
  9. 9. Add a new block “Hardware” The symbol after % is the input variable. It needs to be declared in Scratch-Blocks -> CommandBlockMorph -> private -> uncoloredArgMorphFor. We find a symbol that is not used, and add our own:
  10. 10. Parameters Enumeration in hardware block  The format of blockSpec is as following:  (‘block text’#identifier#selector ‘default’ ‘values’)  The one after % in ‘block test’ is the input parameters, we need to implement the following:  %A #pinModeNames INPUT/OUTPUT  %B #pinLevelNames HIGH/LOW  %E #analogPinNames A0-A5  %F #digitalPinNames 0-23  %G #pwmPinNames 5/6  %j #pwmPinFreqs 781/520/390/260/195  %J #pwmPinLevels 0-256
  11. 11. Calling Method in Hardware Block    # selector in blockSpec is the corresponding calling method. We need to implement the following methods:  pinMode:to:  digitalWrite:to:  digitalRead:is:  analogReadVoltage:  analogSet:freqTo:stepTo:  analogStop: All the above methods eventually need to be implemented through hardware plugin which is implemented in C/C++. We need to define the interface to hardware plugin.
  12. 12. Calling Method in Hardware Block  Open system-Browser, and create HardwarePlugin->Primtives Class, and add the following methods: primPinMode: pin to: mode "This is the call to the pinMode primitive." <primitive: 'primPinMode' module: 'HardwarePlugin'> self primitiveFailed primDigitalRead: pin "This is the call to the digitalRead primitive." <primitive: 'primDigitalRead' module: 'HardwarePlugin'> self primitiveFailed primDigitalWrite: pin to: level "This is the call to the digitalWrite primitive." <primitive: 'primDigitalWrite' module: 'HardwarePlugin'> self primitiveFailed
  13. 13. Calling Method in Hardware Block primAnalogReadVoltage: pin "This is the call to the analogReadVoltage primitive." <primitive: 'primAnalogReadVoltage' module: 'HardwarePlugin'> self primitiveFailed primAnalogSet: pin freqTo: freq stepTo: step "This is the call to the analogSet primitive." <primitive: 'primAnalogSet' module: 'HardwarePlugin'> self primitiveFailed primAnalogWrite: pin to: level "This is the call to the analogWrite primitive." <primitive: 'primAnalogWrite' module: 'HardwarePlugin'> self primitiveFailed
  14. 14. Calling Method in Hardware Block Use primPinMode as the example, it will eventually call function ‘primPinMode’in scratch HardwarePlugin.so to set the mode of GPIO pin as instructed in <primitive: 'primPinMode' module: 'HardwarePlugin'>
  15. 15. Calling Method in Hardware Block We define the interface in Scratch-Objects -> ScratchSpriteMorph -> hardware ops instance: pinMode: pin to: mode | p m | p := pin asNumber. Transcript show: p. mode = 'INPUT' ifTrue: [ m := 0 ]. mode = 'OUTPUT' ifTrue: [ m := 1 ]. HardwarePlugin primPinMode: p to: m. digitalRead: pin is: level | p ret | p := pin asNumber. ret := HardwarePlugin primDigitalRead: p. level = 'HIGH' ifTrue: [ ^ ret ]. ^ ret not. digitalWrite: pin to: level | p l | p := pin asNumber. Transcript show: p. level = 'LOW' ifTrue: [ l := 0 ]. level = 'HIGH' ifTrue: [ l := 1 ]. HardwarePlugin primDigitalWrite: p to: l.
  16. 16. Calling Method in Hardware Block analogReadVoltage: pin | p | pin = 'A0' ifTrue: [ p := 0 ]. pin = 'A1' ifTrue: [ p := 1 ]. pin = 'A2' ifTrue: [ p := 2 ]. pin = 'A3' ifTrue: [ p := 3 ]. pin = 'A4' ifTrue: [ p := 4 ]. pin = 'A5' ifTrue: [ p := 5 ]. ^ HardwarePlugin primAnalogReadVoltage: p. analogSet: pin freqTo: freq stepTo: step | p f s | p := pin asNumber. f := freq asNumber. s := step asNumber. HardwarePlugin primAnalogSet: p freqTo: f stepTo: s. analogStop: pin | p | p := pin asNumber. HardwarePlugin primAnalogWrite: p to: 0.
  17. 17. Implement HardwarePlugin    We can refer to the code of camera. The key is to implement setInterpreter and the functions primXXX used in Primitives-Plugins->HardwarePlugin>primtives. The functions pinMode, digitalRead, digitalWrite, and analogWrite are already implemented in libarduino of pcDuino. We can call them directly.
  18. 18. Implement HardwarePlugin DLLEXPORT void primPinMode(void) { int pin = interpreterProxy->stackIntegerValue(1); int mode = interpreterProxy->stackIntegerValue(0); pinMode(pin, mode); } DLLEXPORT void primDigitalWrite(void) { int pin = interpreterProxy->stackIntegerValue(1); int level = interpreterProxy->stackIntegerValue(0); digitalWrite(pin, level); } DLLEXPORT int primDigitalRead(void) { int pin = interpreterProxy->stackIntegerValue(0); int level = digitalRead(pin); interpreterProxy->pop(1); interpreterProxy->pushBool(level != 0); return 0; }
  19. 19. Implement HardwarePlugin DLLEXPORT int primAnalogReadVoltage(void) { int pin = interpreterProxy->stackIntegerValue(0); int level = analogReadVoltage(pin); interpreterProxy->pop(1); interpreterProxy->pushInteger(level); return 0; } DLLEXPORT void primAnalogWrite(void) { int pin = interpreterProxy->stackIntegerValue(1); int level = interpreterProxy->stackIntegerValue(0); analogWrite(pin, level); } DLLEXPORT void primAnalogSetFreq(void) { int pin = interpreterProxy->stackIntegerValue(1); int freq = interpreterProxy->stackIntegerValue(0); analogSetFreq(pin, freq); } DLLEXPORT void primAnalogSet(void) { int pin = interpreterProxy->stackIntegerValue(2); int freq = interpreterProxy->stackIntegerValue(1); int level = interpreterProxy->stackIntegerValue(0); analogSetFreq(pin, freq); analogWrite(pin, level);
  20. 20. Implement HardwarePlugin DLLEXPORT int setInterpreter(struct VirtualMachine* anInterpreter) { int ok; interpreterProxy = anInterpreter; ok = interpreterProxy->majorVersion() == VM_PROXY_MAJOR; if (ok == 0) { return 0; } ok = interpreterProxy->minorVersion() >= VM_PROXY_MINOR; return ok; }
  21. 21. Appendex
  22. 22. Programming under Ubuntu (linux)
  23. 23. Arduino style programming ( C )  Two flavors   Command line IDE
  24. 24. C Command line Setup (one time) If not already done, set up git. Do this using the command: ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ sudo apt-get install git Make sure you’re in your home folder by typing ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ cd ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ pwd /home/Ubuntu Now download the distribution from github by typing ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ git clone https://github.com/pcduino/c_enviroment
  25. 25. C Command line
  26. 26. C Command line Change into the c_enviroment folder: ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ cd c_enviroment ubuntu@ubuntu:~/c_enviroment$ ls Makefile hardware libraries output sample Now run make to make the libraries and the examples with the following command: ubuntu@ubuntu:~/c_enviroment$ make Make[1]: Leaving directory `/home/ubuntu/c_enviroment/sample' The resulting binary files are found in the output/test folder ubuntu@ubuntu:~/c_enviroment$ cd output/test ubuntu@ubuntu:~/c_enviroment/output/test$ ll total 660 drwxrwxr-x 2 ubuntu ubuntu 4096 Apr 27 06:59 ./ drwxrwxr-x 3 ubuntu ubuntu 4096 Apr 27 06:49 ../ -rwxrwxr-x 1 ubuntu ubuntu 13868 Apr 27 06:58 adc_test* -rwxrwxr-x 1 ubuntu ubuntu 28284 Apr 27 06:58 adxl345_test* -rwxrwxr-x 1 ubuntu ubuntu 14209 Apr 27 06:58 interrupt_test* -rwxrwxr-x 1 ubuntu ubuntu 13726 Apr 27 06:58 io_test* -rwxrwxr-x 1 ubuntu ubuntu 13712 Apr 27 06:59 linker_button_test* -rwxrwxr-x 1 ubuntu ubuntu 13907 Apr 27 06:59 linker_buzzer_test* -rwxrwxr-x 1 ubuntu ubuntu 13689 Apr 27 06:59 linker_hall_sensor_test* -rwxrwxr-x 1 ubuntu ubuntu 13760 Apr 27 06:59 linker_joystick_test* -rwxrwxr-x 1 ubuntu ubuntu 13769 Apr 27 06:59 linker_led_bar_test* -rwxrwxr-x 1 ubuntu ubuntu 13690 Apr 27 06:59 linker_led_test* -rwxrwxr-x 1 ubuntu ubuntu 14290 Apr 27 06:59 linker_light_sensor_test* ……
  27. 27. C Command line To view the contents of a sample sketch, (this example we’ll look at the contents of linker_led_test.c) type: ubuntu@ubuntu:~/c_enviroment/sample$ cat linker_led_test.c /* * LED test program */ #include <core.h> int led_pin = 1; void setup() { if(argc != 2){ goto _help; } led_pin = atoi(argv[1]); if((led_pin < 0) || (led_pin > 13)){ goto _help; } pinMode(led_pin, OUTPUT); return; _help: printf("Usage %s LED_PIN_NUM(0-13)n", argv[0]); exit(-1); } void loop() { digitalWrite(led_pin, HIGH); // set the LED on delay(1000); // wait for a second digitalWrite(led_pin, LOW); // set the LED off delay(1000); // wait for a second }
  28. 28. Creating Your Own Sketch ubuntu@ubuntu:~/c_enviroment/sample$ nano button_led.c An empty nano screen should appear. Copy and paste the following code into it. (Remember to paste in nano at the cursor, just right click the mouse button). #include <core.h> // Required first line to run on pcDuino int ledPin = 8; int buttonPin = 7; // variables will change: int buttonState = 0; // variable for reading the pushbutton status void setup() { // initialize the LED pin as an output: pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT); // initialize the pushbutton pin as an input: pinMode(buttonPin, INPUT); }
  29. 29. Creating Your Own Sketch void loop(){ // read the state of the pushbutton value: buttonState = digitalRead(buttonPin); // check if the pushbutton is pressed. // if it is, the buttonState is HIGH: if (buttonState == HIGH) { // turn LED on: digitalWrite(ledPin, HIGH); } else { // turn LED off: digitalWrite(ledPin, LOW); } }
  30. 30. Creating Your Own Sketch Modify the Makefile and Compile ubuntu@ubuntu:~/c_enviroment/sample$ nano Makefile You will see a section that lists all the OBJS something like: OBJS = io_test adc_test pwm_test spi_test adxl345_test serial_test liquidcrystal_i2c liquidcrystal_spi interrupt_test tone_test OBJS += linker_led_test linker_potentiometer_test linker_tilt_test linker_light_sensor_test linker_button_test OBJS += linker_touch_sensor_test linker_magnetic_sensor_test linker_temperature_sensor_test linker_joystick_test OBJS += linker_rtc_test linker_sound_sensor_test linker_buzzer_test linker_hall_sensor_test linker_led_bar_test linker_relay_test OBJS += pn532_readAllMemoryBlocks pn532readMifareMemory pn532readMifareTargetID pn532writeMifareMemory
  31. 31. Creating Your Own Sketch We’re going to add a line to the end of this with the name of the scketch we just created: OBJS += button_led Save the file and exit nano using <CTRL>X with a y and <enter>. We now run make by typing: ubuntu@ubuntu:~/c_enviroment/sample$ make You should see a whole bunch of text with the end being: button_led.c -o ../output/test/button_led ../libarduino.a If all went well, you can go to the output/test folder and find your executable you have created: ubuntu@ubuntu:~/c_enviroment/sample$ cd ../output/test/ ubuntu@ubuntu:~/c_enviroment/output/test$ ll total 676 drwxrwxr-x 2 ubuntu ubuntu 4096 Apr 27 07:51 ./ drwxrwxr-x 3 ubuntu ubuntu 4096 Apr 27 06:49 ../ -rwxrwxr-x 1 ubuntu ubuntu 13868 Apr 27 07:51 adc_test* -rwxrwxr-x 1 ubuntu ubuntu 28284 Apr 27 07:51 adxl345_test* -rwxrwxr-x 1 ubuntu ubuntu 13668 Apr 27 07:51 button_led* …..(not showing rest of listing here)
  32. 32. Creating Your Own Sketch Run Your Sketch To run it, once you have wired up a switch and led to the right pins, type: ubuntu@ubuntu:~/c_enviroment/output/test$ ./button_led To stop the program, <Ctrl>C A Quick Re-Cap Add #include <core.h> to the top of your sketch. Create your sketch in the samples folder (if your familiar with linux, makefiles, and compiling code, you could set up your own) Add the filename to the Makefile in the samples folder in the OBJS section without the .c Run make Run the executable from the output/test folder. You can introduce command line arguments into your sketch to make it more transportable.
  33. 33. Arduino IDE
  34. 34. Arduino IDE
  35. 35. Arduino IDE
  36. 36. Arduino IDE
  37. 37. Arduino IDE
  38. 38. ArduBlock
  39. 39. Python ubuntu@ubuntu:~/python-pcduino/Samples/blink_led$ more blink_led.py #!/usr/bin/env python # blink_led.py # gpio test code for pcduino ( http://www.pcduino.com ) # import gpio import time led_pin = "gpio2" def delay(ms): time.sleep(1.0*ms/1000) def setup(): gpio.pinMode(led_pin, gpio.OUTPUT) def loop(): while(1): gpio.digitalWrite(led_pin, gpio.HIGH) delay(200)
  40. 40. OpenCV
  41. 41. OpenCV def process(infile): image = cv.LoadImage(infile); if image: faces = detect_object(image) im = Image.open(infile) path = os.path.abspath(infile) save_path = os.path.splitext(path)[0]+"_face" try: os.mkdir(save_path) except: pass if faces: draw = ImageDraw.Draw(im) count = 0 for f in faces: count += 1 draw.rectangle(f, outline=(255, 0, 0)) a = im.crop(f) file_name = os.path.join(save_path,str(count)+".jpg") # print file_name a.save(file_name) drow_save_path = os.path.join(save_path,"out.jpg") im.save(drow_save_path, "JPEG", quality=80) else: print "Error: cannot detect faces on %s" % infile if __name__ == "__main__": process("./opencv_in.jpg")
  42. 42. OpenCV #!/usr/bin/env python #coding=utf-8 import os from PIL import Image, ImageDraw import cv def detect_object(image): grayscale = cv.CreateImage((image.width, image.height), 8, 1) cv.CvtColor(image, grayscale, cv.CV_BGR2GRAY) cascade = cv.Load("/usr/share/opencv/haarcascades/haarcascade_frontalface_alt_tree.xml") rect = cv.HaarDetectObjects(grayscale, cascade, cv.CreateMemStorage(), 1.1, 2, cv.CV_HAAR_DO_CANNY_PRUNING, (20,20)) result = [] for r in rect: result.append((r[0][0], r[0][1], r[0][0]+r[0][2], r[0][1]+r[0][3])) return result
  43. 43. Cloud 9 IDE   Cloud9 IDE is an online development environment for Javascript and Node.js applications as well as HTML, CSS, PHP, Java, Ruby and 23 other languages. You're programming for the web, on the web. Teams can collaborate on projects and run them within the browser. When you're finished, deploy it—and you're done!
  44. 44. Cloud 9 IDE
  45. 45. QT on pcDuino
  46. 46. QT on pcDuino
  47. 47. Scratch $sudo apt-get install pcduino-scratch
  48. 48. Home Automation:IP controllable LED  Many users are asking if the hardware part can be programmed together with the Ubuntu linux?  Sure. This is the beauty of pcDuino. The Arduino compatible hardware is a native part of the OS.  pcDuino includes Ethernet port, USB Wifi dongle, so there is no need for Ethernet shield, Ethernet shield , USB host shield, MP3 shields and so on. Now, we are going to implement a TCP/IP socket server on pcDuino to listen to the data coming from client. When it turn on it will receive receives character ’O', it will the LED, and when it receives ‘F”, turn on the LED. No actions if something else.
  49. 49. Home Automation:IP controllable LED #include “sys/socket.h” #include “netinet/in.h” #include “arpa/inet.h” #include “sys/types.h” void loop() { n = read(connfd, sendBuff, strlen(sendBuff) ); int led_pin = 2; int listenfd = 0, connfd = 0; int n; struct sockaddr_in serv_addr; char sendBuff[1025]; time_t ticks; if(n>0) { if(sendBuff[0]=='O') digitalWrite(led_pin, HIGH); // set the LED on if(sendBuff[0]=='F') digitalWrite(led_pin,LOW); // set the LED off } } void setup() { led_pin = 2; pinMode(led_pin, OUTPUT); listenfd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0); memset(serv_addr, '0', sizeof(serv_addr)); memset(sendBuff, '0', sizeof(sendBuff)); serv_addr.sin_family = AF_INET; serv_addr.sin_addr.s_addr = htonl(INADDR_ANY); serv_addr.sin_port = htons(5000); bind(listenfd, (struct sockaddr*) serv_addr, sizeof(serv_addr)); listen(listenfd, 10); connfd = accept(listenfd, (struct sockaddr*)NULL, NULL); }
  50. 50. Programming under Android
  51. 51. Two flavors to program under Android  There are two flavors to program under Android:   Command line QT5 GUI
  52. 52. Command line
  53. 53. QT5 GUI We can copy the apk though pcDuino OTG or SD card to pcDunio and install it there.
  54. 54. WiFi Real-time Video Surveillance remote control robot
  55. 55. Steps to Assemble Rover      Turn pcDuino into aWiFi AP Install video stream server Motor driver shield TCP/IP Communication Android APK

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