The Cloud as a Platform


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The Cloud as a Platform for Platforms

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  • To understand why there’s all this excitement, it’s helpful to look at analogies of some major changes that have occurred in other industries over time. Here’s a picture of our CEO at the museum of a beer manufacturing facility in Belgium. This is their electric generator that they used over 100 years ago. There was no electric grid or utility industry then. If you wanted electricity, you made it yourself. That probably seemed very natural at the time – but I guarantee you that making their own electricity didn’t make their beer taste any better. Well, a couple decades later, the electric grid sprang up, and companies stopped making their own electricity; that was a fundamental shift in how they consumed one of their major inputs, and this freed them up to focus on things that likely mattered a lot more to their customers – like the beer. We think the chance exists for the company-owned data center to undergo just as fundamental a transformation over the coming years, as companies realize that they don’t necessarily have to be experts in this. People are now starting to glimpse that future, and find it pretty exciting.
  • Pay as you go - Increased utlization
  • This slide applies to Amazon EC2, but just as easily describes Amazon S3’s value proposition.
  • Increased Automation and Auto-Scale
  • Explain each service features and details here
  • This is a real usage graph from one of our financial services customers during the last week of April (They have asked to remain anonymous for competitive reasons). Firms on Wall Street are finding EC2 an ideal environment to run many of their daily mission critical grid computing and cpu bound applications for a couple key reasons: 1/ Flexibilitythe ability to instantly access hundreds/thousands of cores increases the amount of data they can process, improving the overall quality of their models. and 2/ Cost efficiencies, as they can complete more of their processing for less total spend (Not paying for infrastructure during times of the day and weekends when its not needed) This wall street firm in particular has a nightly business process where they upload the day’s market trading data into S3, and then run proprietary ‘risk management’ algorithms. This lasts ~10 hours during week nights, where they ramp up to the equivalent 3000 m1.smalls. During the day and on weekends, they maintain a base of roughly 300 cores, to handle their always on work loads.
  • We are currently prototyping
  • Sanger – worlds largest genome center – sequence genome in the planet Assembled a full genome. Uses actual instrument to collect the data Human genome – genome came from 3 people. 1000 genomes 100 TB /week
  • Intuit was keen on ensuring the TurboTax Online site was able to support high continuous use, as well as surges in user traffic as tax day neared.
  • Testing in the Cloud Instant Test Labs in Minutes Testing as a Service Virtualization/AMIs for Reuse and Repros Web Services for Automation On-Demand Workforce of Testers (“Elastic QA Staff”) Client and Server Parallelization
  • Point of Slide: to explain VPC's high-level architecture, walking them through the discrete elements of a VPC, and a specific data flow to exemplify 1) data-in-transit security and continued 1) AAA control by the enterprise. AWS (”orange cloud"): What everybody knows of AWS today. Customer’s Network (“blue square”) : The customer’s internal IT infrastructure. VPC (”blue square on top of orange cloud"): Secure container for other object types; includes Border Router for external connectivity. The isolated resources that customers have in the AWS cloud. Cloud Router (“orange router surrounded by clouds”) : Lives within a VPC; anchors an AZ; presents stateful filtering. Cloud Subnet (“blue squares” inside VPC): connects instances to a Cloud Router. VPN Connection: Customer Gateway and VPN Gateway anchor both sides of the VPN Connection, and enables secure connectivity; implemented using industry standard mechanisms. Please note that we currently require whatever customer gateway device is used supports BGP. We actually terminate two (2) tunnels - one tunnel per VPN Gateway - on our side. Besides providing high availability, we can service one device while maintaining service. As such, we can either connect to one of the customer's BGP-supporting devices (preferably running JunOS or IOS).
  • The Cloud as a Platform

    1. 1. Amazon’s Three BusinessesConsumer (Retail) Seller IT Infrastructure Business Business BusinessTens of millions of Sell on Amazon Cloud computingactive customer websites infrastructure foraccounts hosting web-scale Use Amazon solutionsSeven countries: technology for yourUS, UK, Germany, own retail website Hundreds ofJapan, France, thousands ofCanada, China Leverage Amazon’s registered customers massive fulfillment center network
    2. 2. The Cloud
    3. 3. KEY BENEFITS TO RUNNING IN THE AWS CLOUD Lowers Cost Increases Agility Eliminates Capital Reduces Time to Market Investment Removes constraints Reduces Operational Costs Removes the “Heavy Foundation for Lifting” 21st Century Leverages Scalability, Reliability and Security Architectures
    4. 4. The pace of innovation in 2009 » Amazon EC2 with Windows Server 2008, » AWS Multi-Factor Authentication Spot Instances, » Virtual Private Cloud Boot from Amazon EBS » Reserved Instances in EU Region » Lower Reserved Instance Pricing » Amazon CloudFront Streaming » Elastic MapReduce » Amazon VPC enters Unlimited Beta » SQS in EU Region » AWS Region in Northern California » International Support for AWS Import/Export » Amazon RDS » New SimpleDB Features » High-Memory Instances » FPS General Availability » AWS Security Center » Lower EC2 Pricing » Amazon SNS » Amazon EC2 with Windows » Amazon Elastic MapReduce » Amazon CloudFront » Amazon EC2 in EU Region in Europe Private Content » AWS Toolkit for Eclipse » SAS70 Type II Audit » Amazon EC2 Reserved » AWS SDK for .NET Instances » AWS Import/Export » Amazon EC2 Reserved Instances » EBS Shared Snapshots » New CloudFront Feature with Windows, Extra Large High» Lower pricing tiers for » SimpleDB in EU Region » Monitoring, Auto Scaling & Memory Instances Amazon CloudFront » Monitoring, Auto Scaling & Elastic Load Balancing » Amazon S3 Versioning Feature» AWS Management Console Elastic Load Balancing in EU » Consolidated Billing for AWS » Lower pricing for Outbound Data Transfer
    5. 5. And pace accelerates in 2010…. »Free Monitoring EC2 » Amazon SNS » RDS Reserved »Amazon Route 53 » Combined AWS Data Transfer » CloudFront Default Root »PCI DSS Level 1 Certification Savings » Startup Challenge 2010 »Mobile SDKs (Android, iPhone) » Amazon EMR Bootstrap Actions » CloudFront Invalidation »Large Object S3 Support » Amazon ELB Session Stickiness »Florida POP » Amazon RDS in EU »Import/Export APAC » New Singapore Region » AWS Elastic Beanstalk » CloudFront HTTPS » Amazon RDS Read Replicas » Amazon Simple Email Service » NYC Edge Location » Suse EC2 Linux » Improved AWS Support “Bronze” » Lowers Pricing HTTP » Amazon SNS Console » Amazon CloudWatch Console » EMR JobFlow Debugging » AWS Import Export GA » Amazon SNS » Amazon ELB HTTPS » VM Connector » Simple DB Consistent Reads » Amazon S3 Console » AWS Free Tier » Tokyo Region » Simple DB Conditional Puts » Amazon EBS CloudWatch » EMR Resizing Cluster » AWS Support JP » New VPC » Amazon SQS Longer » Amazon S3 Lowered Pricing » Dedicated » AWS Java SDK retention, Free Tier » CloudFront GA, SLA Instances » Windows BYOL Amazon S3 Bucket Policies » S3 Multipart » Windows » Singapore Pop » Amazon VPC IP Address » GPGPU Instance Types 2008 R2 » CloudFront » Cluster Compute Instances » ISO27001/2 Certification Private Streaming » Amazon S3 RRS » Lowered Pricing EC2 Notifications » AWS IAM » AWS CloudFormation» Amazon EC2 Reserved Instances » Amazon VPC Console » Amazon S3 Static Websites » VPC in EU with Windows, Extra Large High » Micro Instances » AWS IAM Website Login » Amazon RDS in US-west Memory Instances » Paris Edge Location » Amazon CloudFront Access » Amazon Linux AMI» Amazon S3 Versioning Feature » Amazon EC2 Tagging, Logs» Consolidated Billing for AWS Filtering, Idempotency, » Amazon RDS Multi-AZ» Lower pricing for Outbound Data » Oracle Certified AWS » Amazon S3 RRS Transfer » AWS PHP SDK » Amazon RDS Console
    6. 6. Each day, AWS addsthe equivalent server capacity to power Amazon when it was a global, $2.76B enterprise (circa 2000)
    7. 7. The “Living” AWS Cloud Tools to access services Cross Service features High-level building blocks Low-level building blocks
    8. 8. #1Flexibilityand the power of choice
    9. 9. Flexibility is the key Can use any Programming Model, Language or Operating System or Database Can use any service individually or in any combination Can use as much or as little and only pay for what was consumed Can use any existing System Management Tools and extend the datacenter into the Cloud
    10. 10. Flexibility with Certified Licenses - BYOL Microsoft Exchange Server, Microsoft SharePoint Server, Microsoft SQL Standard Server, Microsoft SQL Enterprise Server, Microsoft Lync Server, Microsoft System Center servers, and Microsoft Dynamics CRM through License Mobility Software Assurance Oracle fully supports Oracle E-Business Suite, Oracle’s PeopleSoft Enterprise, Oracle’s Siebel CRM, Oracle Fusion Middleware, Oracle Database, and Oracle Linux on the portion of AWS EC2 which uses Oracle VM. IBM DB2, Informix, Lotus® Forms Turbo, WebSphere® Application Server, WebSphere® sMash, WebSphere Portal Server, Lotus® Web Content Management Standard Edition , InfoSphere Information Server, Lotus Domino®, Lotus Web Content Management Standard Edition®, Tivoli Monitoring® SAP® solutions, including SAP® Rapid Deployment solutions and SAP® BusinessObjects™ solutions,
    11. 11. US West US East Asia Pacific Asia Pacific Europe West (Northern (Northern Region Region (Dublin) California) Virginia) (Singapore) (Japan)Amazon CloudFront Ashburn, Dallas, Los Angeles, Miami, Newark, Palo Alto, Seattle, St. Louis,Edge Locations Amsterdam, Dublin, Frankfurt, London, Hong Kong, Singapore, Tokyo, New York, Paris
    12. 12. The Cloud
    13. 13. The Cloud as a Platform
    14. 14. Platform that provides foundationto build innovation solutions on topPlatform that provides abstractionto hide underlying layers (hardware and software)Platform that is self-service
    15. 15. The Cloud as a Platform
    16. 16. The Cloud as a Platform For Computation
    17. 17. Wall Street & Amazon EC2 3000 CPU’s for one firm’s risk management processes 3000-- Number of EC2 Instances 300 CPU’s on weekends 300 -- Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday 4/22/2009 4/23/2009 4/24/2009 4/25/2009 4/26/2009 4/27/2009 4/28/2009
    18. 18. 1 Job, 1 Machine, 500 hours500 Hours$1500 To rack and stack on-premise1 Job, 500 Machines, 1 hour One Hour$260 For 3 years (reserved 100% utilized)
    19. 19. “TimesMachine” from NYTimes • 1851-1922 Articles • TIFF -> PDF • Input: 11 Million Articles (4TB of data) • What did he do ? – 100 EC2 Instances for 24 hours – Input: All data on S3 – Output: 1.5 TB of Data – Hadoop, iText, JetS3t
    20. 20. Source:
    21. 21. #2Elasticityis thefundamentalpropertyof the cloud
    22. 22. Elasticity + Auto ScalingInfrastructureCost $ Large You just lost Capital customers Expenditure Predicted Demand Opportunity Traditional Cost Hardware Wastage Actual Demand Cloud Automated Elasticity time
    23. 23. AWS Lowers it’s pricing Again!• Apr 22, 2008 - AWS Lowers Data Transfer Costs• Oct 09, 2008 - New Tiered Pricing for Amazon S3 Storage• Jan 28, 2009 - New Lower Pricing Tiers for Amazon CloudFront• Aug 20, 2009 - New Lower Prices for Amazon EC2 Reserved Instances• Sep 30, 2009 - New Lower Price for Windows Instances with Authentication Services• Oct 27, 2009 - Announcing Lower Amazon EC2 Instance Pricing• Dec 08, 2009 - New S3 Pricing Tiers, Lower EC2 Pricing and Free Inbound Data Transfer promotion• Feb 01, 2010 - New Lower Pricing for Outbound Data Transfer• Jun 07, 2010 - Amazon CloudFront Lowers Prices with HTTPS Support• Sep 01, 2010 - New Lower Prices for High Memory Double and Quadruple XL Instances• Oct 05, 2010 - Lower High Memory DB Instance Prices for Amazon RDS• Nov 01, 2010 - Amazon S3 Reduces Storage Pricing• Jan 06, 2011 - New Plans, Lower Pricing in AWS Premium Support• May 18, 2011 - New Lower Prices for Amazon CloudWatch Monitoring• June 1, 2011 – Free Inbound Data Transfer and Lower Outbound Tiers• Sept 27, 2011 – Amazon Route53 lowers the pricing for Hosted Zones Free inbound data transfer in all regions!!
    24. 24. Automate Using Cloud APIsDeployment
    25. 25. Build a Web application thatsleeps at nightor shrinks itself when there are no users accessing it
    26. 26. Build a Web application thatFollows the Sun and leverages the true power ofon-demand elasticity and globally dispersed regions
    27. 27. US West Traffic US East Traffic Europe Traffic Asia Traffic Geo IP/Directional DNS Server ELB ELB ELB ELB Web Web Web Web Web Web Web Web Web Web Web Web Web Web Web Web App Web App Web App Web App Web App Web App Web App Web App Web App App App App App App App App App App App App App App App App Auto Scaling group : Auto Scaling group : Auto Scaling group : Auto Scaling group : Web App Tier Web App Tier Web App Tier Web App Tier RDS RDS RDS RDS Maste Maste Maste Maste r r r rUS-West US-East EU-West AP-SOUTHEAST RDS RDS RDS RDS Multi-AZ Multi-AZ Multi-AZ Multi-AZ US-West-1b US-East-1b EU-West-1b AP-SOUTHEAST-1b Software-based Data Replicator
    28. 28. Elasticity + Automation +price reductions = cost-savings
    29. 29. The Cloud as a Platform For Computation
    30. 30. The Cloud as a Platform For Computation For Research and Development
    31. 31. Time to provision a server in an enterprise350,000 Minutes (7-8 Months)$1000 To rack and stack on-premiseTime to provision a server in the cloud <5 Minutes$260 For 3 years (reserved 100% utilized)
    32. 32. E4 Clients Sends commands Polls for commands (Mac, Linux, Arena Windows UI, Server MindStorm Robot iPhone, JoySticks ) controlled by Arena ServerOpen Social Gadgets API EndpointShowing imagesalmost in real time ELB Version Aware Lookups RESTFul RESTFul API API Equinox Equinox Amazon Server Server SimpleDB Conditional Puts Domains Auto-scaling group Amazon S3 Consistent Reads -Registration 4images Every Sec -Scores From Camera -Commands EBS -Game EBS Queue CloudWatch Availability Zone 1 -Logging Availability Zone 2 Amazon Web Services
    33. 33. New ways to purchase EC2 Instances Cloud HPC: Cluster Compute Instance 2 Xeon quad-core + 2 tesla NVIDIA GPGPU + 22GB + 10G non-blocking Ethernet
    34. 34. Bid for unused EC2 Capacity using Spot Instances
    35. 35. Case Study: Optimizing Video Transcoding Workloads (On-demand + Spot + Reserved) Free Offering Premium Offering – Optimize for reducing cost – Optimized for Faster response times – Acceptable Delay Limits – No DelaysImplementation Implementation – Set Persistent Requests – Invest in RIs – Use on-demand Instances, if delay – Use on-demand for Elasticity Maximum Bid Price Maximum Bid Price < On-demand Rate >= On-demand Rate Get your set reduced price for Get Instant Capacity for higher price your workload
    36. 36. The Cloud as a Platform For Computation For Research and Development
    37. 37. The Cloud as a Platform For Computation For Research and Development For New Generation Apps
    38. 38. Casual Online Games “Gamification”
    39. 39. Scale: 50 servers to 5000 servers in 3 days Amazon EC2 easily scaled to handle additional traffic Peak of 5000 instances Number of EC2 Instances “Techcrunched” Launch of Facebook modification. Steady state of ~40 instances 4/12/2008 4/13/2008 4/14/2008 4/15/2008 4/16/2008 4/17/2008 4/18/2008 4/19/2008 4/20/2008
    40. 40. The Cloud as a Platform For Computation For Research and Development For New Generation Apps
    41. 41. The Cloud as a Platform For Computation For Research and Development For New Generation Apps For Internal Corporate IT
    42. 42. Enterprise IT
    43. 43. Let go of (physical) controlbut retain your ownership
    44. 44. Building a Cloud Strategy Cloud Benefits Build a New Zero upfront investment Cloud-Ready applications Design On-demand provisioning Cloud Strategy “No-brainer to Instant scalability move” Apps Existing Auto scaling and elasticity Applications Planned Phased Pay as you go Migration Startup Removes undifferentiated or heavy lifting SMB Firm Developer productivity orLarge Enterprise Automation
    45. 45. Migrating existing IT assets to the cloud • List all your IT assets Dash board • Identify upward and downward dependencies Web CRM Auth • Start classifying your IT assets into different categories: – Applications with Top Secret, Secret, or Public data sets LDAP ServiceDB – Applications with low, medium and high compliance requirements Search – Applications that are internal-only, OLAP Engine partner-only or customer-facing – Applications with low, medium and high coupling ERP Report logs – Applications with strict, relaxed licensing
    46. 46. Pick the Low-hanging fruits first Dash board Results Process Process Auth Service ServiceBilling Search Service Service ERP Report logs
    47. 47. Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) Customer’s isolated AWS resources Amazon Subnets VPC Router VPN Gateway Amazon Web Services Secure VPN Connection Cloud (IPSEC) Customer’s Network
    48. 48. The New Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC)
    49. 49. VPC is part of the Autodesk internal network
    50. 50. The Automation You Always Meant to Build Provision and attach 1TB of storage in 2 minutes (from the back of an auto-rickshaw in India).10 new Linux servers in 2minutes (while sitting bythe pool on a nice day). Monitoring server resources from an iPhone (in a bar).
    51. 51. As of November 2010,’sWeb Server Fleet is serving all the traffic from Amazon EC2
    52. 52. App Vending MachinePre-configuredIT security-blessedauto-scalableauto-backupmulti-AZfull-controlone-click deployableenterprise apps
    53. 53. The Cloud as a Platform For Computation For Research and Development For New Generation Apps For Internal Corporate IT
    54. 54. The Cloud as a Platform For Computation For Research and Development For New Generation Apps For Internal Corporate IT For Storage
    55. 55. Amazon S3 Momentum 2 years ago 52 Billion Peak Requests: 70,000 per second 18 Billion 5 Billion 200 Million Q1 2006 Q1 2007 Q1 2008 Q1 2009 Q4 2008 Total Number of Objects Stored in Amazon S3
    56. 56. The Cloud Scales: Amazon S3 Growth 449 Billion Consistently Peaks at 200,000+ Requests per second 262 Billion 102 Billion 40 Billion 2.9 Billion 14 Billion Q4 2006 Q4 2007 Q4 2008 Q4 2009 Q4 2010 Q2 2011 Total Number of Objects Stored in Amazon S3
    57. 57. Smugmug > 2PB of Media
    58. 58. The Cloud as a Platform For Computation For Research and Development For New Generation Apps For Internal Corporate IT For Storage
    59. 59. The Cloud as a Platform For Computation For Research and Development For New Generation Apps For Internal Corporate IT For Storage For Integration
    60. 60. #3Redefining Cloud Security
    61. 61. In the Cloud, Security is a Shared ResponsibilitySAS 70 Type II Audit Encrypt data in transitISO 27001/2 Certification Encrypt data at restPCI DSS 2.0 Level 1-5 Protect your AWS CredentialsHIPAA/SOX Compliance Rotate your keysFISMA A&A Low Infrastructure Application Secure your application Security SecurityHow we secure our How can you secure yourinfrastructure application and what is your responsibility? Services Security Enforce IAM policiesWhat security options Use MFA, VPC, Leverage S3and features are available bucket policies, EC2 Securityto you? groups, EFS in EC2 Etc..
    62. 62. Industry-specific clouds : GovCloud – US and First government-wide system to move to the cloud Savings of over $750,000 in current budget cycle “Cloud computing strikes me as a perfect tool to help achieve greater transparency and accountability. Moving to the cloud allows us to provide better service at lower costs. I hope this development will inspire other government entities to accelerate their own efforts. The American taxpayers would be the winners.’’ - Earl E. Devaney, the Board’s Chairman.
    63. 63. Cloud Architecture
    64. 64. Build security in every layer Old World New World
    65. 65. The Cloud as a Platform For Computation For Research and Development For New Generation Apps For Internal Corporate IT For Storage For Integration
    66. 66. The Cloud as a Platform For Computation For Research and Development For New Generation Apps For Internal Corporate IT For Storage For Integration For Platforms
    67. 67. The “Living and Evolving” AWS Cloud Tools to access services Cross Service features High-level building blocks Low-level building blocks
    68. 68. The “Living and Evolving” AWS Cloud Tools to access services Cross Service features High-level Infrastructure building blocks Low-level Infrastructure building blocks
    69. 69. Drupal PHP Platform Ruby/Rails/Java Platform Cloud Services Mathematica Platform for Mathematica Voice Platform Mobile Trading Platform Geospatial PlatformLocation-based App Platform
    70. 70. Internet as theOperating Systemof Services
    71. 71. The Cloud as a Platform For Computation For Research and Development For New Generation Apps For Internal Corporate IT For Storage For Collaboration For Platforms
    72. 72. The Cloud as a Platform For Realizing your ideas
    73. 73. #5Start Playing Nowand invest early
    74. 74. Its Free to Get Started – AWS Free Tier• Amazon EC2, Amazon ELB, Amazon EBS• Amazon S3• Amazon SimpleDB• Amazon SQS• Amazon SES• Amazon SNS• Amazon CloudWatch• Free Inbound Data Transfer• Outbound Data Transfer
    75. 75. #1Flexibility is very important when you choose the cloudand AWS provides the flexibility you need#2Elasticity, Cost reduction and Agility are the mainreasons to move to the cloud and AWS provides all three#3In the Cloud, Security is shared responsibility. AWSprovides the certifications, features and guidance#4The Cloud is much more than its services.Its all about the Ecosystem#5Start playing with it now. Talk to us. Be the leader inBrazil
    76. 76. Thank you! Jinesh Twitter:@jinman
    77. 77.