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Nature of science


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Nature of science

  1. 1. D O N E B Y : J I N A N K A R A M E H Every Known fact in natural science was divined by the presentiment of somebody,before it was actually verified….(Ralph Waldo Emerson)
  2. 2. Human Knowledge Knowledge is everything acquired by the senses of the human being and reflected by his own prior thoughts. (Condillac, 2001)
  3. 3. Epistomology The word is derived from the Greek words epistéme and logos – the former term meaning “knowledge” and that latter term meaning “study of”. Hence, the word parsed into English implies the nature, source, and limitations of knowledge.
  4. 4. Scientific Or Not Scientific There are several ways of knowing things in general, but not all ways would be considered “scientific.”
  5. 5. What is Science? Science is a way of knowing that requires a strong philosophical underpinning (whether consciously sought of unconsciously learned).
  6. 6. Then the nature of science is…. NOS refers to the epistemology and sociology of science, science as a way of knowing, or the values and beliefs inherent to scientific knowledge and its development (Lederman, 1992).
  7. 7. How do we know? Developing ideas throughout human ages were based on observing, thinking, experimenting and validating. These are the fundamental aspects of science which differentiate science from other modes of knowing.
  8. 8. What is NOS?
  9. 9. Why Nature of Science? • enhances learning of science content • enhances understanding of science • enhances interest in science • enhances decision making • enhances instructional delivery
  10. 10. Elements Of NOS • The scientific world view • Scientific Inquiry • The Scientific Enterprise
  11. 11. How to apply NOS? If a teacher is to teach in a way that is consistent with scientific ways of knowing, then he or she must help students to construct knowledge and understanding from their experiences.
  12. 12. Achieving NOS Literacy
  13. 13. Factors Affecting NOS in education • Role of textbook • Role of Teacher
  14. 14. Measuring tools for NOS • Wisconsin Inventory Science Process (WISP) • Nature of science test (NOST) • VNOS (A&B)
  15. 15. Our Context • the lack of philosophy of science content in teacher education programs • the failure of such programs to provide real science research experiences • shallow treatment of the nature of science in the textbooks
  16. 16. References: • Abd Alkhalick F. 2012. Teaching With and About Nature Of Science, And Science Teacher Knowledge Domains. Springer Science and Business Media. BV. 2012. • Science for all Americans • Flick L.B. and Lederman N. G, (eds). 2004. Scientific Inquiry and Nature of Science, p. 289-425 • MacComas W. F. AlMazroa H. 1998. The Nature Of Science In Science Education; An Introduction. Science and Education. Vol 7; p. 511-532
  17. 17. References: • Lederman N.G, Abd Elkhalick F., Bell R. L., 2002. Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire: Toward Valid and Meaningful Assessment of Learners’ Conceptions of Nature of Science. Journal Of Research in Science Teaching. Vol.39, No. 6. pp 497-521 • Bell, R. (2001). Implicit instruction in technology integration and the nature of science: There's no such thing as a free lunch. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education [Online serial] , 1 (4) . Available: cle2.htm • De Condillac E.B, 2001, The Unnatural Nature Of Science, Cambridge University Press, Philosophy p. 225