D O N E B Y : J I N A N K A R A M E H
Every Known fact in natural science was divined by the
presentiment of somebody,before it was actually
verified….(Ralph Waldo Emerson)
Knowledge is everything acquired by the senses of
the human being and reflected by his own prior
thoughts. (Condillac, 2001)
The word is derived from the Greek words epistéme
and logos – the former term meaning “knowledge”
and that latter term meaning “study of”. Hence, the
word parsed into English implies the nature,
source, and limitations of knowledge.
Scientific Or Not Scientific
There are several ways of knowing things in general,
but not all ways would be considered “scientific.”
What is Science?
Science is a way of knowing that requires a strong
philosophical underpinning (whether consciously
sought of unconsciously learned).
Then the nature of science is….
NOS refers to the epistemology and sociology of
science, science as a way of
knowing, or the values and beliefs inherent to
scientiﬁc knowledge and its development
How do we know?
Developing ideas throughout human ages were based
on observing, thinking, experimenting and
validating. These are the fundamental aspects of
science which differentiate science from other
modes of knowing.
Why Nature of Science?
• enhances learning of science content
• enhances understanding of science
• enhances interest in science
• enhances decision making
• enhances instructional delivery
Elements Of NOS
• The scientific world view
• Scientific Inquiry
• The Scientific Enterprise
How to apply NOS?
If a teacher is to teach in a way
that is consistent with scientific
ways of knowing, then he or she
must help students to construct
knowledge and understanding
from their experiences.
Factors Affecting NOS in education
• Role of textbook
• Role of Teacher
Measuring tools for NOS
• Wisconsin Inventory Science Process (WISP)
• Nature of science test (NOST)
• VNOS (A&B)
• the lack of philosophy of science content in
teacher education programs
• the failure of such programs to provide real
science research experiences
• shallow treatment of the nature of science in the
• Abd Alkhalick F. 2012. Teaching With and About Nature Of Science, And
Science Teacher Knowledge Domains. Springer Science and Business
Media. BV. 2012.
• Science for all Americans
• Flick L.B. and Lederman N. G, (eds). 2004. Scientific Inquiry and Nature
of Science, p. 289-425
• MacComas W. F. AlMazroa H. 1998. The Nature Of Science In Science
Education; An Introduction. Science and Education. Vol 7; p. 511-532
• Lederman N.G, Abd Elkhalick F., Bell R. L., 2002. Views of Nature of
Science Questionnaire: Toward Valid and Meaningful Assessment of
Learners’ Conceptions of Nature of Science. Journal Of Research in
Science Teaching. Vol.39, No. 6. pp 497-521
• Bell, R. (2001). Implicit instruction in technology integration and the
nature of science: There's no such thing as a free lunch. Contemporary
Issues in Technology and Teacher Education [Online serial] , 1 (4) .
• De Condillac E.B, 2001, The Unnatural Nature Of Science, Cambridge
University Press, Philosophy p. 225