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Diploma in English 1

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Diploma in English 1

  1. 1. Diploma in English Presented by:Bogahawatta ACA,B.B.mgt HRM(special)
  2. 2. AM/IS/ARE I am (I’m) He (He’s) She is (She’s) It (It’s) We (We’re) You are (You’re) They (They’re)
  3. 3. • I am not (I’m not) • He (He’s not or He isn’t) • She is not (She’s not or She isn’t) • It (It’s not or It isn’t) • We (We’re not or We aren’t) • You are not (You’re not or You aren’t) • They (They’re not or They aren’t) AM/IS/ARE(QUESTIONS)
  4. 4. Examples • I’m cold • I’m 20 years old. My sister is 22. • My brother is a policeman. He’s very tall. • Sameera is afraid of dogs. • It’s 10 o’clock. You are late again. • Vindya and I are very good friends. • My shoes are very dirty. I must clean them. • I’m tired but I’m not hungry.
  5. 5. That’s =That is There’s=There is Here’s=Here is • This is a beautiful castle. • These are beautiful castles. • This is a narrow path. • These are narrow paths. • That is a story book • Those are story books. • That is a castle. • Those are castles.
  6. 6. • There …….. No aero planes two hundred years ago. • Those two men ……poor a year ago, but now they are rich. • There …… was a holiday last week. • There ….. Not many cars on the roads n 1910.
  7. 7. AM/IS/ARE (QUESTION) • Am I he • Is She It we • Are You They
  8. 8. Examples • Where are you from? • What color is your car ? • Are they new? • Is it cold in your room? Yes a little • Is your mother at home? No, she's out. • Are you tired? Yes, I am • Are you hungry? No, I'm not but I’m thirsty.
  9. 9. Put in am, is or are in the blanks. 1. The weather ……. very nice today. 2. I……not tired. 3. This case …… very heavy. 4. These cases …….very heavy. 5. The dog……. asleep. 6. Look! There ……. Melanthi. 7. It …… hot. Can you open the window please? 8. This castle ….. hot. Can you open the window please? 9. My brother and I …….good tennis players. 10.Mali …… at home but her children…….at school. 11.I ……. a student. My sister …….an architect.
  10. 10. Write full sentences. Use am/is/are 1. (My shoes very dirty) 2. (my bed very comfortable) 3. (I not very happy today) 4. (This restaurant very expensive) 5. (The shops not open today) 6. (Mr.Pradeep’s daughter six years old) 7. (The houses in this street very old) 8. (The examination not difficult) 9. (Those flowers very beautiful)
  11. 11. Write Positive or negative sentences.(Use am/am not/is/isn’t/are/aren’t) • (Paris /the capital of France) • (I/interested in foot ball) • (I/hungry) • (It /warm today) • (Rome /in Spain) • (My hands/cold) • (Canada/a very big country) • (The Amazon /in Africa)
  12. 12. Continue…. • (Motor –racing / a dangerous sport) • (Diamonds/cheap) • (Cats /big animals)
  13. 13. Write questions from these words. Use am/is/are • (your mother at home?) • (your parents at home?) • (this hotel expensive?) • (you interested in art?) • (the shops open today?) • (the park open today?)
  14. 14. Write questions with what/who/how/where/why ? Use am/is/are • (what colour your car?) • (Where my key?) • (Where my socks?) • (How old your father?) • (Why Janaka angry with me?) • (Who your favorite actor?) • (Why you always late?)
  15. 15. Ask the questions(Read the answer to the question first) • (your name?)….?Paul. • (married or single?)….?I’m married. • (where /from?)….?From Australia. • (How old ?)…..?I’m 25. • (a student?)….?No , I’m a teacher. • (your wife a teacher?)….?No , she is a lawyer. • (What is her name?)
  16. 16. Write positive or negative short answers • Are you married? • Are you tall? • Is it cold today? • Are you a teacher? • Is your father tall? • Are you hungry? • Is it sunny?
  17. 17. The stem be is also used after can , cannot ,must , must not: • A doctor’s hands must be clean. • Pupils must not be lazy. • You cannot be in two places at the same time.
  18. 18. The Past Tense of the verb be is: • I was • You • He • She was • It • We • You were • They
  19. 19. Negative • I was not or wasn’t • You were not or weren’t • He • She was not or wasn’t • It • We • You were not or weren’t • They
  20. 20. Examples • Jack was late for school yesterday. • There was a holiday last week ,and the shops were shut. • My father was not at home yesterday. • Where were you two days ago? • Were the shops open yesterday?
  21. 21. Make questions to which the following are full answers? 1. Yes, I was at home yesterday evening. 2. Yes, all the pupils were present in the last lesson. 3. No , Jack wasn’t born in London. 4. No , the teacher wasn’t angry yesterday. 5. Yes , the children were in bed early last night.
  22. 22. Continue……. 1. No , there wasn’t an English lesson last Monday. 2. Yes ,all the buses were full yesterday. 3. Yes ,I was very tired last night. 4. No ,the doctor was not here yesterday. 5. Yes ,I was a soldier in the last war.
  23. 23. • I shall be We shall be • You will be You will be • He • She will be They will be • It
  24. 24. • Shall I be Shall we be • Will you be Will you be • Will he be • Will she be Will they be • Will it be
  25. 25. • I shall not be We shall not be • You will not be You will not be • He • She will not be They will not be • It They won’t be
  26. 26. Pronouns Singular • Subject Object Possessive Reflexive • I me my myself • you you your yourself • He him his himself • She her her herself • it it its itself
  27. 27. Pronouns Plural • Subject Object Possessive Reflexive • we us our ourselves • You you your yourselves • They them their themselves
  28. 28. • She sent an e-mail to her uncle earlier today. • Mary wants us at the conference. • I will not tell them anything about the accident. • The veterinarian brought the small puppy to him.
  29. 29. • We talk to our neighbor.(Subject Pronoun) • She talks to us.(Object Pronoun) • I like horses.(Subject Pronoun) • They don’t like me .(Object Pronoun) • They listen to the teacher.(Subject Pronoun) • Listen to me carefully .(Object Pronoun) • You speak very quickly .(Subject Pronoun) • We watch them on TV .(Object Pronoun) • The letter is on the sofa. You are sitting on it.(Object pronoun).
  30. 30. Exercise 1…… is reading a book. (Sam) 2……. is green. (The tree) 3…….. are on the wall (The pictures) 4. …….are running. (The elephants) 5. …….are watching TV. (My sisters) 6. ………is in the garden. (The flower) 7. ……….is riding his bike. (Ron) 8. ………..are dirty. (Anna`s dresses) 9. ……….has a brother. (Rana)
  31. 31. Possessive Adjectives Possessive Pronouns My mine Your yours His his Her hers Its its Our ours Your yours Their theirs
  32. 32. Write the following sentences again , using possessive pronouns instead of possessive Adjectives • Is that your car? Is that car yours? • This is her watch. This watch is hers. • These are my shoes. • Those were our fields in 1947 • Are those her children? • This is your pen • These are our rulers • Are those my handkerchiefs ? • Those are their books.
  33. 33. • This is my pen ,and that is your pen. • This is my pen , and that is yours. • As given in the second sentence , using the possessive pronoun yours ,is better.
  34. 34. Write the following sentences again , using possessive pronouns instead of the words in italics: • Are these your shoes or my shoes? • This is his ruler ,but that is your ruler. • Your garden is big , but our garden is small. • Is this my book or her book? • Our house is near the school , but their house is not. • This is my pencil, and the red one is his pencil. • Your brother and my brother are good friends. • Those three children are her children.
  35. 35. • My bicycle is old, but your bicycle is new. • Here are your books, but where are our books. • My shoes are clean ,but their shoes are dirty. • Is that your coat or his coat?
  36. 36. Reflexive Pronouns • Verbs with which reflective pronouns are commonly used as a direct object. • hurt introduce prepare satisfy teach • blame cut enjoy help
  37. 37. Examples • Be careful with that knife. You might cut yourself. • Would you like to help yourself to another drink? • I wish the children would behave themselves. • He busied himself in the kitchen. • I had to content myself with a small salary.
  38. 38. •with the preposition by when we want to show that someone did something alone and/or without any help: • He lived by himself in an enormous house. She walked home by herself. • The children got dressed by themselves. I prepared the whole meal by myself. • We often put the reflexive pronoun at the end of the clause when we are using it for emphasis: • I baked the bread myself. She mended the car herself
  39. 39. • Emphasising the identity of the subject. • They themselves like to do this. • He himself has lived there for many years. • we ourselves are about to venture into space. • especially if we are talking about someone very famous: • Cartney himself sang the final song.
  40. 40. possessives: nouns • We use a noun with ’s with a singular noun to show possession: • We are having a party at John’s house. Michael drove his friend’s car. • We use s’ with a plural noun ending in -s: • This is my parents’ house. Those are ladies’ shoes.
  41. 41. • But we use ’s with other plural nouns: • These are men’s shoes. Children’s clothes are very expensive.
  42. 42. Plural Nouns • Most Nouns make the plural from by adding S to the singular .Other ways of making the plural are : • By adding es to nouns ending in these letters :s , ss ,sh , ch ,and x. • Singular Plural • Bus buses • Class classes • Glass glasses • Brush brushes
  43. 43. • Singular Plural • Branch branches • Watch watches • Box boxes • Fox foxes
  44. 44. Nouns ending in y with a consonant before it make the plural by changing y to ies. • Singular Plural • Baby babies • City cities • Country countries • Fly flies • Lady ladies
  45. 45. But if the y has a vowel letter before it ,the plural is made in the regular way by adding s. • Singular Plural • Boy boys • Day days • Tray trays • Key keys • Toy toys
  46. 46. Some ,but not all Nouns ending in f or fe make the plural with the ending ves. • Singular Plural • Half halves • Knife knives • Leaf leaves • Life lives • Loaf loaves
  47. 47. • Singular Plural • Shelf shelves • Thief thieves • Wife wives • Wolf wolves But roof-roofs
  48. 48. A few very common nouns have different singular and plural forms • Singular Plural • Man men • Woman women • Child children • Foot feet • Tooth teeth • Mouse mice
  49. 49. A few very common nouns have different singular and plural forms • Singular Plural • Man men • Woman women • Child children • Foot feet • Tooth teeth • Mouse mice
  50. 50. Nouns which have same singular & plural form • Singular Plural • Sheep sheep • Deer deer
  51. 51. • Make the following nouns plural ,and put the right plural noun in each space: • Box, half, fly ,sheep ,loaf ,toy • Jack’s mother buys three ……of bread every day. • How many ….of matches have you got? • The little boy is playing with his …. • The wolves ate three……. • I cut the apple into two….. • …….can walk on walls and ceilings.
  52. 52. Bus ,country ,fox ,leaf ,roof ,shelf • Some people sit on the ……. Of their houses in summer. • America and Russia are very big……… • There are no ……. on this tree in winter. • The boys walked to school because all the …… were full. • Foxes …….. Live in holes. • The teacher put the books on the ……. of the cupboard.
  53. 53. Branch,brush,city,class,knife,mouse • How many …classes. are there in this school? • The cat caught three…mice. yesterday. • The birds are sitting on the branches…… of the trees. • London and Paris are big…cities… • We use ……brushes.. to clean our teeth. • These …knives…. are very sharp.
  54. 54. Uncountable Nouns • We do not use uncountable nouns in the plural and we do not use them with the indefinite article, a/an. • We ate a lot of foods - We ate a lot of food We bought some new furnitures - We bought some new furniture That’s a useful information - That’s useful information
  55. 55. Common uncountable Nouns • baggage equipment furniture homework information • News ,traffic, money ,luggage ,sugar ,chalk ,food ,milk , tea ,water ,wine ,salt ,bread ,iron
  56. 56. If we want to make these things countable, we use expressions like: • a piece of... pieces of... a bit of... bits of... an item of... items of... • That’s a useful piece of equipment. We bought a few bits of furniture for the new apartment. She had six separate items of luggage.
  57. 57. The past Tense • Verb stems : walk ,cry ,play ,wash ,stay , open • I …..my hands and face ten minutes ago. • It was hot yesterday and we ….all the windows. • The baby was hungry and ……all night. • Marry was ill yesterday and ……..at home. • The boys…….football last Saturday. • Jack usually goes to school by bus, but yesterday he ……..
  58. 58. Verb stems :live clean want pay finish help • The doctor …..work late last night. • Marry stayed at home and ….her mother. • I …….my shoes this morning. • Jack’s father ….. in London until 1960. • Ahmad was ten years old , and he ……. a bicycle. • My father……. hundred rupees for this book.
  59. 59. Verb stems: ask carry count listen look wait • She opened her purse and ……her money. • Jack ….. A long time for the bus this morning. • The little boy was tired ,so his father ……him. • I……to the wireless yesterday evening. • The lesson was easy, but some pupils …… a lot of questions. • Mary opened the book and …….. At the pictures.
  60. 60. The Past Tense (Regular Verbs) • Stem Past Tense • Clean cleaned • Climb Climbed • Listen Listened • Live Lived • Open Opened • Play Played • Show Showed • Stay stayed • Turn Turned
  61. 61. The Past Tense • Stem Past Tense • Ask asked • Finish finished • Help helped • Jump jumped • Like liked • Look looked • Walk walked • Wash washed
  62. 62. The Past Tense • Stem Past Tense • Count counted • Mend mended • Wait waited • Want wanted
  63. 63. Notice the spelling of the Past Tenses of these Regular verbs: • Stem Past Tense • Carry carried • Cry cried • Pay paid • Stop stopped
  64. 64. The past Tense (irregular verbs) • Stem Past Tense • Begin began • Drink drank • Run ran • Sing sang • Sit sat • Swim swam
  65. 65. The past Tense (irregular verbs) • Stem Past Tense • Bring brought • Buy bought • Catch caught • See saw • Teach taught • Think thought • Wear wore
  66. 66. The past Tense (irregular verbs) • Stem Past Tense • Break broke • Drive drove • Ride rode • Sell sold • Speak spoke • Tell told • Wake woke • Write wrote
  67. 67. The past Tense (irregular verbs) (Catch , begin ,wake , wear , drink ,run) • The cat …… a mouse yesterday. • This lesson ….. Ten minutes ago • Jack…..up every early this morning. • It was Mary's birthday yesterday and she …..her new dress. • I was thirsty and …….. Three glasses of water. • The policeman saw a thief and …..after him.
  68. 68. • The doctor sold his old car n 1960 and ….. A new one. • Shakespeare……many plays. • A different teacher ….us English last year. • The boy jumped into the river and ……. Across it.
  69. 69. • Stem Past Tense • Eat ate • Fall fell • Feel felt • Meet met • Send sent • Sleep slept The Past Tense (Irregular Verbs)
  70. 70. • Stem Past tense • Come Came • Give Gave • Make made • Blow blew • Draw drew • Fly flew • Know knew • Throw threw
  71. 71. • Stem Past tense • Stand stood • Take took • Get got • Forget forgot • Build built • Burn burnt • Learn learnt
  72. 72. • Stem Past Tense • Cost cost • Cut cut • Hit hit • Let let • Put put • Shut shut • Be was/were • Do did • Go went • Have had
  73. 73. Fill n the Sentences (sleep ,throw ,give ,send ,eat ,draw ,come ,fall ,feel ,fly ) • He was very tired and ….. for nine hours last night. • The boy …… a stone and broke the window. • Jack’s father …..him a watch on his last birthday. • She wrote a letter to her brother in London and …. It by air-mail. • The children were hungry and ….. All the cakes.
  74. 74. • The teacher ….. a picture on the black board yesterday. • He opened the door and ……. Into the room. • The old man …… down in the street and broke his leg. • Mary ….. ill , so she stayed in bed. • The cat climbed the tree, but the bird …..away
  75. 75. • The teacher came into the room and the pupils …….up. • My friend and I …. To the cinema last Saturday. • Jack…… lot of homework yesterday evening • He……on his hat and coat and went out. • It was cold last night, so I ….. The bedroom window. • The pupils ….six new English words yesterday.
  76. 76. (stand ,go ,did ,put ,shut ,learn ,have ,take , get) • I……breakfast at six o’clock this morning. • Mary was ill , so her mother..….to the doctor. • The little girl fell down and ……. her knee. • The old woman .….. A letter yesterday from her son in America.
  77. 77. • Tenses • Present Simple • we are talking about facts. – We have two children. – Water freezes at 0° C or 32° F. – The Thames flows through London.
  78. 78. • we are talking about future facts, usually found in a timetable or a chart. – Christmas Day falls on a Monday this year. – The plane leaves at 5.00 tomorrow morning. – Does the class begin at 10 or 11 this week?
  79. 79. •Permanent states are situations or feelings which are not temporary. I like him a lot. Sophie works as a travel writer. They live in London. •We also use the present simple for general facts, -for example when talking about science or geography. Birds do not like milk Every twelve months ,the earth circles the sun. Does the sun circle the earth. Thailand is really hot at this time of year. Snakes live on the ground, in trees and in water.
  80. 80. • We are talking about our thoughts and feelings at the time of speaking. Although these feelings can be short-term, we use the present simple and not the present continuous. – I think you are right. – She doesn't want you to do it. – Do you understand what I am trying to say.
  81. 81. • We use the present simple to talk about things which are repeated every day, every week, every year, etc. I usually get up at 7 o'clock. We always go on holiday in the summer. They drive to the office every day. She doesn't come here very often. The news usually starts at 6.00 every evening. Do you usually have rice and curry for breakfast? During the week I have swimming practice on Mondays, I do taekwondo on Tuesdays and tennis on Thursdays. • we often use adverbs of frequency sometimes, often, usually or other time expressions like on Mondays, twice a week or in the summer.
  82. 82. Forming the present simple sentences • Subject + Verb +Object • 3rd person singular – He Verb+s/es +Object – She + make+s – It watch+es – I , we , you ,they + verb +Object
  83. 83. • He watches black and white films at his cinema club on Wednesdays. He thinks chess is a sport.
  84. 84. Forming the present simple sentences Negative form • Subject +verb +Object • He/she/It +does not+ verb stem • doesn’t • I/you/we /They + do not+verb stem don’t • Daisy and Jack don't go out together much at the weekend. • He does not watch black and white films at his cinema club on Wednesdays. He does not think chess is a sport.
  85. 85. Forming the present simple sentences- question form • do/does + subject + verb stem +object • Do + I/we/you/They • Does + He/she/ it
  86. 86. • Do you see him on Wednesdays then? Does Jack like sports?
  87. 87. • Hello, here's a typical day in my life on a school day. My alarm clock rings at 6 o'clock. I get out of bed and go to the bathroom. I have a wash and then I get dressed. I go to the kitchen and have breakfast- usually sweet tea and cereal-with my sister. I get to school at 7.45.The first lesson starts at eight o'clock. Lessons last for 45 minutes. We have a fifteen minutes break between 6th and 7th lessons. We have 7 or 8 lessons a day. I go home at 2 o'clock. I do my homework, then I check my email. I have supper with my mum, dad and sister at about seven o'clock. After supper I watch TV or chat with my friends. On Mondays and Thursdays I visit the mathematics lessons and on Tuesdays, Fridays and Wednesdays I visit English lessons. I usually go to bed at about half past nine .
  88. 88. Exercise 01 • Jack ______ to a film club on Wednesdays.(go) • I ______ reading in my free time.(love) • They ______ usually see each other during the week.(do/does not) • The train ______ at 6.30.(leave) • ____ Ollie play chess?(Do/does) • Daisy ______ sports.(like) • We always ______ at 7 o’clock.(get up/gets up) • What ______ you think of their new album?
  89. 89. • Alfie ……..(live) in London. • ……(do) you go swimming a lot? • Sophie ……. (be) in Thailand today. • We …….. (do not) go to the same school. • I …….(hate) old black and white films. • She ……..(work) as a travel writer. • My dad ….. (have) breakfast before us. • They …… (do) taekwondo on Tuesdays. •
  90. 90. • you watched the birds yesterday? • He learned English last year. …….. He…… English last year? • I liked apples when I was young. …… I …… apples when I was young? • Mrs Dawson taught French last year. …….. Mrs Dawson ……. French last year? • They asked many questions last time. …….. they ……. many questions last time? • We opened the windows yesterday. ……. we ……. the windows yesterday? • She talked to David a week ago. ……… she……. to David a week ago?
  91. 91. Past Simple Tense • Something that happened once in the past: • I met my wife in 1983. We went to Spain for our holidays. They got home very late last night. • something that happened again and again in the past: • When I was a boy I walked a mile to school every day. We swam a lot while we were on holiday. They always enjoyed visiting their friends.
  92. 92. • something that was true for some time in the past: • I lived abroad for ten years. He enjoyed being a student. She played a lot of tennis when she was younger. • we often use phrases with ago with the past tense: • I met my wife a long time ago.
  93. 93. Forming the present simple sentences • Subject + Verb(past tense) +Object • She opened her purse and gave her money. • Jack waited A long time for the bus this morning. • The little boy was tired ,so his father carried him. • I listen to the wireless yesterday evening.
  94. 94. Negative form • Subject +verb +object didn’t + verb stem • They didn’t go to Spain this year. We didn’t get home until very late last night. I didn’t see you yesterday.
  95. 95. Question form • Did +subject +verb stem +object • Did she play tennis when she was younger? Did you live abroad? • When did you meet your wife? Where did you go for your holidays?
  96. 96. • He ……. out his wallet and …… the bill. • When she …. to the interview, she ….. her best outfit. • They …… the motorway and …... for an hour on quiet country roads. • I ……. I ……… this theory but now I'm not so sure. • As soon as I ….. her, I ….. she was the woman I was going to marry. • He ….. fourteen novels, but not one of them …. a prize. • They ….. their own house, so it …… them much less. • (build, cost ,write , win, meet, know, think ,understand ,leave ,drive ,go,wear,take,pay)
  97. 97. • When I ….. you were coming, I ….. the staff the rest of the day off. • The nurse …… the patient's hand and …….. softly to him. (hear,give,hold,speak)
  98. 98. Write questions to which the following sentences are the full answers • Yes ,Mary helped her mother yesterday. • No ,the baby did not cry last night. • Yes ,the thief jumped out of the window. • Yes, saw the doctor yesterday. • No, the servant did not break the plate. • Yes Jack sold his old bicycle yesterday. • Yes , woke up early n the morning. • No, the pupils did not answer all the questions.
  99. 99. Question word+ did +subject + verb stem • The servant washed the floor last Monday. • When did the servant wash the floor? Last Monday
  100. 100. Write questions to which the following sentences are the full answers. Begin each question with when • The doctor finished his work at ten o’clock. • The old man wrote a letter to his son yesterday. • Ahmad went to America two years ago. • Jack’s father bought a house n 1955 • The lesson began ten minutes ago.
  101. 101. What & who Questions We use who questions about persons ,and what questions about things or animals. • The donkey carried two big sacks • The question to which this sentence is the full answer was: • What did the donkey carry? Two big sacks • What carried two big sacks? The donkey
  102. 102. • Cats drink milk. • What drink milk? cats • What do cats drink? Milk • The train crosses the bridge every day. • What crosses this bridge every day ? The train • What does the train cross every day? This bridge
  103. 103. • Make questions to which the words in italics are the answers. • The monkey climbed the tree. • The dog ate all the meat. • Black clouds covered the sky. • A donkey eats grass. • Clocks and watches tell us the time. • The fox saw a rabbit. • Mary’s cat catches a mouse every night. • The wolf killed two sheep.
  104. 104. • The rich man paid her servants yesterday. • Who pad her servants yesterday? the rich man • Who did the rich man pay yesterday? Her servants
  105. 105. Make questions. The answer to one question must be the subject, and the answer to the other question must be the object. • The policeman caught the thieves. • The teacher counts the pupils every day • Kamal met a tourist yesterday. • The little girl helps her mother • Mary met the teacher in the street. • The teacher punished Tom yesterday. • The rich man pays his servants every week. • That woman beats her children every day.
  106. 106. • The black horse kicked the old farmer. • Mary sang a pretty song. • The children ate all the chocolate. • The mad dog bit the little girl. • Girls wear dresses. • The policeman wears a uniform. • The teacher wrote the questions on the blackboard. • Some rich men help poor people. • Jack’s father drinks coffee every morning.
  107. 107. • Mary’s mother sweeps the floor every morning. • Who sweeps the floor every morning? • What does Mary’s mother sweep every morning? Make two questions about each of the following sentences , using either who or what, in this way:
  108. 108. We use future simple to talk about the future: When we make predictions: It will be a nice day tomorrow. I think Brazil will win the World Cup. I’m sure you will enjoy the film. It will rain tomorrow. Future Simple
  109. 109. • To express willingness: I'll help you. He'll carry your bag for you. • In the negative form, to express unwillingness: The baby won't eat his soup. • To make offers and promises: I'll see you tomorrow. We'll send you an email. • To talk about offers and promises: Tim will be at the meeting. Mary will help with the cooking.
  110. 110. Shall • With I in the interrogative form using "shall", to make an offer: Shall I open the window? • With we in the interrogative form using "shall", to make a suggestion: Shall we go to the cinema tonight? • With I in the interrogative form using "shall", to ask for advice or instructions: What shall I tell the boss about this money?
  111. 111. Will and Will not express the future ,but they also express the will of the speaker, or speakers. • Will you wear your new shoes tomorrow? • Yes ,I will. • Will you make this mistake again? • No, I won’t
  112. 112. Future tense • Subject Will Infinitive • Affirmative • I shall go • We shall go • He will go • She will go • It will go • They will go • You will go • You will go
  113. 113. • Negative • Subject Will /shall Infinitive I shall not go We shall not go He will not go She will not (won’t) go It will not go They will not go You will not go You will not go
  114. 114. • Interrogative • Will/shall Subject verb • Shall I go • Shall we go • Will he go • Will she go • Will it go • Will they go • Will you go • Will you go
  115. 115. Examples • I will(‘ ll) correct your exercises this evening. • We’ll bring our books tomorrow.(We won’t forget to bring them. • I’ll never speak to you again. • I will not (I won’t ) tell a lie again.
  116. 116. • We use (be) going to: To talk about plans and intentions: Teacher is going to write on the blackboard. They are going to move to Negambo. I am going to see the doctor tomorrow.(speaking about the future & his intention.) • When we can see that something is likely to happen: Be careful! You are going to fall. Look at those black clouds. I think it’s going to rain.
  117. 117. Construct Sentences A • The sick girl is going. • It is dark, and I am going • Bob s fifteen, and he’s going • The servants are going • The horse is going • We are going B • To sweep the classrooms. • To do our homework this evening. • To stay in bed tomorrow • To jump over the wall. • To put the light on. • To leave school next year.
  118. 118. Make questions ,beginning with where ,to which the following sentences are full answers • The children are going to play in the garden. • The pupils are going to have lunch at school. • i am gong to sleep tonight in a hotel. • Mary’s father is gong to take her to the Zoo tomorrow.
  119. 119. • She’s going to pay the grocer at the end of the month. • Jack’s father is going to buy a house next year. • We’re gong to finish this book this year. • The teacher is going to correct the exercise – books this evening. • Mary’s mother is going to make cakes tomorrow. Make questions ,beginning with when ,to which the following sentences are full answers
  120. 120. Make questions ,beginning with what ,to which the following sentences are full answers • Tom is going to sell his old bicycle. • I'm gong to buy a par of shoes. • Jack’s going to wear his new suit tomorrow. • Mary's father is going to give her a watch on her birthday. • Ahmad is gong to study medicine at the university. • The servant s gong to wash the dirty clothes this morning.
  121. 121. One Future Tense Only • The conjunctions if and unless are followed by a present tense in sentences about the future ,for example: – If you don’t go to bed early tonight ,you’ll feel very tired tomorrow morning. – You won’t catch the first train tomorrow unless you get up at 5 a.m. Tonight and 5a.m, are future times ,but present tenses ‘don’t go’ and ‘get up’ are used. In such sentences ,ONE future tense is enough.
  122. 122. • She’ll be twenty –five before she finishes her education. • I’ll pay this bill at the end of the month, when I get my salary. • (After the conjunctions before and when ,the present tenses(finishes and get)are used, although they refer to future time. In such sentences ONE future tense is enough.
  123. 123. Exercises 1.Put the verbs between brackets into the simple present or Future tense. • I‘m afraid the old man (die) before she (see) her son. • The teacher said “I(begin) the lesson as soon as jack(stop) talking. • The old gentleman doesn’t go out in the winter .He (go) out when the weather (get) warmer.
  124. 124. • I (wait) for the doctor until he(come) back from the hospital. • Ahmad (not pass) the examination next summer unless he (work) much harder. • He (have) a bad accident if he (not drive) more carefully. • She’s flying to Cairo tomorrow. She (send) her family a telegram as soon as she(arrive) • The teacher said,” I (not retire)before I(be) sixty. • You (be) late unless you (take) a taxi. • We(have) a picnic tomorrow if it (be) a fine day. • I(finish) reading this book before I(go) to bed. • She (mend) his socks if he(ask) her to.
  125. 125. The Continuous Tenses-Present Continuous tense We are having an English lesson now.(present simple: we have five or six English lessons a week) • We use continuous tense to explain something which is happening now, at the time when the sentence is said. The English lesson is taking place at this moment, it is continuing ,and it is not finished. • This tense is therefore often used with the adverb still, – It is still raining hard.
  126. 126. • The present continuous tense is often used when we are speaking about the near future. What are you dong this evening? I’m meeting Nuwan at six o’clock, and we’re going to the cinema. After the cinema ,we’re having dinner together.
  127. 127. • for something which we think is temporary: – Michael is at university. He’s studying history. I’m working in London for the next two weeks. • for something which is new and contrasts with a previous state: – These days most people are using email instead of writing letters. What sort of clothes are teenagers wearing nowadays? What sort of music are they listening to?
  128. 128. • to show that something is changing, growing or developing: – The children are growing quickly. The climate is changing rapidly. Your English is improving. • for something which happens again and again: – It’s always raining in London. They are always arguing. George is great. He’s always laughing. • Note: We normally use always with this use.
  129. 129. Forming present continuous tense sentences • The present continuous tense is formed from the present tense of the verb be and the present participle (-ing form) of a verb • Subject Present tense of verb be present participle • I am (I’m) • He (He’s) writing • She is (She’s) singing • It (It’s) reading • We (We’re) • You are (You’re) • They (They’re)
  130. 130. Non-Continuous Verbs  These verbs are rarely used in continuous tenses. They include: • Abstract Verbs – be, want, cost, seem, need, care, contain, owe, exist... • Possession Verbs – possess, own, belong... • Emotion Verbs – like, love, hate, dislike, fear, envy, mind... Examples:  He is needing help now.  He needs help now.  He is wanting a drink now.  He wants a drink now.
  131. 131. The Present Participle • The present participle is made by adding ing to the verb stem. • If the verb stem ends with the letter g,l,m,n,p or t(with a short vowel sound before it), this letter is doubled , for example: – Dig-digging hop-hopping – Beg-begging cut-cutting – Travel-travelling get-getting – Swim-swimming – Run-running – Begin-beginning – Stop-stopping
  132. 132. • If the verb stem ends with the letter e, this letter is dropped, for example: • Come-coming • Drive-driving • Have-having • Make-making • Ride-riding • Write-writing
  133. 133. • If the verb ends with the letter ie,these letters are changed to y , for example : • Die –dying • Lie-lying • Tie-tying
  134. 134. Exercise • Put the verbs between brackets into the present continuous OR the simple present tense. 1. She usually (wear) a blue dress, but today she (wear) a gray one. 2. I’m afraid I’ll lose this game of chess .I(play)very badly. Usually (play) much better. 3. What’s she doing? She (mend) her husband’s socks. She always (mend) them. 4. Yes ,you can borrow my dictionary. I (use) it a great deal, but I(not use) it at this movement. 5. Jack usually (sit ) in the front of the class, but this morning he(sit) at the back.
  135. 135. • The bell (ring)at the beginning and end of each lesson, but it (not ring) now. • Ahmad (do) his homework before supper. Has he finished his homework? No ,he still (do)it. • Where’s the old man living now? He (live)with his marred daughter. He usually (live)with her for six months every year. • Henry usually (listen )very carefully to the teacher ,but he (not listen) now; he's looking out of the window. • Where’s your father ?He’s n the bathroom. He (shave).He often (shave)twice a day.
  136. 136. • Mr. Brown usually (teach) Class A, but this year he(teach) class B. • What are they talking about ?They (talk) about politics .They always (talk)about politics when they see each other.
  137. 137. The Past Continuous Tense • The teacher was writing on the blackboard when the inspector entered the classroom. • First action (writing )-began before the second action(the inspector’s entrance),and it was not finished when the inspector entered the room.
  138. 138. Exercise • Mr.andMrs.Brown (have) dinner when the doctor(call). • The thief (climb)over the wall when the policeman (see)him. • It (rain) hard when I (go)out this morning. • We(listen) to the wireless when the telephone bell (ring). • Jack (do) his homework when his father (come)from work.
  139. 139. • The sailors (swim)near their ship when they were attacked by a shark. • Mary (wear)her new dress when I (met) her yesterday. • The pupils were still writing their compositions when the bell (ring) • She (walk)along the street when she(saw) an old friend. • The woman was very tired ,and she (lie)on her bed when her children (come) home from school. • The sick child (sleep)when the doctor came.
  140. 140. • He cut his chin while he was shaving yesterday. – While he was shaving yesterday he cut his chin. • A thief stole the woman’s bag as she was getting on the bus. – As the woman was getting on the bus a thief stole her bag.
  141. 141. • Jack’s father (read) a book last night when he (hear) a noise in the garden. He(open)the window and looked out. It (be) a dark night and at first he could see nothing. But just as he(shut) his window, he(see) a man .The man (try) to climb over the garden wall .He was a thief. When he saw Jack’s father at the window, he (jump)off the wall and ran away. Jack’s father (run) after him. There was a car at the end of the street. The thief reached the car, but just as he (get) into it, Jack’s father (catch)him.
  142. 142. • When I (go) out this morning, the sun (shine) and the birds (sing). It was a beautiful morning. I (walk) to the nearest park and sat down on the grass. But while I (sit) there, black clouds gathered and(hide) the sun. it (begin) to rain heavily, so I (run) home. My hat (fall)off as I (run)
  143. 143. Future continuous future continuous (Subject + shall/will+ be + ‘ing’ form) Negative - short form: Subject+ shall not/won't+ be ‘ing’ form Shall/will + subject + be + ‘ing’ form
  144. 144. Future continuous – Don’t ring at 8 o’clock. I’ll be watching Who Wants to be a Millionaire. – This time tomorrow we’ll be sitting on the beach. I can’t wait! • We use the future continuous to talk about something that will be in progress at or around a time in the future. – Don’t phone grandma now, she’ll be having dinner. – The kids are very quiet. They’ll be doing something wrong, I know it! • These sentences are not about the future but we can use the future continuous to talk about what we assume is happening at the moment.
  145. 145. • Fill in the spaces with the correct form of the Future Continuous. • 1. I (drive) tomorrow morning. • 2. She (watch) a movie when you are studying. • 3. Lucy (eat) eating dinner at 6 pm tonight. • 4. Donald (move) from Montreal to Toronto next weekend. • 5. He (no, work) after 7 pm tonight. • 6. She (play) soccer while you are playing baseball. • 7. We (no, write) her assignment when you arrive. • 8. Kevin (do) his homework around 8 pm tonight. • 9. Ashley (make) dinner when you get home. • 10. The boys (practice) their dance routine when you finish your class.
  146. 146. • Fill in the spaces with the correct form of the Future Continuous. • 1. Will you (leave) around that time? • 2. Where will you (go) after the game? • 3. They (no, try) the new restaurant tonight. • 4. Teddy (bring) the chairs we need for the conference. • 5. While she is sleeping, I (clean) the house. • 6. Jenny and Greg (finish) their homework while I am watching television. • 7. I (ride) my bicycle when you arrive. • 8. Will Oliver (do) anything tomorrow night? • 9. Will you (work) working when I arrive? • 10. The children (no, play) games when the class is over.
  147. 147. • The doctor’s over sixty, but he doesn’t want to retire. I think he’ll still be working when he’s seventy. – The doctor will be seventy years old in future, but this future is not very near, or immediate . Doctor’s work will not be finished when he is seventy.
  148. 148. • Mr. Fulan is gong to America next month, but no-one knows how long he’ll be staying there. • “Is gong to” –next month is a near future • No one knows when he will leave America, except that it will be in future.
  149. 149. • I’m seeing Henry tomorrow, but I don’t know when I (see) his brother. • Mr. Brown is retiring soon; he(not teach) in this school much longer. • The two boys are at boarding school, but they (come)home for the summer holidays. • Ahmad is going to the cinema this evening ,but I can’t go with him. I (do) my homework. • The old man refuses to buy a new overcoat, he’s worn the same coat for ten years. I think he still (wear) it in 2017, if he is alive then.
  150. 150. • It was raining hard when we went into the cinema, and I’m afraid it still (rain)when we come out. • She ‘s going into hospital tomorrow; she doesn’t know when she (come)out. • Do you think your father still (work)when he’s seventy? • Ann is only twenty-five ,and she’s earning a good salary. He probably(earn)Rs.50,000 a month when he’s thirty. • I went to see my friend in hospital yesterday. I hope he(feel) better the next time I visit him.
  151. 151. Put the verbs between brackets into the present continuous tense • If you (go)abroad next week, I (not see) you again, so I’ll say goodbye now. • She said to her husband, "I(cook)the breakfast while you(shave)” • The teacher told the class ,”while you (answer)the questions, I(write)six more questions on the blackboard.” • She said to her married sister, "I(look after)the baby while you(dress) • I(come) with you if you (take)your car. If not, I (go)by bus.
  152. 152. • He said to his secretary “I (make) a few few phone calls while you (type) these letters.” • He said to his secretary, "I(make) a few phone calls while you (type)these letters.” • I (come) and see you at six o’clock this evening unless I still(work) • The teacher said;”This is a difficult question. I hope you (listen) very carefully while I (explain)it.” • Ahmad is living in Beirut now. If you (go) there, you(see)him. • He told his friend, "Certainly I (lend)you my car tomorrow if I (not use)it myself.” • I told him on the phone ,”I(meet) you at the station tomorrow afternoon if you (come)by train.” • I(not go) out this afternoon if it (still rain).
  153. 153. • Mrs. Brown said, "I (get) the supper ready while the children(do) their homework.” • You (need) to take warm clothes with you if you (go )to Russia in the winter. • I haven’t time to read the paper now. I (read) it while I(have) lunch.
  154. 154. List of irregular verbs Stem Past Tense Past Participle Be Was/were Been beat beat beaten become became become bite bit bitten blow blew Blown break broke broken Bring brought brought build built built burn burnt burnt buy bought bought begin began begun Catch Caught Caught
  155. 155. Stem Past Tense Past Participle choose chose chosen come came come cost cost cost creep crept crept cut cut cut dig dug dug do did Done draw drew Drawn drink drank Drunk drive drove Driven eat ate Eaten fall fell fallen feel felt felt fight fought fought find found found fly flew flown
  156. 156. Stem Past Tense Past Participle forget forgot forgotten forgive forgave forgiven freeze froze frozen get got got give gave given go went gone grow grew grown have had had hear heard heard hide hid hidden hit hit hit hold held held hurt hurt hurt
  157. 157. Stem Past Tense Past Participle hurt hurt hurt keep kept kept kneel knelt knelt know knew known lead led led learn learnt learnt leave left left lend lent lent let let let Lie(down) lay lain light Lit(lighted) Lit(lighted) lose lost lost
  158. 158. Stem Past Tense Past Participle make made made mean meant meant meet met met put put put read read read ride rode ridden ring rang rung rise rose risen run ran run say said said see saw seen sell sold sold
  159. 159. Stem Past Tense Past Participle send sent sent set set set shine shone shone shoot shot Shot show showed Shown shut shut Shut sing sang Sung sink sank Sunk sit sat Sat sleep slept Slept Smell Smelt(smelled) Smelt(smelled)
  160. 160. Stem Past Tense Past Participle speak spoke spoken spell spelt spelt spend spent Spent stand stood Stood steal stole Stolen stick stuck Stuck strike struck Struck sweep swept Swept swim swam Swum take took Taken teach taught taught tear tore torn
  161. 161. tell told told Think thought thought throw threw thrown understand understood understood wake woke woken , woke wear wore worn win won won write wrote written
  162. 162. Present Perfect Tense • Present perfect tense joins the past to the present. The tense is used to describe the present result of a past and finished action. • I + have + past participle • We +have + past participle • You + have + past participle • He/she/it + has + past participle • They + have + past participle
  163. 163. Positive Negative Questions I have written I have not written Have I written You have written You have not written Have You written He has written He has not written has He written She has written She has not written Has She written it has written it has not written Has it written We have written We have not written Have We written You have written You have not written Have you written They have written They have not written Have they written
  164. 164. Complete the following sentences. • Be ,bite ,break ,catch ,clean ,climb ,fall . • The policeman……….. the thief. • The man ……….. to the top of the hill. • The servant…….. the jug. • Two little girls ……… into the river. • Jack and Tom ………to the cinema, and now they are coming out. • The teacher …….the blackboard. • The dog ……… the boy’s leg.
  165. 165. • Draw ,finish ,go ,light ,rise ,shoot , wash • When the time between the past action and now is very short, we often put just in the sentence. • The sun has just risen. • Jack……his homework. • The farmer……a bird. • The classroom is empty and the pupils …… home. • Ahmad ……. A picture of a tree on the blackboard. • Mary …….her hands ,and she is drying them on a towel. • The two men …… a fire on the ground.
  166. 166. Buy ,eat ,lock ,open ,spell ,steal, wake • The servant …….. The window . • It is seven o’clock and To and his brother……… up. • This rich man …… very big car. • Ahmad has written two words on the blackboad,but he …..the second word wrong. • Jack’s father and mother …… their dinner, and their plates are empty. • The thief ……..the woman’s bag , and he is running away. • The woman …… the door, and she is putting the key in her bag.
  167. 167. (1)Time began in the past and continues until the present • Henry’s uncle went to Canada when he was twenty years old, and he has lived in Canada for thirty years. • The old woman has been ill for six months ,and she is still in hospital. • (Henry’s uncle began to live in Canada thirty years ago ,when he was twenty years old, and he still lives there.) • (The old woman’s illness began six months ago and continues until now)
  168. 168. Examples • We …..ten minutes (wait)for a bus ,and we are still waiting at the bus stop. • Tom’s grandfather ……….(play) chess for nearly fifty years, and he still plays once a week. • I …….wear this shirt for two days, and I am wearing it now. The children (be)asleep for eight hours, and she still has a cold. • The doctor is very busy, and he ()had a holiday for two years. • The taxi driver (driven)the same car for ten years ,but he wants to buy a new one soon. • The old man never reads a newspaper now. He (read) a newspaper for a long time
  169. 169. • I ………..(seen) my friend for a week , but I am going to see him tomorrow. • Egyptian farmers (grow) cotton for many years, and the still grow a lot of cotton every year. • Jack’s shoes are very dirty .He (not clean) them for a week. • I (eat) nothing for six hours ,but I am still not hungry. • The thief is in prison .He ……(be) in prison for five years.
  170. 170. • I …..this pen for ten years ,and I am still using it. • Mr. and Mrs. Perera ……in the same house for thirty years , and they are still living in it. • The postman……. That old bicycle for many years, and he still rides it every day. • Jack and Tom …….. in the same class for two years , and they are still in the same class. • The old doctor ……hard for nearly fifty years, and he still works hard.
  171. 171. (2)When we are speaking about a time which is not yet finished. • We can say at 11 o’clock in the morning • I haven’t read the newspaper this morning • We can say at 5 O’clock in the afternoon, six hours later • I didn’t read the newspaper this morning. haven’t read-the morning is not yet finished. didn’t read - morning is finished.
  172. 172. Examples • I have been to the cinema twice this moth . • Jack’s father (spend) a lot of money this year. • Those poor children (eat) nothing today • We (have) three English lessons this week. • I (write) three letter this afternoon. • Jack (be) absent from school only once this year. • The lazy servant (do) very little work today. • Ahmad (borrow)three books from the library this month. • Nobody (come)to see me this evening.
  173. 173. • Negative verbs and yet also express a time which is not finished. • Jack hasn’t done his homework yet. • Jack hasn’t yet done his homework.
  174. 174. Complete the following sentences with the negative present perfect tenses of the verb stems in brackets. • It is nine o’clock but the shopkeeper (open)his shop. • I bought these books a week ago, but I (pay) for them. • Mary (wear) her new dress. • Ahmad has lost his watch ,and he (find) it. • The farmers (sell) their cotton. • Ali is eighteen years old, but but he(leave) school. • Tom wants a dictionary ,but he(buy) one. • The doctor is still in the hospital. He (go)home. • I t is very early and the sun (rise). • We (finish) this lesson.
  175. 175. we use the present perfect of be when someone has gone to a place and returned: A: Where have you been? B: I’ve just been out to the supermarket. A: Have you ever been to San Francisco? B: No, but I’ve been to Los Angeles. But when someone has not returned we use have/has gone: A: Where is Maria? I haven’t seen her for weeks. B: She's gone to Paris for a week. She’ll be back tomorrow. -
  176. 176. • Have you been to America?(in your life ,which is not yet finished) or • Have you ever been to America? • No I have never been to America.(in my life ,which is not yet finished)
  177. 177. Answer these questions with complete sentences ,using present perfect tenses and never. • Have you ever ridden on an elephant ? • Have you ever climbed a mountain? • Have you ever driven a car? • Have you ever been in a plane? • Has the teacher ever beaten you? • Has the big dog ever bitten anyone? • Has that cat ever caught a bird? • Has your father ever been to France? • Has that bus driver ever had an accident?
  178. 178. For & Since • The old woman has been ill for six months. The old woman’s illness began six months ago & she is still ill now. If it is now the end of November ,her illness began in May. • We can write this sentence in another way ,using different preposition since, but without changing the meaning: • The old woman has been ill since May.
  179. 179. • For must be followed by a period of time. • Since must be followed by a point of time.
  180. 180. • It is now 3.p.m.Mr.Smith got up at 6 o’clock. He has been awake for nine hours. He had breakfast at 8 o’clock .He has been busy since then(8 o’clock).He didn’t have lunch .He hasn’t eaten anything for seven hours.
  181. 181. Periods Points An hour 5 o’clock A day Sunday,Monday,yesterday A month January, February A year 1960,last year Two weeks Last week
  182. 182. The preposition for can be used with any Tense • The baby sleeps every afternoon for three hours. • He worked in a bank for thirty years. • Mr. Brown has taught English for ten years, and he is still teaching English. • She is going to stay with her brother for a week.
  183. 183. Put for or since in the spaces • He waited outside the cinema…… an hour. • Those two old men have been friends …..2010. • The doctor hasn’t had a holiday …. July 2011. • The clerk has worked in the same bank…… thirty years. • She hasn’t bought a new dress ….. last year. • There has been a lot of rain ….. November • I ‘m going to read ….. Half an hour. • She hasn’t seen her eldest son ….many years. • The baby has been asleep……. 6 o’ clock
  184. 184. • I lent you my dictionary ….an hour or two ,but you kept it ….. Week. • The shopkeeper has sold nothing …. 3 o’clock this afternoon. • The pupils were quiet …. Ten minutes ,but then they began to make a noise.
  185. 185. Since is a joining word but it has the same meaning as the preposition. • Ahmad hasn’t seen his English teacher since he left school. – Since he left school means from the time he left school until now. • That woman has been very unhappy since her husband died. – Since her husband died means from the time he died until now.
  186. 186.  A  We have learnt a lot of English .  That lazy man has done no work.  Mary has felt better.  The busy farmers have been in their fields.  Tom has never walked to school.  The thief has led an honest life.  B The sun rose this morning. He won $200 in a lottery. His father bought him a bicycle. We began to learn English. The doctor gave her medicine. He came out of prison.
  187. 187. • A  Mr. Grey has never driven a car.  I have had a bad toothache.  The queen hasn’t left the palace.  The little girl has been afraid of dogs.  Those pupils have worked harder.  The old woman has lived in the same cottage. • B  I woke up this morning.  She was bitten by a mad dog.  He knocked down a child in the street.  The teacher punished them.  She was born eighty years ago.  The king became ill.
  188. 188. The Past & the Present Perfect Tenses. • It is now 2015,and Jack is fifteen years old. • Jack was born in 2000.He first went to school in 2006 when he was six years old. He has been at school for ten years, and he has made many friends. His father bought him a bicycle in 2010.He has had this bicycle for five years, but he had an accident a month ago, and he hasn’t ridden it since then.
  189. 189. • Jack was (past) at school in 2007,2008 etc.., and he is (present) at school now (in 2015),so he has been at school for eight years. • Jack made (past) friends in 2007,2008 etc.., and he has (present)these friend now(in 2015),so he has made many friends.
  190. 190. Use the past tense or present perfect tense of the verb stems in brackets: • We(begin) to learn English three years ago. • I (see) Tom in the street yesterday, but I (not speak) to him. • Today is Thursday, and Jack has only got five pence. He (spend) twenty five pence. • I (wear)this shirt for two days, but it isn’t dirty yet, so I’m still wearing it today. • Ann was not at home when her friend (visit) her yesterday evening. • We (not finish) this book yet, but we hope to finish it this year. • The servant(sweep) this room ten minutes ago. • Ann (be) absent from school for two weeks ,and he is still absent. • He threw the sack into the river ,and it (sink) at once. • Jack’s father (go) to America in 1995.
  191. 191. • James (leave) England in 1998.and(go) to America. He (be) in America for nearly twenty years ,and he is very happy there. But his old mother in England is not happy. Her husband (die) two years ago , and she (be) lonely since then. She (not see) her son James since 1998,and he(not write) to her for six months. She (make) up her mind last year to go to America, but she (not get) enough money yet for the fare. She (save) only £ 100,and the journey will cost much more than this.
  192. 192. The present participle • Can be the subject ,or part of the subject ,of a sentence, for example: • Teaching is hard work. • Smoking is not allowed in this cinema. • The beginning of the lesson was not difficult. • The judge told the thief, "Telling lies will not help you”
  193. 193. The present participle is used after prepositions, for example: • I was tired of listening to the wireless, so I turned it off. • Tom got up early in the morning and finished his homework before going to school. • He threw the letter after reading it. • Bob’s father punished him for telling a lie.
  194. 194. • Object ,of some transitive verbs .The most common of these transitive verbs are :begin,finish,learn,teach,like,dislike,hate,love,forget,remember,stop . • When did you begin learning English? • The teacher said, 'Don't ask questions yet. I haven’t finished speaking.” • Children learn reading and writing at school. • It has stopped raining and sun is shining. • Jack likes swimming in the summer, but he hates swimming when the weather is cold. • I shall never forget going to the palace . • I cannot remember locking the door.
  195. 195. The present participle is used after prepositions • I was tired of listening to the wireless, so I turned it off. • Tom got up early and finished his homework before going to school. • He tore up the letter after reading it. • Bob’s father punished him for telling a lie. • Jack is reading a book about hunting lions in Africa. • He learnt to speak English well by living with an English family. • She went out of the shop without buying anything.
  196. 196. • The present participle can be used as an Adjective, for example; • A crying baby-A baby who is crying. • A growing boy-A baby who is growing, who has not finished growing. • A burning house-A house which is burning. • A sinking ship-A ship which is sinking. • Boiling water –water which is boiling.
  197. 197. Fill in the spaces with present participles made from the lists of verb stems • Beat,cry,drown,eat,fly,grow,say,sweep • The fat man fell asleep after …… a large meal. • When the servant finished …. The rooms, she went to the market. • ….. is the quickest way of travelling. • Did you hear the baby……? • He jumped into the river and saved the ….. boy. • There are some beautiful flowers …. in the garden. • I saw the farmer ….. his donkey with a big stick. • He left home without ….. Goodbye to his wife and children.
  198. 198. Buy,climb,die,drive,help,play,set • Mary loves …. Her mother in the kitchen. • The prisoner escaped by …… over the wall. • The travelers turned to the west and walked towards the …… sun . • ……. a car without good brakes is very dangerous. • There were two men in the shop …… cigarettes. • The …. man was taken to the hospital. • The woman went out and left her children……with their toys.
  199. 199.  Make, cook. • Ann speaks Engish slowly,because she is afraid of ………… mistakes. • I’m fond of …….,and I often cook really delicious meals.
  200. 200. The past Perfect Tense • Sentence Structure.  Subject + had +Past participle of the verb o It is important to understand that a sentence which contains only a past perfect tense ,and which stands alone ,by itself has NO meaning.
  201. 201. • It was midnight .The young man stood at the street corner. He didn’t know what to do, or where to go. He had spent all his money, and his pockets were empty. – The past time was midnight. – At midnight ,the young man stood at the street corner. – At midnight ,he didn’t know what to do,or where to go. – At midnight ,his pockets were empty. – BUT, he had spent all his money BEFORE midnight. – Past perfect tense tense had spent is used for the before past –past time.(before midnight)
  202. 202. • It was…… ten p.m(past time) and the doctor …felt…(feel) very tired.(at ten p.m).He had got up early that morning,(a before past time)and had worked hard all day(before ten p.m.., in the before past).He sat down (at ten p.m)and lit…..(light) a cigarette(at ten p.m.., a past time).He had eaten nothing since breakfast(in the before –past time between breakfast and ten p.m),but he …didn’t feel….(not feel) hungry.(ten p.m..,a past time).
  203. 203. • The past perfect tense is used to join grammatically two past actions or happenings, one of which took place in the before past ,that is ,in an earlier past than the other. • The sick man felt better (in the evening). • He took his medicine(in the afternoon). – First the sick man took his medicine. He felt better later. o The evening was in the past; the afternoon was in the before –past.
  204. 204. • The sentences can be joined ; – The sick man felt better after he had taken his medicine. • The joining word is after ,followed by a Past Perfect tense.
  205. 205. • We reached the station (at five past nine). • The train left(at nine). The train left(at nine-nine was before past) Five minutes later ,we reached the station.(at five past night-was a past time) The sentences can be joined; When we reached the station ,the train had left. or The train had left when we reached the station. • Joining word When –followed by a past tense reached • The past perfect tense had left is used in the principal part of the sentence.
  206. 206. • The postman came(at 8 o’clock). • I finished breakfast(at ten past eight) – The perfect tense can be used to join them grammatically; • When the postman came, I had not finished breakfast. or • The postman came (ten minutes) before I had finished breakfast. Before is followed by the past perfect tense.
  207. 207. Put the verbs in brackets into the past OR Past Perfect tense • The new bus-driver (have)an accident after he…..(drive) a few yards. • He foolishly (buy) a new car before he (sell)his old one. • When I (get) to the cinema ,the film (start). • Yusuf(leave) school when his father (died). • The pupils(enter) the classroom five minutes before the bell (ring).
  208. 208. • Mary (go) home when her mother (get) to the school. • He (begin) to answer my question before I (finish) asking it. • The thief (hide) the money when the police (come) to search his room. • The little boy (tell) a lie five minutes after he(promise) to tell the truth. • I (wake) up this morning half an hour before the sun(rise). • When the plane (land),the sun(set). • She (feel) sick after she (eat) a whole box of chocolates. • After the doctor (examine) the child he(have) a talk with the mother. • He (buy) a typewriter long before he (learn) how to type.
  209. 209. • When I (call) on my friend, he (go) out. • The miser(feel) happier after he (hide) his money under the floor. • The teacher (start) giving a dictation before the pupils(write) the date in their exercise –books. • Mary (finish) her homework when her father (come) home from his office. • He (jump) off the bus before it (stop). • I (throw) away the newspaper after I (read) it. • The foolish young man (get) married six months before he (find) a job. • After she (spend) all her money she (ask) her father to help her. • The thief (break) the shop window when the policeman (see) him.
  210. 210. • Both her parents (die) before she (finish)her education. • The teacher (give) back the exercise –books after he (correct) them. • The sun (rise) when the farmer (start) work. • One or two pupils (begin) to play and make a noise before the teacher (go) out of the classroom.
  211. 211. • He walked ten miles. Then he felt tired. After walking ten miles, he felt tired. If we wish to emphasize that he did not feel tired during the long walk, we can join the sentences. He didn’t feel tired until he had walked ten miles. • The second happening is put at the beginning of the sentence, the verb is made negative. • Then is left out. • The joining word is until, followed by the past perfect tense had walked.
  212. 212. • The postman came(at 8 o’clock) • I finished breakfast (at ten past eight) – When the postman came, I had finished breakfast. – The postman came before I had finished breakfast.
  213. 213. The future Perfect Tense • Sentence Structure • Subject +Shall/will+have + Past participle • Subject+shall/will+not+ have past participle • Shall/will+Subject+have+past participle – William Green finished his education last year, and started work on January 1st of this year. His salary is $50 a month. He is a sensible young man ,and he saves & 10 month. It is now the end of July. – How much has he saved? • He has saved $70 • The question and answer are in the perfect tense ,because we are speaking about NOW ,the end of July
  214. 214. – How much had he saved at the end of April? – He had saved $ 40. • The question and answer are in the past perfect tense ,because we have gone back to the PAST, to the end of April. – How much will he have saved by the end of this year? – He will have saved $120. • The question and answer are in the future perfect tense ,because we are looking forward to the FUTURE, to the end of the year ,and speaking of the future result of saving $10 a month. • Notice the preposition by – By the year 2017. – By the end of next week. – By tomorrow.
  215. 215. • Charles is a criminal. He robbed a bank and shot a clerk who tried to catch him, but fortunately only wounded him slightly. The judge who tried Charles in 2000 sent him to prison for 25 years. 1. How long has charles been in prison? He has been in prison for 15 years. 2. By 2020,how long will charles have been in prison? – He will have been in prison for 20 years.
  216. 216. I will not have finished this book You will not have studied the English tenses She will not have cooked dinner He will not have arrived We will not have met Julie It will not have stopped raining They will not have left Japan
  217. 217. Do you think you will have finished it by next Thursday? In 5 years time I’ll have finished university and I’ll be able to earn some money at last. We use the future perfect to say that something will be finished by a particular time in the future. We often use the future perfect with ‘by’ or ‘in’ I think astronauts will have landed on Mars by the year 2020. I’ll have finished in an hour and then you can use the computer. ‘By’ means ‘not later than a particular time’ and ‘in’ means 'within a period of time’.
  218. 218. will have changed, will be listening, will you be doing, will have paid , will you be wearing • What do you think ……………………by the year 2050? • It's 3:30. Chris ………………….to the football so we'd better not ring. • What ………………at 11 o'clock tonight? • In 10 year's time we ……..for the house and it will finally be ours! How will I recognize you? What…………………..?
  219. 219. • We don’t know exactly when something will finish. • I promise I’ll have done all the work by next Saturday. – We don’t know exactly when he will finish the work – maybe Thursday, maybe Friday – but definitely before Saturday.
  220. 220. • John is an author. He writes detective novels. He writes one novel a year. He wrote his first novel in 2005. • How many novels has he written? • In 2007,how many novels had he written? • By 2017,how many novels will he have written?
  221. 221. • Ahmad is a bank clerk. He works in the National bank.He started work in the National Bank in 2000. – How long …….. in the National Bank? – In 2006,howlong ………..? – By 2017,how long ……….? • It is now 9p.m.and the baby is fast asleep. He went to sleep at 6 p.m.and hasn’t moved since then. – How long ……… asleep? – At 8 p.m. how long ……….? – By 10 p.m.how long…….?
  222. 222. • Mrs. Jones spends $1 a day on food. Today is April 20th . • How much ………. This month? • On April 15th,how much ……..? • By the end of April, how much ……..?
  223. 223. The Present Perfect Continuous Tenses • Subject+has/have been + ing • Subject+has/have + not + been+ ing • Has/have+Subject+been+ ing
  224. 224. • The prime minister began his speech at 7.00 p.m. it is now 8.30p.m and he ‘s still speaking. • The Prime Minister has been speaking since 7.00 p.m.or for an hour & a half.
  225. 225. Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous We use the present perfect tense to talk about things where there is a connection between the past and the present. He’s written 16 books. He started writing books at some time in the past. So far, he has written 16 books. He may write more books. As well as the present perfect tense, we can use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about events with a connection to the present. I’ve been decorating the house this summer. The focus is on the action – decorating – and the action is unfinished. I’ve painted the living room . The focus is on the finished result. The activity is finished so we can see the result now. We use the present perfect continuous when the focus is on an activity that is unfinished.
  226. 226. I’ve read that book you lent me. I finished it yesterday. I’ve been reading that book you lent me. I’ve got another 50 pages to read. The present perfect (’v e read) gives the idea of completion while the present perfect continuous (I’ve been reading) suggests that something is unfinished. She’s been writing emails for 3 hours. She’s written 10 messages. The present perfect continuous (has been writing) talks about how long something has been happening. The present perfect (has written) talks about how much/how many have been completed. I’ve worked here for thirty years. I usually work in London but I’ve been working in Birmingham for the last 3 weeks. We can use the present perfect to talk about how long when we view something as permanent. But the present perfect continuous is often used to show that something is temporary.
  227. 227. Complete the sentences with a suitable verb form - present perfect simple or continuous • I (wash) ……………….the windows, I (sweep) ………… up the leaves, but I (not wash) ……………….the floor. • Debbie (look) …………….very tired recently. (She work) …………too hard? • He (not finished) …………….. his homework because he (watch) ………….. television for the last two hours. • Have we got any plasters? I (chop) ……………..vegetables for dinner and I (cut) …………….my finger.
  228. 228. The perfect continuous Tenses • The prime minister began his speech at 7 p.m.It is now 8.30 p.m and he’s still speaking. He’ll probably continue speaking. – The Prime Minister has been speaking since 7 p.m. or for an hour and hour and a half(7-8.30p.m) – At 8 p.m. he had been speaking for an hour. – By 9 p.m. He’ll have been speaking for two hours.
  229. 229. • In sentence (a),we are speaking about the present time(8.30 p.m.). • In sentence (b),we have gone back to a past time (8p.m.). • In sentence (c),we have forward to a future time(9.p.m.) • About the prime minister’s speech ,we used continuous and not simple tenses because we were describing activities which were continuing, and would probably continue in the future.
  230. 230. • Ahmad began learning English in 2000.It is now 2015,and he is still learning English. He has not finished learning English yet. He’ll probably continue learning for two or three more years. • We can now make 3 sentences ,using Perfect Continuous tenses:  Ahmad has been learning English since 2000 or for fifteen years.(2000-2015)  We use the continuous tense has been learning because Ahmad has NOT finished and will probably continue learning.  In 2010,Ahmad had been learning English for ten years.  The past perfect continuous had been learning is used because we have gone back to a past year,2010.  By 2017,Ahmad will have been learning English for seventeen years.  The future perfect continuous will have been learning is used because we have gone forward to a future year,2017.
  231. 231. • Answer the following questions in complete sentences: o How long have you been learning English? o How long have I been teaching you English? o How long have you been living in this city? o How long has your brother been going to school?
  232. 232. Read the following carefully ,and then write sentences using the Present Perfect Continuous tense. In each sentence use since AND for, as example: • He began reading the newspaper at three o’clock. It is now five o’clock ,and he’s still reading the newspaper. – He has been reading the newspaper since three o’clock, or for two hours. • I began listening to the wireless at six o’clock .It’s now seven o’clock, and I’m still listening to the wireless. • It began raining on Monday. It’s now Wednesday ,and it’s still raining. • She began washing clothes at nine o’clock. It’s now twelve o’clock, and she’s still washing clothes. • We began watching television at seven o’clock. It’s now eight o’clock, and we are still watching television. • I began waiting for a bus at eight o’clock. It is now twenty past eight, and I’m still waiting for a bus.
  233. 233. • Ahmad began working in a bank in 2000.It’s now 2015,and he ‘s still working in a bank. • The sun began shining at six o’clock. It’s now eleven o’clock ,and the sun is still shining. • She went to the garden and sat down at four o’clock, It ‘s now six o’clock and the she is still sitting in the garden. • The bell began ringing at eight o’clock. It’s now five past eight, and the bell is still ringing. • I began writing letters at seven o’clock. It’s now ten o’clock ,and I’m still writing letters. • The water began to boil at five o’clock .It’s now five past five and the water is still boiling.
  234. 234. • The dog began barking at nine o’clock. It’s now half past nine, and the dog is still barking. • Ahmad went to live in Cairo in 2000,It’s now 2015,and he’s still living in Cairo. • The lorry driver began driving at six o’clock this morning. It's now two o’clock in the afternoon, and he’s still driving. • The four men began playing cards at eight o’clock this evening. It's now midnight ,and they’re still playing. • He put on a clean shirt on Monday morning. It's now Thursday morning, and he ‘s still wearing this shirt.
  235. 235. • Jack’s grandfather began smoking in 1960,when he was twenty years old. He's now seventy five, and he’s still smoking.
  236. 236. Past Perfect Tense • Sentence Structure – Subject+had been+ing – Subject+had+not+been+ing – Had +Subject+been+ing
  237. 237. • The past perfect is used in the same way as the present perfect, but it refers to a time in the past, not the present. • We use the past perfect tense: • for something that started in the past and continued up to a given time in the past: – When George died he and Anne had been married for nearly fifty years. She didn’t want to move. She had lived in Liverpool all her life. • We normally use the past perfect continuous for this: – She didn’t want to move. She had been living in Liverpool all her life. Everything was wet. It had been raining for hours.
  238. 238. for something we had done several times up to a point in the past and continued to do after that point: • He was a wonderful guitarist. He had been playing ever since he was a teenager. He had written three books and he was working on another one. I had been watching the programme every week, but I missed the last episode.

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