American Urbanization and New York City


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American Urbanization and New York City

  1. 1. American Urbanization and New York City By: Jimmy Wolpert
  2. 2. The Country and The City (1609-1825) <ul><li>In 1609 New York Harbor was discovered by an English explorer working for the Dutch named Henry Hudson </li></ul><ul><li>New Amsterdam was founded by the Dutch in 1624 as a Trading Post </li></ul><ul><li>The Dutch people did not want to move to New Amsterdam so it was populated by people from other countries </li></ul><ul><li>New Amsterdam was around for 17 years before the first church was built there </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio of 1 bar for every 20 men </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Country and The City (1609-1825) <ul><li>In 1647 Peter Stuyvesant took command of New Amsterdam to make the trading post more productive </li></ul><ul><li>He made attending church mandatory </li></ul><ul><li>He established an economic base as a slave operation </li></ul><ul><li>In 1664 four English War Ships invaded the Harbor, the citizens of New Amsterdam signed a petition giving the English control </li></ul><ul><li>Two days later the city was renamed New York </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Country and The City (1609-1825) <ul><li>In the 1740’s 1/6 of New Yorkers were slaves </li></ul><ul><li>In 1971 a group of slaves suspected of arson were rounded up and tortured/executed </li></ul><ul><li>In 1758 the economy was booming thanks to British Troops in the city </li></ul><ul><li>When the troops leave the economy collapses </li></ul><ul><li>After The Stamp Act the American Revolution gains traction </li></ul><ul><li>In 1803 Dewitt Clinton in elected Mayor of New York City </li></ul><ul><li>He oversees the creation of the Eerie Canal which connects the interior of America with Europe economically </li></ul>
  5. 5. City of Tomorrow (1931-1940) <ul><li>By 1941 The Great Depression is causing industries to collapse </li></ul><ul><li>1,600,000 people in New York were on relief rolls </li></ul><ul><li>Mothers and children had to search the dumps for food </li></ul><ul><li>Many people were forced to live in Hoovervilles </li></ul><ul><li>President Hoover stopped most relief funding </li></ul><ul><li>Governor Franklin Delano Roosevelt tried to get money to the people but it was siphoned off by corrupt city officials including Mayor Jimmy Walker </li></ul><ul><li>When FDR became President he instituted The New Deal, an idea informed by his time in New York </li></ul>
  6. 6. City of Tomorrow (1931-1940) <ul><li>Fiorello La Guardia was elected Mayor of New York city in 1933 </li></ul><ul><li>He was short-tempered, theatrical and media conscious </li></ul><ul><li>After election he began cutting corruption out of city hall </li></ul><ul><li>He hired Robert Moses as the Parks Director of NYC </li></ul><ul><li>La Guardia oversaw construction of the airport named after him </li></ul><ul><li>La Guardia was known to help black politicians but was unwilling to put racial equality at the forefront of his campaign </li></ul>
  7. 7. City of Tomorrow (1931-1940) <ul><li>Robert Moses is known as the most important man in the history of New York City </li></ul><ul><li>Moses was passionate about the automobile </li></ul><ul><li>He was one of the first people to realize what an important part of our lives the car would one day be </li></ul><ul><li>He oversaw the finishing of the Triborough Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>He created a network of roads connecting New York to the surrounding region </li></ul><ul><li>He instituted tolls on all of the bridges he built and used the money to fund future projects </li></ul><ul><li>Moses was said to love the public but hate people </li></ul>
  8. 8. A Merger That Puts New York On Top <ul><li>The merging of AOL to buy Time Warner would cement New York as the “capital of the next American century” </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout the history of this country other cities have tried and failed to overshadow New York </li></ul><ul><li>In the past theses cities included Baltimore, Philadelphia and New Orleans </li></ul><ul><li>In recent years New York has been challenged by cities on the west coast like Los Angeles, Redmond and Silicon Valley </li></ul><ul><li>What makes this time different is that they will now be competing for online space and through technological innovation </li></ul>
  9. 9. The City in the Land of the Dollar <ul><li>Chicago was quick to adapt new inventions which allowed for a unique rate of growth </li></ul><ul><li>These new technologies included electric street cars, electric street lights and most importantly the elevator </li></ul><ul><li>Light weight steel also allowed for buildings to be built much taller than they were in older European cites </li></ul><ul><li>This led to the development of skyscrapers which raised the price of land forcing people to move from the city into the “suburbs” </li></ul>
  10. 10. The City in the Land of the Dollar <ul><li>Many urban planners believed that cities should be built in the same manner as European cities were part of the City Beautiful Movement and were know as being part of an “architectural design cult” </li></ul><ul><li>These men wanted smaller buildings and cities centered around culture instead of commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>They thought most American cities were chaotic and needed to be controlled </li></ul><ul><li>The only real current example of this type of design in America is Washington DC </li></ul>
  11. 11. The City in the Land of the Dollar <ul><li>The City Beautiful Movement failed </li></ul><ul><li>This failure is best seen through Burnham and Bennett’s failure to execute their master plan for the city of Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>The did not put in any real specifications about building heights in their proposal which allowed private companies to build tall buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Over time height regulation became even less strict allowing skyscrapers to get taller and taller </li></ul><ul><li>The American desire for money caused buildings to get taller so we could squeeze as much profit out of them as possible </li></ul><ul><li>This is why today our major cities have buildings of trade that brush against the sky instead of the beautiful cities of antiquity </li></ul>