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Evaluation of 2-Motor                            Hybrid ArchitecturesJames PotterZF Special Driveline Technology
Hybrid Systems Contents Single Planetary Gear Set Systems      Input Summing Hybrid      Output Split Hybrid Dual Planetar...
Input Summing Hybrid System                                                                   MG2              MG1   Hybri...
Input Summing Hybrid System                                                                                               ...
Input Summing Hybrid SystemMotor Speed GainsPrius & Escape                                                                ...
Output Split Hybrid System                                                          MG1                         MG2   Hybr...
Output Split Hybrid System                                                                                                ...
Output Split Hybrid SystemMotor Speed Gains                                                                           35  ...
Compound Split Hybrid System                                                              MG2   MG1   Hybrid Vehicle Appli...
Compound Split Hybrid SystemMotor Power Ratio                                              Compound Split Hybrid Systems  ...
Compound Split Hybrid SystemMotor Speed Gains                     5                     0                     -5 Motor Spe...
Compound Split Hybrid SystemMotor Speed Gains                     40                     30                     20   otor ...
Compound Split Hybrid System   Hybrid Vehicle Applications                    MG1             MG2      Lexus GS450h, LS600...
Compound Split Hybrid SystemMotor Power Ratio – Low Range                                  Coupling Point                 ...
Compound Split Hybrid SystemMotor Power Ratio – High Range                                                                ...
Compound Split Hybrid SystemClutch Slip Speed Gain                                                                   100  ...
Compound Split Hybrid SystemMotor Speed Gains                    30                    25                    20           ...
Two-Mode Hybrid System                                                             MG1                           MG2 Hybri...
Two-Mode Hybrid SystemE-CVT Low Range Motor Power Ratio                                           E-CVT Low Range (Mode 1)...
Two-Mode Hybrid SystemE-CVT High Range Motor Power Ratio                                             E-CVT High Range (Mod...
Two-Mode Hybrid SystemClutch Slip Speed Gains                                                                      Release...
Two-Mode Hybrid SystemMotor Speed Gains                                                                Motor Speeds Across...
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Evaluation Of 2 Motor Hybrid Architectures

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Evaluation Of 2 Motor Hybrid Architectures

  1. 1. Evaluation of 2-Motor Hybrid ArchitecturesJames PotterZF Special Driveline Technology
  2. 2. Hybrid Systems Contents Single Planetary Gear Set Systems Input Summing Hybrid Output Split Hybrid Dual Planetary Gear Set Systems Compound Split Hybrid Triple Planetary Gear Set Systems Compound Split Hybrid Two-Mode Hybrid
  3. 3. Input Summing Hybrid System MG2 MG1 Hybrid Vehicle Applications Ford Escape Toyota Prius Synergy Drive Features Electric CVT – Single planetary transmission Generator can directly power the traction motor No torque converter → E-CVT launch PowerSplit Myth The PowerSplit system is advertized by both Toyota and Ford as a combination of both the parallel and series hybrid. However, even though there are operational points where the generator can absorb 100% of the engine power transferred into the system, the engine remains mechanically coupled to the drive axle. This pseudo-series hybrid operational point is unsustainable due to the variance in efficiency between the mechanical and electrical paths, therefore, the system would vary between charge depleting, charge neutral and charge increasing states. The PowerSplit argument can be applied to any two or more motor system, as long as one of the motors (generators) is attached to a different system node, relative to the traction motor, allowing one motor to act as a generator while the other motor provides motoring/tractive torque.
  4. 4. Input Summing Hybrid System Cross-Over PointMotor Power Ratio 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 Coupling Point 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 Prius & Escape PowerSplit Hybrid System 0.20 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 Coupling Point Ratio: Sun/Ring Gear Teeth 3.0 Motor/PEngine 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 PM1/Peng Power Ratio, P 0.0 -0.5 PM2/Peng -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 -2.5 -3.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 P 4.0MG 1 = 1 − 4.5 5.0 N Ring 1 P Engine Ratio (N Sun + N Ring ) 1 Transmission Torque Ratio Expected overall ratio spread ≈ 0.7:1 15:1
  5. 5. Input Summing Hybrid SystemMotor Speed GainsPrius & Escape 15 10 5 Motor Speed Gain 0 MG1 -5 MG2 -10 -15 -20 -2516 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Transmission Torque Ratio MG1 limits speed when; Note: Assumes a maximum motor speed of 15,000 rpm Ratio < 0.4 and Ratio > 4.0
  6. 6. Output Split Hybrid System MG1 MG2 Hybrid Vehicle Applications Chevrolet Volt Features Motor integration ease Poor launch drivability Not practical at high torque ratios The Volt avoids the launch issues by using a brake to lock the ring gear during low speed operation.
  7. 7. Output Split Hybrid System 2.0 1.8Motor Power Ratio 1.6 1.4 Coupling Point 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 Output Split Hybrid System 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Planetary Ratio, N Sun/N Ring Coupling Point 5 Motor/PEngine 3 1 PM1/Peng Power Ratio, P PM2/Peng -1 -3 -5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Power M 2 = 5.0− N Ring ⋅ Ratio  4.5  1  Power Engine   ( N Sun + N Ring )   Ratio Expected overall ratio spread 0.7:1 ≈ 15:1
  8. 8. Output Split Hybrid SystemMotor Speed Gains 35 30 25 Motor Speed Gain 20 MG1 15 MG2 10 5 0 -516 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Transmission Torque Ratio MG2 limits speed when the torque ratio is less than 0.6
  9. 9. Compound Split Hybrid System MG2 MG1 Hybrid Vehicle Applications Lexus HS250h & RX400h Toyota Camry & Highlander Features Similar to the Prius Input HS250h & Camry Summing system. The traction motor operates through a planetary rather than a fixed gear set. MG2 MG1 Increased torque range of low motor power requirements No Torque Converter → E- CVT launch Efficient power ratios RX400h & Highlander Minimal speed limitations
  10. 10. Compound Split Hybrid SystemMotor Power Ratio Compound Split Hybrid Systems Coupling Point 1.0 8 0.9 0.8 0.7 Coupling Point 6 0.6 0.5 0.4 Power Ratio, P Motor/P Engine 0.3 4 0.2 0.1 0.0 2 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Plane tary Ratio, NSun/NRing 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 PM1/Peng 0 PM2/Peng -2 -4 -6 -8   PMG 1 N Ring 1 = 1 − 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 PEngine 14   16N + N Ratio ⋅ ( Sun Ring )1    Transmission Torque Ratio Expected overall ratio spread ≈ 0.7:1 15:1
  11. 11. Compound Split Hybrid SystemMotor Speed Gains 5 0 -5 Motor Speed Gain MG1 -10 MG2 -15 -20 -25 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Transmission Torque Ratio HS250h & Camry MG2 limits speed when the torque ratio is less than 0.6:1
  12. 12. Compound Split Hybrid SystemMotor Speed Gains 40 30 20 otor Speed Gain 10 MG1 MG2 0 M 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 -10 -20 -30 Transmission Torque Ratio MG2 limits speed when the torque ratio is less than 1:1 RX400h & Highlander
  13. 13. Compound Split Hybrid System Hybrid Vehicle Applications MG1 MG2 Lexus GS450h, LS600h Features Low range is similar to the CBLow RX400h system CBHigh No Torque Converter → E- CVT launch Increased complexity, with added efficiency over Input To engage the low gear range, Toyota opens the conventional and other compound split planetary gearset’s brake 1 and locks brake 2, resulting in a systems reduction gear ratio of 3.900. For high gear, brake 1 is locked Efficient power ratios and brake two is open, with a reduction gear ratio of 1.900. (The Rx 400h uses a fixed reduction ratio of 2.478.) The Reduction Ratios result is that the motor in the 450h acts as a single high- • Low Gear 3.9:1 torque and high-speed motor. Motor size can then be reduced • High Gear 1.9:1 enough to fit the transmission in the GS450h floor pan tunnel
  14. 14. Compound Split Hybrid SystemMotor Power Ratio – Low Range Coupling Point 1.0 GS450h & LS600h in Low Range 0.9 0.8 0.7 Coupling Point 8 0.6 0.5 0.4 6 0.3 0.2 Power Ratio, PMotor/P Engine 0.1 4 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Plane tary Ratio: NSun /NRing 2 PM1/Peng 0 PM2/Peng 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 -2 -4 -6 -8 P MG 1 N Ring 1 Transmission Torque Ratio = 1− P Engine Ratio (N Sun + N Ring )1 Low Range 1.9:1 3.9:1 Expected overall ratio spread ≈ 15:1 0.7:1
  15. 15. Compound Split Hybrid SystemMotor Power Ratio – High Range GS450h & LS600h in High Range 6 4 Power Ratio, PMotor/P Engine 2 PM1/Peng 0 PM2/Peng 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 -2 -4 -6 PMG 2 1  N Ring 3  Transmission Torque Ratio = 1 −  PEngine Ratio   N Ring 2   High Range 0.7:1 1.9:1
  16. 16. Compound Split Hybrid SystemClutch Slip Speed Gain 100 Clutch Slip Speed Gain 10 CBLow CBHigh 2 . 142 ⋅ ω Engine 1 0 15 12 9 6 3 0.7 0 Transmission Torque RatioGS450h & LS600h
  17. 17. Compound Split Hybrid SystemMotor Speed Gains 30 25 20 15 Motor Speed Gain 10 MG1 5 MG2-Low MG2-High 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 -5 -10 MG2 limits speed in; -15 - low range when the torque ratio is less than 1.0 - high range when the torque ratio is less than 0.5 -20 Transmission Torque RatioGS450h & LS600h
  18. 18. Two-Mode Hybrid System MG1 MG2 Hybrid Vehicle Applications CB12R, EVT1 Allison EV Drive CB4 C13 BMW X6 Chrysler Aspen, Durango C234, EVT2 GM Tahoe, Yukon Mercedes ML450 Features Electric & Mechanical Oil Pump CB12R, C13 C234, EVT2 CB4 Damper (GM only) EVT1 No Torque Converter → E-CVT1 EVT1 x launch 1st Gear x x Synchronized Shifting 2nd Gear x x Clutch-to-Clutch Powershift (BMW only) EVT2 x Race Start (BMW & Mercedes) 3rd Gear x x Significant motor power requirements 4th Gear x x at high torque ratios Note: Gear-to-gear shifts are possible, however, the typical High parasitic losses in all ratios, shift sequence is to go from gear-to-EVT, then to the next gear. except at or near 3rd gear (Direct ratio) Second gear is the hand-off from EVT1 to EVT2.
  19. 19. Two-Mode Hybrid SystemE-CVT Low Range Motor Power Ratio E-CVT Low Range (Mode 1) Coupling Point 150 Mode 1 Coupling Point Sensitivity 4.00 3.50 3.00 100 Coupling Point 2.50 NSun1/NRing1 Power Ratio, PMotor/P Engine 2.00 NSun2/NRing2 NSun3/NRing3 1.50 50 1.00 0.50 0.00 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Plane tary Sun-to-Ring Ge ar Ratio 0 -50 MG1   N S1 N R2 N S3   MG2  +  PowerMG1 = (Ratio ⋅ C1 − C 2 )   Ratio (N S 3 + N R 3 )  -100 PowerOut N S1 (N R 2 − N S1 )  K        -150 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Transmission Torque Ratio EVT1 Expected overall ratio spread ≈ 15:1 1.8:1
  20. 20. Two-Mode Hybrid SystemE-CVT High Range Motor Power Ratio E-CVT High Range (Mode 2) Mode 2 Coupling Sensitivity Coupling Points 4.50 6 4.00 Node 2 3.50 3.00 NSun1/NRing1 Coupling Point NSun2/NRing2 2.50 NSun3/NRing3 4 2.00 NSun1/NRing1 NSun2/NRing2Power Ratio, P Motor /P Engine 1.50 NSun3/NRing3 1.00 0.50 Node 1 2 0.00 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Planetary Ratio, Sun-to-Ring Gear 0 MG1 -2 MG2 -4 PMG 2  N Ring 2 (N Ring 2 − N Sun1 )  K ⋅ Ratio − ( N Sun1 + K )  ⋅ PIn =  N Sun1 − Ratio    (N Ring 2 + K )    -6 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Transmission Torque Ratio 0.7:1 1.8:1
  21. 21. Two-Mode Hybrid SystemClutch Slip Speed Gains Released Clutch Slip Speeds Torque Ratio 8 16 7 14 Transmission Torque Ratio 6 12Clutch Slip Speed Gain 5 10 CB12R C13 4 8 CB234 CB4 3 6 Ratio 2 4 1 Engine Speed 2 0 0 EVT-1 EVT-1 1st Gear EVT-1 2nd Gear EVT-1 3rd Gear EVT-2 EVT-2 EVT-2 4th Gear EVT-2 Transmission Mode & Gear
  22. 22. Two-Mode Hybrid SystemMotor Speed Gains Motor Speeds Across Torque Range 20 4.5 4.0 15Transmission Torque Ratio ~ Motor Speed Limit 3.5 Motor Speed Gain 10 3.0 Ratio 2.5 MG1 5 2.0 MG2 0 1.5 Engine Speed 1.0 -5 0.5 -10 0.0 EVT-1 1st Gear 2nd Gear EVT-2 EVT-1 3rd Gear EVT-2 4th Gear EVT-2 E-CVT Mode & Gear Ratio The EVT1 to EVT2 hand-off occurs at 2nd gear, therefore, this EVT1 ratio will not occur.

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