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Water Heating Options and Solar Water


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Learn about different types of solar hot water heaters including conventional electric and gas/propane, tankless or on-demand, and solar water heaters.

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Water Heating Options and Solar Water

  1. 1. Water Heating<br />Water Heating<br />Exploring Energy Efficiency Options<br />James Pader<br />Winter Sun Construction<br /><br />
  2. 2. Hot Water Usage:<br />National Averages<br />Source: ACEEE<br />
  3. 3. 14% of $2200 is $308<br />Energy Prices Will Increase<br />Source:<br />
  4. 4. Water Heating<br />Water Heating<br />Types of Water Heaters<br />On-demand systems heat water for use when needed. <br />Storage systems store heated water in a pressurized tank. <br />
  5. 5. On-demand Systems <br /><ul><li>Also called “instant” or “tankless”
  6. 6. Water is heated when needed
  7. 7. Electricity, natural gas, propane
  8. 8. No standby loss from tank
  9. 9. Can save energy if hot water usage is low
  10. 10. Electric tankless should be used only for remote or seldom-used locations
  11. 11. Cost of equipment: $400-$1000</li></li></ul><li>On-demand Systems <br />Pros<br /><ul><li>May last longer than tank: 20 yrs vs. 10-15 yrs
  12. 12. Ideal for second home: easy shut-off with ample hot water</li></ul>Cons<br /><ul><li>Electric version requires large service
  13. 13. May use more hot water: endless showers
  14. 14. Savings diminish with increased usage</li></li></ul><li>Storage Systems<br /><ul><li>Water is continuously hot
  15. 15. Electricity, natural gas, propane, heating oil, solar, geothermal
  16. 16. Consume energy at a low rate
  17. 17. Operate at low flow rates</li></ul>To take advantage of <br />renewable energy,<br /> storage is required.<br />
  18. 18. Heat Pump Systems<br /><ul><li>Use same technology as home heat pump
  19. 19. Much more efficient than conventional tank
  20. 20. Low operating costs
  21. 21. Available as add-on for existing tank
  22. 22. Technology available since 1970s
  23. 23. Cost of equipment: $1500-$2000</li></li></ul><li>Heat Pump Systems<br />Pros<br /><ul><li>Highly efficient: 2-3 times conventional tank
  24. 24. Produces small amount of cool air
  25. 25. Fastest payback if can’t take tax credit
  26. 26. Tax credits available</li></ul>Cons<br /><ul><li>Recommended for larger tank (50-80 gal)
  27. 27. Slow recovery time
  28. 28. Slightly noisy: locate in utility room
  29. 29. Reverts to conventional if demand is high
  30. 30. Always uses electricity</li></li></ul><li>Geothermal Systems<br /><ul><li>Primarily for home heating and cooling
  31. 31. Desuperheaters heat water as part of the air conditioning process and are most efficient during the summer
  32. 32. Some units can generate all of a home’s hot water and are 3-4 times as efficient as conventional tank systems
  33. 33. Cost of equipment: varies by load</li></li></ul><li>Geothermal Systems<br />Geothermal Systems<br />Pros<br /><ul><li>Highly efficient: 3-4 times conventional tank
  34. 34. Payback for desuperheater as part of geothermal package is fast
  35. 35. Tax credits available</li></ul>Cons<br /><ul><li>High installation cost
  36. 36. Only cost effective as part of heating and cooling system</li></li></ul><li>Solar Hot Water<br /><ul><li>Uses solar collectors to capture heat
  37. 37. Much more efficient than conventional tank
  38. 38. Low operating costs
  39. 39. Available as add-on for existing tank
  40. 40. Stores heat from the sun in a tank
  41. 41. Cost of installation: $4000-$6000</li></li></ul><li>Solar Hot Water<br />Pros<br /><ul><li>Highly efficient: no fossil fuel usage
  42. 42. Fastest payback if can take tax credit
  43. 43. Tax credits available</li></ul>Cons<br /><ul><li>Recommended for larger tank (50-120 gal)
  44. 44. Slow recovery time
  45. 45. Can be difficult to integrate in existing home
  46. 46. Reverts to electric if demand exceeds supply
  47. 47. Requires installation area facing south</li></li></ul><li>System Review<br /><ul><li>Simulations with generic 3 bedroom home, 2000 sf, Asheville area utility rates, propane at $2/gal,
  48. 48. Gas and propane have half CO2 emitted as electric but no operating savings
  49. 49. Tankless and heat pump have similar emissions with heat pump least expensive to operate
  50. 50. Simple payback on heat pump is 5-8 years; with tax credits, 3-5 years
  51. 51. Solar hot water has the lowest CO2 emissions and the lowest operating cost
  52. 52. With tax credits, payback on solar hot water is as little as 4 years</li></ul>Source: VandeMusser Design<br />
  53. 53. Tax Credits<br /><ul><li>30% federal, 35% North Carolina
  54. 54. Dollar-for-dollar against money owed
  55. 55. Must have tax burden
  56. 56. Available for tankless, heat pump, geothermal, solar
  57. 57.</li></li></ul><li>Types of Solar Hot Water<br /><ul><li>Sealed panels pass sunlight through a window to heat a fluid in a black collector
  58. 58. Vacuum tubes are cylindrical to track the path of the sun
  59. 59. Unglazed collectors require no expensive glass and are more efficient at higher temps</li></li></ul><li>Types of Solar Hot Water<br />
  60. 60. Flat Plate Collectors<br />Pros<br /><ul><li>Heat water with solar energy
  61. 61. Small inefficiencies will melt snow in winter
  62. 62. Tax credits available</li></ul>Cons<br /><ul><li>Recommended for colder climate
  63. 63. Must dump heat from overheated fluid
  64. 64. Not as efficient as vacuum tube
  65. 65. Requires installation area facing south</li></li></ul><li>Vacuum Tube Collectors<br />Pros<br /><ul><li>Heat water with solar energy
  66. 66. Vacuum seal and cylindrical shape increase efficiency
  67. 67. Tax credits available</li></ul>Cons<br /><ul><li>Recommended for colder climate
  68. 68. Must dump heat from overheated fluid
  69. 69. Requires installation area facing south</li></li></ul><li>Unglazed Collectors<br />Pros<br /><ul><li>Heat water with solar energy
  70. 70. Lowest installed cost of available systems
  71. 71. Tax credits available
  72. 72. Recommended for warmer climate: drainback</li></ul>Cons<br /><ul><li>Not as efficient as glazed as ambient temp decrease and water temp increase
  73. 73. Requires installation area facing south</li></li></ul><li>Conclusion<br /><ul><li>Solar hot water has the lowest operating costs, least amount of CO2 emissions and ensure energy independence
  74. 74. Solar hot water can pay for itself in as little as 4 years </li></ul>Reduce energy bills with a solar hot water system<br />
  75. 75. Special thanks to Matt Vande of VandeMusser Design<br />
  76. 76. James Pader<br />828-342-0873<br /><br />