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Open Source:
It’s just not for
IT anymore!
J i m J a g i e l s k i | | @ j i m j a g
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Agenda
Introduction
What is the ASF
What exactly is “Open Source”
The Lessons Learned by the ASF
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Introduction
Jim Jagielski
Longest still-active developer/contributor
Co-founder of the ASF
Member, Director and President
Director: Outercurve and OSI
Sr. Consulting Engineer with Red Hat
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
The ASF
ASF == The Apache Software Foundation
Before the ASF there was “The Apache
Group”
The ASF was incorporated in 1999
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
The ASF
Non-profit corporation founded in 1999
501( c )3 charity
Volunteer organization
Virtual world-wide organization
Exists to provide the organizational, legal,
and financial support for various OSS
projects
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Structure of the
ASF - legal
Member-based corporation - individuals only
Members nominate and elect new members
Members elect a board - 9 seats
Semi-annual meetings via IRC
Each PMC has a Chair - eyes and ears of the
board (oversight only)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
ASF “Org Chart”
Development Administrative
Users
Patchers/Buggers
Contributors
Committers
PMC Members
Members
Officers
Board
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Issues with Dual
Stacks
Despite clear differentiation, sometimes there
are leaks
eg: PMC chair seen as “lead” developer
Sometimes officers are assumed to have too
much power if they venture into development
issues
“hats”
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
The ASF’s Mission
Provide open source software to the public
free of charge
Provide a foundation for open, collaborative
software development projects by supplying
hardware, communication, and business
infrastructure
Create an independent legal entity to which
companies and individuals can donate
resources and be assured that those resources
will be used for the public benefit
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
The ASF’s Mission
Provide a means for individual volunteers to be
sheltered from legal suits directed at the
Foundation’s projects
Protect the ‘Apache’ brand, as applied to its
software products, from being abused by other
organizations
Provide legal and technical infrastructure for
open source software development and to
perform appropriate oversight of such software
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Vision Statement
The Apache Software Foundation provides
support for the Apache community of open-
source software projects. The Apache projects
are characterized by a collaborative,
consensus based development process, an
open and pragmatic software license, and a
desire to create high quality software that
leads the way in its field. We consider
ourselves not simply a group of projects
sharing a server, but rather a community of
developers and users.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Vision Statement,
Take 2
Community created code
Our code should be exceptional
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Why Open Source?
Access to the source code
Avoid vendor lock-in (or worse!)
Much better software
Better security record (more eyes)
Much more nimble development - frequent
releases
Direct user input
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
The draw of Open
Source
Having a real impact in the development and
direction of IT
Personal satisfaction: I wrote that!
Sense of membership in a community
Sense of accomplishment - very quick
turnaround times
Developers and engineers love to tinker -
huge opportunity to do so
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Open Source FUD
No quality or quality control
Prevents or slows development
Have to “give it away for free”
No real innovation
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
What is Open
Source?
Open Source Licensing
OSI Approved
Free Software
As in Free Speech, not Free Beer
Open Source Methodology (secondary)
ala, the Apache Software Foundation
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
What is Open
Source?
Basically, it’s a “new” way to develop, license
and distribute code
Actually, there was “open source” even before
it was called that
The key technologies behind the Internet and
the Web and the Cloud are all Open Source
based
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
True Open Source
For software to be Open Source, it must be
under an OSI approved Open Source
License
At last count, over 25 exist
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Open Source
Licenses
Give Me Credit
AL, BSD, MIT
Give Me Fixes
(L)GPL, EPL, MPL
Give Me Everything
GPL
- Dave Johnson
http://rollerweblogger.org/page/roller?entry=gimme_credit_gimme_fixes_gimmem
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
The Apache License
(AL)
A liberal open source software license - BSD-
like
Business friendly
Requires attribution
Includes Patent Grant
Easily reused by other projects &
organizations
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Give Me Fixes
MPL / EPL / (L)GPL
Used mostly with platforms or libraries
Protects the licensed code, but allows larger
derivative works with different licensing
Still very business friendly
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Give Me Everything
GPL (copyleft)
Derivative works also under GPL
Linked works could also be under GPL
Viral nature may likely limit adoption
GPL trumps all others or else incompatible
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
License Differences
Mainly involve the licensing of derivative
works
Only really applies during (re)distribution of
work
Where the “freedom” should be mostly
focused: the user or the code itself
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
One True License
There is no such thing
Licensing is selected to address what you are
trying to do
In general, Open Standards do better with
AL-like license
If wide adoption is important to you: again
AL.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
The Apache Way
Although the term is deprecated, “The
Apache Way” relates to how the ASF (and its
projects) work and operate
Basically, the least common denominators on
how PMCs operate
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Why focus on ASF ?
http://webmink.com/essays/#OBR
http://www.zdnet.com/blog/open-source/oracle-gives-
openoffice-to-apache/9035
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Basic Memes
Meritocracy
Peer-based
Consensus decision making
Collaborative development
Responsible oversight
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Meritocracy
“Govern by Merit”
Merit is based on what you do
Merit never expires
Those with merit, get more responsibility
Provides incentive to Do More
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Peer-based
Developers represent themselves - individuals
Mutual trust and respect
All votes hold the same weight (no BDFL)
Community created code
Healthy communities create healthy code
Poisonous communities don’t
Feel as part of a community
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Why Community ->
Code
Since we are all volunteers, people’s time and
interests change
A healthy community is “warm and inviting”
and encourages a continued influx of
developers
Poisonous people/communities turn people
off, and the project will die
End result - better code, long-term code
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Consensus decision
making
Key is the idea of voting
+1 - yes
+0 - no real comment
-1 - veto
Sometimes you’ll also see stuff like -0, -0.5,
etc...
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Voting
The main intent is to gauge developer
acceptance
Vetos must be justifiable and have sound
technical merit
If valid, Vetos cannot be overruled
Vetos are very rare
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Commit Process
Review Then Commit (RTC)
A patch is submitted to the project for
inclusion
If at least 3 +1s and no -1s, code is
committed
Good for stable branches
Ensures enough “eyes on the code” on a
direct-to-release path
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Commit Process
Commit Then Review (CTR)
A patch is committed directly to the code
Review Process happens post commit
Good for development branches
Depends on people doing reviews after the
fact
Allows very fast development
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Commit Process
Lazy Consensus
variant of RTC
“I plan on committing this in 3 days”
Provides opportunity for oversight, but
with known “deadline”
As always, can be vetoed after the fact
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Collaborative
Development
Code is developed by the community
Voting ensures at least 3 active developers
Development done online and on-list
If it didn’t happen on-list, it didn’t happen
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Collaborative
Development
Mailing lists are the preferred method
Archived
Asynchronous
Available to anyone - public list
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Collaborative
Development
Other methods are OK, if not primary
Wikis
IRC
F2F
Always bring back to the list
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Responsible
Oversight
Ensure license compliance
Track IP
Quality code
Quality community
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Look Familiar?
These concepts are not new or unique
Best practices regarding how the Scientific
and Health community works
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Publish or Perish
In Open Source, frequent releases indicate
healthy activity
What is collaborative s/w development other
than peer review?
Think how restrictive research would be w/o
open communication
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
The Apache
Incubator
Entry point for all new projects and
codebases
Indoctrinates the Apache Way to the podling
Ensures and tracks IP
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Contributor License
Agreement
aka: iCLA (for individual)
Required of all committers
Guarantees:
The person has the authority to commit the
code
That the ASF can relicense the code
Does NOT assign copyright
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Success Stories -
HTTPD
Apache HTTP Server (“Apache”)
Reference implementation of HTTP
Most popular web server in existance
Found in numerous commercial web
servers
Oracle, IBM,...
Influenced countless more
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Success Stories -
HTTPD
By having a “free” and open source reference
implementation, the drive to create a separate
proprietary version was reduced.
“Why spend time and money, when we can
use this”
This allowed HTTP (and the Web) to grow
and STAY usable (compare to the old
browser wars)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Success Stories -
Tomcat
Apache Tomcat (Servlet Container)
The default standard servlet container
Each version maps to a specific spec.
Bundled with numerous Java apps out
there
Likely a major influence on the diminishing
relevance of JEE
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Success Stories -
Others
Apache Geronimo (Server Framework -
JEE )
Not “just” a JEE server
Apache Maven (Java project build/
management tool)
Another industry standard
Apache Logging, Axis, Struts, ...
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Internal Usage
Advantages
Much tighter community
better communication (esp. with “users”)
tighter feedback loop
Ready made audience
Don’t need to “sell” the aspects of Open
Source which scare/confuse IT people
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Usage Gotchas
Trust and Merit are earned, which implies
time
The available pool might be relatively small
How to encourage external involvement
“scratching your own itch”
Mentoring: lurking on lists vs. direct
involvement
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Some Concluding
Thoughts
Trust your developers AND your users
Communication is key
Open Source is NOT the Good
Housekeeping Seal Of Approval
But don’t believe in all the FUD either
Success is not measured in market share, but
in adoption
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Some Concluding
Thoughts
Open Source should have a viable business or
emotional reason - be realistic in expectations
Give some thought to licensing early
Make it easier for developers and users to
“join”
Give them a reason to
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Helpful links
The Apache Software Foundation
www.apache.org
Red Hat, Inc (my employer)
www.redhat.com
Want to help a great organization?
www.marylandstateboychoir.org
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
That’s It
Thank you!
Any questions?
@jimjag
jim@jaguNET.com

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Open Source - Not just for IT anymore

  • 1. Open Source: It’s just not for IT anymore! J i m J a g i e l s k i | | @ j i m j a g
  • 2. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Agenda Introduction What is the ASF What exactly is “Open Source” The Lessons Learned by the ASF
  • 3. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Introduction Jim Jagielski Longest still-active developer/contributor Co-founder of the ASF Member, Director and President Director: Outercurve and OSI Sr. Consulting Engineer with Red Hat
  • 4. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. The ASF ASF == The Apache Software Foundation Before the ASF there was “The Apache Group” The ASF was incorporated in 1999
  • 5. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. The ASF Non-profit corporation founded in 1999 501( c )3 charity Volunteer organization Virtual world-wide organization Exists to provide the organizational, legal, and financial support for various OSS projects
  • 6. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Structure of the ASF - legal Member-based corporation - individuals only Members nominate and elect new members Members elect a board - 9 seats Semi-annual meetings via IRC Each PMC has a Chair - eyes and ears of the board (oversight only)
  • 7. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. ASF “Org Chart” Development Administrative Users Patchers/Buggers Contributors Committers PMC Members Members Officers Board
  • 8. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Issues with Dual Stacks Despite clear differentiation, sometimes there are leaks eg: PMC chair seen as “lead” developer Sometimes officers are assumed to have too much power if they venture into development issues “hats”
  • 9. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. The ASF’s Mission Provide open source software to the public free of charge Provide a foundation for open, collaborative software development projects by supplying hardware, communication, and business infrastructure Create an independent legal entity to which companies and individuals can donate resources and be assured that those resources will be used for the public benefit
  • 10. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. The ASF’s Mission Provide a means for individual volunteers to be sheltered from legal suits directed at the Foundation’s projects Protect the ‘Apache’ brand, as applied to its software products, from being abused by other organizations Provide legal and technical infrastructure for open source software development and to perform appropriate oversight of such software
  • 11. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Vision Statement The Apache Software Foundation provides support for the Apache community of open- source software projects. The Apache projects are characterized by a collaborative, consensus based development process, an open and pragmatic software license, and a desire to create high quality software that leads the way in its field. We consider ourselves not simply a group of projects sharing a server, but rather a community of developers and users.
  • 12. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Vision Statement, Take 2 Community created code Our code should be exceptional
  • 13. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Why Open Source? Access to the source code Avoid vendor lock-in (or worse!) Much better software Better security record (more eyes) Much more nimble development - frequent releases Direct user input
  • 14. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. The draw of Open Source Having a real impact in the development and direction of IT Personal satisfaction: I wrote that! Sense of membership in a community Sense of accomplishment - very quick turnaround times Developers and engineers love to tinker - huge opportunity to do so
  • 15. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Open Source FUD No quality or quality control Prevents or slows development Have to “give it away for free” No real innovation
  • 16. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. What is Open Source? Open Source Licensing OSI Approved Free Software As in Free Speech, not Free Beer Open Source Methodology (secondary) ala, the Apache Software Foundation
  • 17. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. What is Open Source? Basically, it’s a “new” way to develop, license and distribute code Actually, there was “open source” even before it was called that The key technologies behind the Internet and the Web and the Cloud are all Open Source based
  • 18. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. True Open Source For software to be Open Source, it must be under an OSI approved Open Source License At last count, over 25 exist
  • 19. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Open Source Licenses Give Me Credit AL, BSD, MIT Give Me Fixes (L)GPL, EPL, MPL Give Me Everything GPL - Dave Johnson http://rollerweblogger.org/page/roller?entry=gimme_credit_gimme_fixes_gimmem
  • 20. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. The Apache License (AL) A liberal open source software license - BSD- like Business friendly Requires attribution Includes Patent Grant Easily reused by other projects & organizations
  • 21. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Give Me Fixes MPL / EPL / (L)GPL Used mostly with platforms or libraries Protects the licensed code, but allows larger derivative works with different licensing Still very business friendly
  • 22. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Give Me Everything GPL (copyleft) Derivative works also under GPL Linked works could also be under GPL Viral nature may likely limit adoption GPL trumps all others or else incompatible
  • 23. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. License Differences Mainly involve the licensing of derivative works Only really applies during (re)distribution of work Where the “freedom” should be mostly focused: the user or the code itself
  • 24. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. One True License There is no such thing Licensing is selected to address what you are trying to do In general, Open Standards do better with AL-like license If wide adoption is important to you: again AL.
  • 25. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. The Apache Way Although the term is deprecated, “The Apache Way” relates to how the ASF (and its projects) work and operate Basically, the least common denominators on how PMCs operate
  • 26. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Why focus on ASF ? http://webmink.com/essays/#OBR http://www.zdnet.com/blog/open-source/oracle-gives- openoffice-to-apache/9035
  • 27. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Basic Memes Meritocracy Peer-based Consensus decision making Collaborative development Responsible oversight
  • 28. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Meritocracy “Govern by Merit” Merit is based on what you do Merit never expires Those with merit, get more responsibility Provides incentive to Do More
  • 29. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Peer-based Developers represent themselves - individuals Mutual trust and respect All votes hold the same weight (no BDFL) Community created code Healthy communities create healthy code Poisonous communities don’t Feel as part of a community
  • 30. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Why Community -> Code Since we are all volunteers, people’s time and interests change A healthy community is “warm and inviting” and encourages a continued influx of developers Poisonous people/communities turn people off, and the project will die End result - better code, long-term code
  • 31. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Consensus decision making Key is the idea of voting +1 - yes +0 - no real comment -1 - veto Sometimes you’ll also see stuff like -0, -0.5, etc...
  • 32. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Voting The main intent is to gauge developer acceptance Vetos must be justifiable and have sound technical merit If valid, Vetos cannot be overruled Vetos are very rare
  • 33. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Commit Process Review Then Commit (RTC) A patch is submitted to the project for inclusion If at least 3 +1s and no -1s, code is committed Good for stable branches Ensures enough “eyes on the code” on a direct-to-release path
  • 34. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Commit Process Commit Then Review (CTR) A patch is committed directly to the code Review Process happens post commit Good for development branches Depends on people doing reviews after the fact Allows very fast development
  • 35. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Commit Process Lazy Consensus variant of RTC “I plan on committing this in 3 days” Provides opportunity for oversight, but with known “deadline” As always, can be vetoed after the fact
  • 36. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Collaborative Development Code is developed by the community Voting ensures at least 3 active developers Development done online and on-list If it didn’t happen on-list, it didn’t happen
  • 37. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Collaborative Development Mailing lists are the preferred method Archived Asynchronous Available to anyone - public list
  • 38. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Collaborative Development Other methods are OK, if not primary Wikis IRC F2F Always bring back to the list
  • 39. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Responsible Oversight Ensure license compliance Track IP Quality code Quality community
  • 40. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Look Familiar? These concepts are not new or unique Best practices regarding how the Scientific and Health community works
  • 41. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Publish or Perish In Open Source, frequent releases indicate healthy activity What is collaborative s/w development other than peer review? Think how restrictive research would be w/o open communication
  • 42. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. The Apache Incubator Entry point for all new projects and codebases Indoctrinates the Apache Way to the podling Ensures and tracks IP
  • 43. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Contributor License Agreement aka: iCLA (for individual) Required of all committers Guarantees: The person has the authority to commit the code That the ASF can relicense the code Does NOT assign copyright
  • 44. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Success Stories - HTTPD Apache HTTP Server (“Apache”) Reference implementation of HTTP Most popular web server in existance Found in numerous commercial web servers Oracle, IBM,... Influenced countless more
  • 45. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Success Stories - HTTPD By having a “free” and open source reference implementation, the drive to create a separate proprietary version was reduced. “Why spend time and money, when we can use this” This allowed HTTP (and the Web) to grow and STAY usable (compare to the old browser wars)
  • 46. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Success Stories - Tomcat Apache Tomcat (Servlet Container) The default standard servlet container Each version maps to a specific spec. Bundled with numerous Java apps out there Likely a major influence on the diminishing relevance of JEE
  • 47. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Success Stories - Others Apache Geronimo (Server Framework - JEE ) Not “just” a JEE server Apache Maven (Java project build/ management tool) Another industry standard Apache Logging, Axis, Struts, ...
  • 48. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Internal Usage Advantages Much tighter community better communication (esp. with “users”) tighter feedback loop Ready made audience Don’t need to “sell” the aspects of Open Source which scare/confuse IT people
  • 49. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Usage Gotchas Trust and Merit are earned, which implies time The available pool might be relatively small How to encourage external involvement “scratching your own itch” Mentoring: lurking on lists vs. direct involvement
  • 50. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Some Concluding Thoughts Trust your developers AND your users Communication is key Open Source is NOT the Good Housekeeping Seal Of Approval But don’t believe in all the FUD either Success is not measured in market share, but in adoption
  • 51. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Some Concluding Thoughts Open Source should have a viable business or emotional reason - be realistic in expectations Give some thought to licensing early Make it easier for developers and users to “join” Give them a reason to
  • 52. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Helpful links The Apache Software Foundation www.apache.org Red Hat, Inc (my employer) www.redhat.com Want to help a great organization? www.marylandstateboychoir.org
  • 53. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. That’s It Thank you! Any questions? @jimjag jim@jaguNET.com