• ………. is a brass
instrument that was used
in the ancient Roman
army , for the
announcement of night
watches, to summon
soldiers by means of the
special signals and to give
• The instrument is the
ancestor of the trumpet.
• The person who blew this
instrument was called a X
• Which structure in the
human body is named
after X ?
• Gabrielle .……... was one of the most important anatomists and physicians of the sixteenth
• His work dealt mainly with the anatomy of the head. He added much to what was known
before about the internal ear . He was the first to point out the connection between
the mastoid cells and the middle ear . His description of the lacrimal ducts in the eye was a
marked advance on those of his predecessors and he also gave a detailed account of
the ethmoid bone and its cells in the nose .
• He studied the reproductive organs in both sexes the first to describe a condom (in his
writings, a linen sheath wrapped around the penis), and he advocated the use of such
sheaths to prevent syphilis .
• 2 structures in the human body are named after him – one is in the ear & the other in the
reproductive system .
• Name both
•Leonardo da Vinci depicted this entity correctly and it
remained that way for centuries until 1885, when Sir
Frederick Treves' findings presented it in a different
manner – this description was believed to be true till
late when Prof.J Calvin Coffey (Professor of surgery ,
University of Limerick’s Graduate Entry Medical
school ,Ireland ) in his research published otherwise .
•What is this entity being talked about ?
• The ulnar canal or ulnar tunnel is a semi-rigid longitudinal canal in the
wrist that allows passage of the ulnar artery and ulnar nerve into the
• The roof of the canal is made up of the superficial palmar carpal ligament,
while the deeper flexor retinaculum and hypothenar muscles comprise
the floor. The space is medially bounded by the pisiform and pisohamate
ligament more proximally, and laterally bounded by the hook of the
hamate more distally.
• The canal was first described by a French surgeon Jean Casimir Félix X in
1861 ,and so the canal is also called the X canal
• X is ?
22. • Guyon’s tunnel syndrome :
• local trauma, fractures, ganglion
cysts, and classically avid cyclists
who experience repetitive
trauma against bicycle
23. Q6 . Below is a list of ? X & Y ?
2 associated with the head of the 1st
metacarpal ( in the adductor pollicis & flexor
pollicis brevis tendons)
2 associated with the head of the 1st metatarsal
(in the tendon of flexor halluc-is brevis)
• …………. are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by
many types of plants .
• They belong to a class of dietary fibers known as fructans.
• ............ is used by some plants as a means of storing energy and is
typically found in roots or rhizomes.
• This polysaccharide and its analog sinistrin are used to help
measure kidney function by determining the glomerular filtration rate
• It is not secreted or reabsorbed in any appreciable amount at
the nephron , allowing GFR to be calculated. However, due to clinical
limitations, .......... and sinistrin, although characterised by better
handling features, are rarely used for this purpose and creatinine
values are the standard for determining an approximate GFR.
• Global Public Health Days offer great potential to raise awareness and understanding
about health issues and mobilize support for action, from the local community to the
• WHO focuses particular attention on the 7 days and 1 week that WHO Member States
have mandated as "official" global public health days. These are:
• World TB Day, 24 March
• World Health Day, 7 April
• World Immunization Week, last week of April
• World Malaria Day, 25 April
• World No Tobacco Day ,31 May
• World Blood Donor Day, 14 June
• X ?
• World AIDS Day, 1 December
• The Gift of Pain is a book written by Dr.Paul Brand &
Philip Yancey .
• Dr.Paul Brand was a son of missionary parents in
Southern India . He himself was a dedicated missionary
& an extraordinary gifted orthopaedic surgeon who
“ straightened crooked hands & unravelled the riddle of X “
• As a pioneer in tendon transfer techniques , he
estabalished & practiced initially in New Life Centre &
Schieffelin X Research Centre ,Karigiri ,South India .
• He saw pain as vital for the preservation of healthy
tissue in anyone leading a normal life. He goes on to
question the pursuit of pleasure in Western society and
offers practical ways to ameliorate the effects of pain.
• What was the disease in which he much concentrated
• This protein was first identified when a routine pre operative sample of a
37 year old railroad brakeman John ……. was found to have prolonged
clotting time in test tubes ,even though the patient had no hemorrhagic
• He was then examined by the hematologist Oscar Ratnoff ,who found
that he lacked a previously unidentified clotting factor .
• He found that the deficiency is autosomal recessive in inheritance .
• Name the protein .
48. A German physician A gave up his medical practice as he
was dissatisfied with the state of medicine in his time ,
and made his living from writing & translating books
My sense of duty would not easily allow me to treat
the unknown pathological state of my suffering
brethren with these unknown medicines. The
thought of becoming in this way a murderer or
malefactor towards the life of my fellow human
beings was most terrible to me, so terrible and
disturbing that I wholly gave up my practice in the
first years of my married life and occupied myself
solely with chemistry and writing.
49. • A came to read about B , a plant the bark of which has some
remedial powers to cure the disease C
• The plant B was named so by Carl Linnaeus ( a Swedish Botanist
,often referred to as The Father of Taxonomy) after a Spanish town .
• The 4th Count of this town was the Viceroy of Peru , and his wife Ana
de Osorio suffered from C , and was cured after taking the medicine
prepared from B .
• She took B back to Europe on her return journey .
( However ,this was found to be historically incorrect by later
50. • D & E are the two active alkaloids contained in the bark
of B used medically
• D was once commonly used to treat C .
• D also played a significant role in the colonization of
Africa by Europeans.
• D had been said to be the prime reason Africa ceased to
be known as the "white man's grave".
• D is on WHO’s List of Essential Medicines in a Health
51. • E is a stereoisomer of D ,and is a Class 1 anti arrythmic
• ………….. annua is a common herb found in many parts
of the world, and has been used by
Chinese herbalists for more than 2000 years in the
treatment of C .
• In 1967, a plant screening research program, under the
name Project 523, was set up by the People's Liberation
Army of China to find an adequate treatment for C
52. • In the course of this research, F discovered G in the
leaves of …….. Annua .
• The genus name ………….. is derived from a Greek
goddess and, more specifically, may have been
named after Queen ………. II of Caria, a botanist and
medical researcher in the fourth century BCE .
• F was awarded Nobel Prize in Medicine for this
53. • A believed that other astringent substances are
not effective against C and began to research B's
effect on the human body by self-application.
• Noting that the drug induced C-like symptoms in
himself, he concluded that it would do so in any
• This led him to postulate a healing principle: "that
which can produce a set of symptoms in a healthy
individual, can treat a sick individual who is
manifesting a similar set of symptoms.“
• This is one of the basic principles of H ,a branch of
• Fransisco Jose de Goya was a Spanish romantic painter – he
is considered as the most important Spanish artist of late
18th and early 19th centuries .
• The image on the next slide is that of a painting by Fransisco
Jose de Goya drawn between 1802 & 1812 .
• A title given to this painting is ‘Curacion del Garrottillo’ ,
which is not correct according to researchers .
• The original title of the painting is ‘El Lazarillo de Tormes’
,inspired from a book of the same title from the 1500s in
which a blind man asks his helper boy to cook sausage for
him, the boy steals it and the blind man tries to get it out from
his mouth .
• What was the reason for the title ‘Curacion del Garrottillo’ ?
60. • A middle aged man with a black
moustache , his eyes nearly
closed , trying to grasp
something out of the boy’s
mouth using his 2 fingers of the
right hand .
• The cause of death of the legendary Jamaican singer Bob Marley is
considered to be …………
• The 1st attention to the illness was made when he injured his injured his
right great toe during a soccer game in Paris in 1977
• The toe nail became partially detached & painful – he admitted to his
manger that the toe had been injured before and the wound was on &
off for years .A skin biopsy was done – the doctors advised amputation
of the toe to prevent spread of the disease.But he was against it
(because of certain religious beliefs .However he permitted the excision
of some part of the toe & a skin graft was put .
• But his condition worsened and he died on May 11 1981 .
• Thomas Latta was an English doctor and is considered to have introduced
this particular form of treatment in Medicine which is quite popular now .
• He introduced it during the Cholera epidemic in Britain in 1832 ,the results
of his treatment were remarkably good & saved many lives .
• The results were published in the Lancet & the methodology spread
,however by then the epidemic was under control.
• There were inconsistent results also because of certain less understood
• Identify the treatment modality .
74. Q6. (BONUS POINTS IF YOU ANSWER Z ALSO..)
• X :THE EXTRAORDINARY STORY OF A WONDER DRUG is a book written by
• In the book ,Jeffreys has associated the drug with thye collapse of the
Russian empire .
• The story goes like this…
• Alexei ,the son & heir of the last Czar , suffered from the disease Y .
• It is very likey that to ease the pain (that occurs in patients with Y) ,the
then doctors prescribed him X , a popular drug then not knowing that X
can actually complicate events in patients with Y .
75. • In desperation & fearing for the life of her son ,the Czarina Alexandra
called upon Z ,who advised her to abandon modern treatments &
surrender the boy to ‘faith healing’
• Without the drug X ,Alexei symptomatically improved ,and Z became
close to the Royal family .
• This was seen as an increasingly corruptive influence in the febrile
atmosphere at that time ,and it is regarded as a significant factor in
turning Russsians against the Csar & in favour of revolution .
• Identify X ,Y & Z
• X is an organomercury compound having antiseptic properties & is used
as a preservative in vaccines ,immunoglobulin preparations ,antivenoms
• The use of X as a preservative in vaccines is controversial , and in the
European Union & in a few other countries ,it was phased out from
routine childhood vaccines .
• The current consensus is that its use as a preservative is not known to
have any severe adverse effects .
• This chemical , discovered in 1938 in Germany by Gerhard Scharder ,
Otto ambrose ,Gerhard Ritter & von der Linde acts by inhibiting the
action of acetyl choline esterase enzyme present in the
• It is one of the most toxic of the 4G series compounds .
• The United nations Chemical weapons Convention in 1993 banned its
production & stockpiling .
• Name this chemical weapon which was used in Syria in April 2017
• X is an analgesic – a
• It is thought that the
manufacturers named X
as it was 6 times more
potent than codeine
• Identify X ,and explain
the basis for its name .
• Thsese are some of the reasons which Prof.Jonadhan (University of Florida)
ascribes to this particular phenomenon
1.Wearing dark (navy,black ) & red apparel
2.Blood group O
3.Heavy breathers (the ones who exhale more)
4.People who sweat more (increased production of lactic acid ,uric acid
,ammonia & other compounds in the sweat)
5.The presence pf certain bacteria in the skin
• Zbigniew Religa was a popular Polish citizen – he became a member of
the Polish senate in 1993 .
• He was a promising candidate in the Presidential elections in 2005 (he
backed out of the election at the last moment ) and served as the
Minister of Health from 2005 to 2007
• In 1987 , a picture featuring him , on the occasion of him achieving the
very 1st in the countrt ,was chosen by the National Geographic as the
best picture of the year .
• Identify the picture & the achievement
• The Australian Charles Rothauser created the world’s 1st
polypropylene based disposable X ,and it was so popular that he
produced it in his factory for use in his country and for exporting to
• The previous versions of X were mostly made of glass.
• A modified ‘safer’ version was invented by a Keralite , Baby Manoj
,and he won the Best Invention Award for the year 2011,given by
theNational Development Reseach Corporation & also the Best
Invention award of 2011 by the Geneva based World Intellectual
• What is X ?
• The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation is the independent non profit
technology transfer organization serving the University of Wisconsin –Madison
& Morgridge Institute for research .
• It provides significant research support ,granting tens of millions of dollars to
the university each year & contributing to the University’s margin of excellence
• A drug ,which is on the WHO’s List of Essential Medicines ,is named after this
• It first came to use in 1948 as a rat poison .
• In 1954 ,it was approved for use in humans .
• Name the drug
• This disease was named after a town/towns in the US state of
• The disease has an arthritis component usually affecting the knees .A
cluster of cases originally thought to be Juvenile Rheumatoid arthritis
was identified in 3 towns in Southeastern Connecticut in 1975 – this
was investigated & found to be caused by spirochetes .
• THE DISEASE IS ?
• …………. ,also commonly called ‘cupping’ is a practice where blood is
drawn out by vacuum from a small incision for therapeautic purposes
• It is a form of energy medicine because it has been claimed to unclog
the meridians in the body ,and is viewed by some practioners as a cire
that can alleviate black magic & possession .
• The practice has Greek , Arab .Turkish & Persian origin & is mentioned
by Hippocrates as well .
• The practice is ?
• Rolla Neil Harger was a faculty in the department of biochemistry &
pharmacology dof Indiana University School of Medicine .
• He invented X in 1931 .
• Robert F Borkenstein collaborated with Rolla in this invention .In 1936
,Borkenstein joined in Indiana state Police & was later promoted to captain
in charge of Police’s Forensic laboratory .
• In 1954 a modified version of X was invented by Borkenstein & it soon
• In 1988 , he was inducted into The Safety & Health Hall of Fame
• Identify X /modified version of X still in use .
• A disease which affected many notable names in the literary world
like Alexander Pope ,William Henley ;also served as the inspiration for
Victor Hugo’s work The Huncback of Notre Dame
• The treatment for this condition is often referred to as The Niddle
• What is the diseae I am talking ?
• Little ……… ………… was a daily American comic strip created by Harold Gray
& syndicated by Tribune Media services
• The plot follows the wide ranging adventures of ……. , her dog Sandy & her
benefactor Oliver Daddy Warbucks .
• The strip attracted adult readers with political commentary that targeted
(among other things) organized labor ,the New Deal & communism .
• A characteristic cellular feature of a pathologic entity in the body is named
after this character ,because of the cells ‘cleared out appearance’ similar
to the eyes of ………… ………………..
• Name the character & the pathologic entity
• In 1952, a missionary in Borneo ( an Asian island) sent a sample of dirt to his
friend Dr. E. C. Kornfield, an organic chemist at Eli Lilly. An organism isolated from
that sample (Streptomyces orientalis) produced a substance (“compound 05865”)
that was active against most gram-positive organisms. Some anaerobic organisms,
including clostridia, were also susceptible to compound 05865 , as was Neisseria
• In vitro experiments were initiated to determine whether the activity of
compound 05865 would be preserved despite attempts to induce resistance.
After 20 serial passages of staphylococci from Eli Lilly laboratories, resistance to
penicillin increased 100,000-fold, compared with only a 4–8-fold increase in
resistance to compound 05865 .
• Before clinical trials were begun, the compound, dubbed “Mississippi mud”
because of its brown color, needed to be purified.
• The purified entity was called X ( from the word ………….. Which means defeat )
,and was made available for clinical trials
• Identify the drug & the root word (the blank)
•The Chapter about Malaria in the 19th edition of
“Harrison’s Principles of internal Medicine” begins with a
famous saying by William Osler , a Canadian Physician
who is regarded as “The Father of Modern Medicine”.
•Humnity has but 3 great enemies : ……….. , Famine &
War ; Of these by far the greatest , by far the most
terrible , is ……..