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  • http://www.kurzweilai.net/articles/art0134.html?printable=1
    The Age of Spiritual Machines – When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence
    The Singularity Is Near : When Humans Transcend Biology
  • The Age of Spiritual Machines – When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence
    The Singularity Is Near : When Humans Transcend Biology
  • http://www.kurzweilai.net/articles/art0134.html?printable=1
    The Age of Spiritual Machines – When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence
    The Singularity Is Near : When Humans Transcend Biology
  • The Future of Computers
    http://www.rfreitas.com/Nano/TheFutureOfComputers--Analog--March1996.htm (c) 1996 Robert A. Freitas Jr.Research ScientistZyvex Corp. Citation: Robert A. Freitas Jr., “The Future of Computers,” Analog 116(March 1996):57-73.
  • The Future of Computers
    http://www.rfreitas.com/Nano/TheFutureOfComputers--Analog--March1996.htm (c) 1996 Robert A. Freitas Jr.Research ScientistZyvex Corp. Citation: Robert A. Freitas Jr., “The Future of Computers,” Analog 116(March 1996):57-73.
  • Cooper first cellular mobile phone in 1973
    In simple terms, Moore’s Law states that the number of transistors that can be packed on an integrated electronic circuit doubles approximately every 2 years
    (ftp://download.intel.com/research/silicon/moorespaper.pdf
    ) enabling a size: price: performance ratio of smaller, cheaper and more powerful micro electronics. Law of Disruption states that “social, political, and economic systems change incrementally, but technology changes exponentially
    Metcalfe’s Law Value of a network increases proportionally with the square of the number of connections
  • Cooper first cellular mobile phone in 1973
    In simple terms, Moore’s Law states that the number of transistors that can be packed on an integrated electronic circuit doubles approximately every 2 years
    (ftp://download.intel.com/research/silicon/moorespaper.pdf
    ) enabling a size: price: performance ratio of smaller, cheaper and more powerful micro electronics. Law of Disruption states that “social, political, and economic systems change incrementally, but technology changes exponentially
    Metcalfe’s Law Value of a network increases proportionally with the square of the number of connections
  • The goal of the Smart Dust project is to build a self-contained, millimeter-scale sensing and communication platform for a massively distributed sensor network.  This device will be around the size of a grain of sand and will contain sensors, computational ability, bi-directional wireless communications, and a power supply, while being inexpensive enough to deploy by the hundreds.  The science and engineering goal of the project is to build a complete, complex system in a tiny volume using state-of-the art technologies (as opposed to futuristic technologies), which will require evolutionary and revolutionary advances in integration, miniaturization, and energy management.  We forsee many applications for this technology:
    Weather/seismological monitoring on Mars
    Internal spacecraft monitoring
    Land/space comm. networks
    Chemical/biological sensors
    Weapons stockpile monitoring
    Defense-related sensor networks
    Inventory Control
    Product quality monitoring
    Smart office spaces
    Sports - sailing, balls
    For more information, see the main Smart Dust page at http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pister/SmartDust and read our publications (see navigation button above).
    Brief description of the operation of the mote:
    The Smart Dust mote is run by a microcontroller that not only determines the tasks performed by the mote, but controls power to the various components of the system to conserve energy. Periodically the microcontroller gets a reading from one of the sensors, which measure one of a number of physical or chemical stimuli such as temperature, ambient light, vibration, acceleration, or air pressure, processes the data, and stores it in memory. It also occasionally turns on the optical receiver to see if anyone is trying to communicate with it. This communication may include new programs or messages from other motes. In response to a message or upon its own initiative the microcontroller will use the corner cube retroreflector or laser to transmit sensor data or a message to a base station or another mote.
    Longer description of the operation of the mote:
    The primary constraint in the design of the Smart Dust motes is volume, which in turn puts a severe constraint on energy since we do not have much room for batteries or large solar cells. Thus, the motes must operate efficiently and conserve energy whenever possible. Most of the time, the majority of the mote is powered off with only a clock and a few timers running. When a timer expires, it powers up a part of the mote to carry out a job, then powers off. A few of the timers control the sensors that measure one of a number of physical or chemical stimuli such as temperature, ambient light, vibration, acceleration, or air pressure. When one of these timers expires, it powers up the corresponding sensor, takes a sample, and converts it to a digital word. If the data is interesting, it may either be stored directly in the SRAM or the microcontroller is powered up to perform more complex operations with it. When this task is complete, everything is again powered down and the timer begins counting again.
    Another timer controls the receiver. When that timer expires, the receiver powers up and looks for an incoming packet. If it doesn't see one after a certain length of time, it is powered down again. The mote can receive several types of packets, including ones that are new program code that is stored in the program memory. This allows the user to change the behavior of the mote remotely. Packets may also include messages from the base station or other motes. When one of these is received, the microcontroller is powered up and used to interpret the contents of the message. The message may tell the mote to do something in particular, or it may be a message that is just being passed from one mote to another on its way to a particular destination. In response to a message or to another timer expiring, the microcontroller will assemble a packet containing sensor data or a message and transmit it using either the corner cube retroreflector or the laser diode, depending on which it has. The corner cube retroreflector transmits information just by moving a mirror and thus changing the reflection of a laser beam from the base station. This technique is substantially more energy efficient than actually generating some radiation. With the laser diode and a set of beam scanning mirrors, we can transmit data in any direction desired, allowing the mote to communicate with other Smart Dust motes.
  • M2M is a category of Information and Computing Technology (ICT) that combines network, computer, software, sensor and power technologies to enable remote human and machine interaction with physical, chemical and biological systems and processes. M2M has many synonyms including “pervasive computing”, “hidden computing”, “invisible computing” and “ubiquitous computing.”
    Reach out and touch someone or squeeze someone or…An accelerometer on the wrist-worn device allows rough detection of hand orientation, gesture measurement, and tapping. In the near future researchers will examine simple activity detection as well, such as sitting, walking, and standing.
    As in the bus stop example, a person wearing the device can sense simple touching. This sensation is enabled through force-sensing resistors that provide pressure detection over a high-resolution surface array on the top of the device.
    A person can also detect rich signals sent from a partner whirling a finger along the surface of his or her device. Researchers provided this effect by time stamping the sensed data.
    Motes, such as the one amongst the candy corn above, are at the heart of several Intel research projects. 
    Not only might a wearer experience the simulated touch of a friend, she might also feel the device grow warm to her skin. Using a Peltier Junction, the device can create a subtle heating or cooling on the wearer’s skin.
    “The mapping between the inputs and outputs of paired devices is not literal,” says Paulos. “This is an important part of the design. In the same way people developed a language of numbers around early pagers when they sent messages we believe a similar vocabulary will emerge around physical cues.”
    For example, to some wearers a gentle warming on the skin might convey a message of friendship. Others might choose to send good vibes by…well by sending good vibes, literally. Intel researchers used simple flat pancake vibration motors to cause wearers to easily and privately feel vibrations though skin contact. Various vibration patterns and duty cycles provide a number of output possibilities for the device.
    And for those times when good vibes just aren’t enough, a wearer of the device can send the equivalent of a wireless handhold, an electronic squeeze.
    Through the use of Flexinol, a user can feel a little squeeze that mimics the grasp of a hand as the filament in the wrist-worn device contracts when electrically powered. Flexinol is a simple variant of Nitinol, which is often used in robotic applications and commonly referred to as “muscle wire” for its ability to exert force and return to its original shape.
    For all the pleasant thoughts and human analogies there may be a dark side to this device. “Imagine someone incessantly tapping, tapping, tapping. You’d probably feel really annoyed,” says Paulos. “It could be your friend trying to get in touch with you. Or perhaps you’re on the receiving end of a lovers’ quarrel.”
    “Yea,” says Paulos, “there is an eerie side to this device. I don’t think anyone want to know what spam feels like.”
  • M2M is a category of Information and Computing Technology (ICT) that combines network, computer, software, sensor and power technologies to enable remote human and machine interaction with physical, chemical and biological systems and processes. M2M has many synonyms including “pervasive computing”, “hidden computing”, “invisible computing” and “ubiquitous computing.”
    Reach out and touch someone or squeeze someone or…An accelerometer on the wrist-worn device allows rough detection of hand orientation, gesture measurement, and tapping. In the near future researchers will examine simple activity detection as well, such as sitting, walking, and standing.
    As in the bus stop example, a person wearing the device can sense simple touching. This sensation is enabled through force-sensing resistors that provide pressure detection over a high-resolution surface array on the top of the device.
    A person can also detect rich signals sent from a partner whirling a finger along the surface of his or her device. Researchers provided this effect by time stamping the sensed data.
    Motes, such as the one amongst the candy corn above, are at the heart of several Intel research projects. 
    Not only might a wearer experience the simulated touch of a friend, she might also feel the device grow warm to her skin. Using a Peltier Junction, the device can create a subtle heating or cooling on the wearer’s skin.
    “The mapping between the inputs and outputs of paired devices is not literal,” says Paulos. “This is an important part of the design. In the same way people developed a language of numbers around early pagers when they sent messages we believe a similar vocabulary will emerge around physical cues.”
    For example, to some wearers a gentle warming on the skin might convey a message of friendship. Others might choose to send good vibes by…well by sending good vibes, literally. Intel researchers used simple flat pancake vibration motors to cause wearers to easily and privately feel vibrations though skin contact. Various vibration patterns and duty cycles provide a number of output possibilities for the device.
    And for those times when good vibes just aren’t enough, a wearer of the device can send the equivalent of a wireless handhold, an electronic squeeze.
    Through the use of Flexinol, a user can feel a little squeeze that mimics the grasp of a hand as the filament in the wrist-worn device contracts when electrically powered. Flexinol is a simple variant of Nitinol, which is often used in robotic applications and commonly referred to as “muscle wire” for its ability to exert force and return to its original shape.
    For all the pleasant thoughts and human analogies there may be a dark side to this device. “Imagine someone incessantly tapping, tapping, tapping. You’d probably feel really annoyed,” says Paulos. “It could be your friend trying to get in touch with you. Or perhaps you’re on the receiving end of a lovers’ quarrel.”
    “Yea,” says Paulos, “there is an eerie side to this device. I don’t think anyone want to know what spam feels like.”
  • http://www.robotdirectory.org/pics/cakemonster/Nano-Scoop3.jpg
  • ., all integrated through the design process. The key to success in mechatronics is: modeling, analysis, experimentation & hardware-implementation skills.
  • Rice and U of Susses (Kroto)
  • <number>
  • The Future of Computers
    http://www.rfreitas.com/Nano/TheFutureOfComputers--Analog--March1996.htm (c) 1996 Robert A. Freitas Jr.Research ScientistZyvex Corp. Citation: Robert A. Freitas Jr., “The Future of Computers,” Analog 116(March 1996):57-73.
  • Korean “Information Society” development date back to the 1980’s, however, Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) use and production in the past has been associated with equipment, rather than knowledge-intensive production and services such as software, biotechnology, new media and information services (Hwang, Hur and Choi, 2004, p.11) (Korea National Computerization Agency, 2004, p.7) (Wong, 2004, p.1). A new phase of public-private partnership including programs such as “Cyber Korea 21”, “e-Korea Vision 2006”, and “Broadband IT KOREA VISION 2007” aims to make Korea the leading exporter of knowledge-intensive production in the world (Korea National Computerization Agency, 2004, p.7) (The Korea Times in Swiss Talents, 2004, p.1). This new phase is marked by a transition to integrating convergent information services into the fabric of society, industry, government and education; pioneering the development of technologies, products, services and knowledge-based exports; and supporting the formation and development of new convergence companies.
  • Korean “Information Society” development date back to the 1980’s, however, Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) use and production in the past has been associated with equipment, rather than knowledge-intensive production and services such as software, biotechnology, new media and information services (Hwang, Hur and Choi, 2004, p.11) (Korea National Computerization Agency, 2004, p.7) (Wong, 2004, p.1). A new phase of public-private partnership including programs such as “Cyber Korea 21”, “e-Korea Vision 2006”, and “Broadband IT KOREA VISION 2007” aims to make Korea the leading exporter of knowledge-intensive production in the world (Korea National Computerization Agency, 2004, p.7) (The Korea Times in Swiss Talents, 2004, p.1). This new phase is marked by a transition to integrating convergent information services into the fabric of society, industry, government and education; pioneering the development of technologies, products, services and knowledge-based exports; and supporting the formation and development of new convergence companies.
  • America No. 1? America by the numbers by Michael Ventura 02/03/05 "ICH"  - - No concept lies more firmly embedded in our national character than the notion that the USA is "No. 1," "the greatest." Our broadcast media are, in essence, continuous advertisements for the brand name "America Is No. 1." Any office seeker saying otherwise would be committing political suicide. In fact, anyone saying otherwise will be labeled "un-American." We're an "empire," ain't we? Sure we are. An empire without a manufacturing base. An empire that must borrow $2 billion a day from its competitors in order to function. Yet the delusion is ineradicable. We're No. 1. Well...this is the country you really live in: * The United States is 49th in the world in literacy (the New York Times, Dec. 12, 2004). * The United States ranked 28th out of 40 countries in mathematical literacy (NYT, Dec. 12, 2004). * Twenty percent of Americans think the sun orbits the earth. Seventeen percent believe the earth revolves around the sun once a day (The Week, Jan. 7, 2005). * "The International Adult Literacy Survey...found that Americans with less than nine years of education 'score worse than virtually all of the other countries'" (Jeremy Rifkin's superbly documented book The European Dream: How Europe's Vision of the Future Is Quietly Eclipsing the American Dream, p.78). * Our workers are so ignorant and lack so many basic skills that American businesses spend $30 billion a year on remedial training (NYT, Dec. 12, 2004). No wonder they relocate elsewhere! * "The European Union leads the U.S. in...the number of science and engineering graduates; public research and development (R&D) expenditures; and new capital raised" (The European Dream, p.70). * "Europe surpassed the United States in the mid-1990s as the largest producer of scientific literature" (The European Dream, p.70). * Nevertheless, Congress cut funds to the National Science Foundation. The agency will issue 1,000 fewer research grants this year (NYT, Dec. 21, 2004). * Foreign applications to U.S. grad schools declined 28 percent last year. Foreign student enrollment on all levels fell for the first time in three decades, but increased greatly in Europe and China. Last year Chinese grad-school graduates in the U.S. dropped 56 percent, Indians 51 percent, South Koreans 28 percent (NYT, Dec. 21, 2004). We're not the place to be anymore. * The World Health Organization "ranked the countries of the world in terms of overall health performance, and the U.S. [was]...37th." In the fairness of health care, we're 54th. "The irony is that the United States spends more per capita for health care than any other nation in the world" (The European Dream, pp.79-80). Pay more, get lots, lots less. * "The U.S. and South Africa are the only two developed countries in the world that do not provide health care for all their citizens" (The European Dream, p.80). Excuse me, but since when is South Africa a "developed" country? Anyway, that's the company we're keeping. * Lack of health insurance coverage causes 18,000 unnecessary American deaths a year. (That's six times the number of people killed on 9/11.) (NYT, Jan. 12, 2005.) * "U.S. childhood poverty now ranks 22nd, or second to last, among the developed nations. Only Mexico scores lower" (The European Dream, p.81). Been to Mexico lately? Does it look "developed" to you? Yet it's the only "developed" country to score lower in childhood poverty. * Twelve million American families--more than 10 percent of all U.S. households--"continue to struggle, and not always successfully, to feed themselves." Families that "had members who actually went hungry at some point last year" numbered 3.9 million (NYT, Nov. 22, 2004). * The United States is 41st in the world in infant mortality. Cuba scores higher (NYT, Jan. 12, 2005). * Women are 70 percent more likely to die in childbirth in America than in Europe (NYT, Jan. 12, 2005). * The leading cause of death of pregnant women in this country is murder (CNN, Dec. 14, 2004). * "Of the 20 most developed countries in the world, the U.S. was dead last in the growth rate of total compensation to its workforce in the 1980s.... In the 1990s, the U.S. average compensation growth rate grew only slightly, at an annual rate of about 0.1 percent" (The European Dream, p.39). Yet Americans work longer hours per year than any other industrialized country, and get less vacation time. * "Sixty-one of the 140 biggest companies on the Global Fortune 500 rankings are European, while only 50 are U.S. companies" (The European Dream, p.66). "In a recent survey of the world's 50 best companies, conducted by Global Finance, all but one were European" (The European Dream, p.69). * "Fourteen of the 20 largest commercial banks in the world today are European.... In the chemical industry, the European company BASF is the world's leader, and three of the top six players are European. In engineering and construction, three of the top five companies are European.... The two others are Japanese. Not a single American engineering and construction company is included among the world's top nine competitors. In food and consumer products, Nestlé and Unilever, two European giants, rank first and second, respectively, in the world. In the food and drugstore retail trade, two European companies...are first and second, and European companies make up five of the top ten. Only four U.S. companies are on the list" (The European Dream, p.68). * The United States has lost 1.3 million jobs to China in the last decade (CNN, Jan. 12, 2005). * U.S. employers eliminated 1 million jobs in 2004 (The Week, Jan. 14, 2005). * Three million six hundred thousand Americans ran out of unemployment insurance last year; 1.8 million--one in five--unemployed workers are jobless for more than six months (NYT, Jan. 9, 2005). * Japan, China, Taiwan, and South Korea hold 40 percent of our government debt. (That's why we talk nice to them.) "By helping keep mortgage rates from rising, China has come to play an enormous and little-noticed role in sustaining the American housing boom" (NYT, Dec. 4, 2004). Read that twice. We owe our housing boom to China, because they want us to keep buying all that stuff they manufacture. * Sometime in the next 10 years Brazil will probably pass the U.S. as the world's largest agricultural producer. Brazil is now the world's largest exporter of chickens, orange juice, sugar, coffee, and tobacco. Last year, Brazil passed the U.S. as the world's largest beef producer. (Hear that, you poor deluded cowboys?) As a result, while we bear record trade deficits, Brazil boasts a $30 billion trade surplus (NYT, Dec. 12, 2004). * As of last June, the U.S. imported more food than it exported (NYT, Dec. 12, 2004). * Bush: 62,027,582 votes. Kerry: 59,026,003 votes. Number of eligible voters who didn't show up: 79,279,000 (NYT, Dec. 26, 2004). That's more than a third. Way more. If more than a third of Iraqis don't show for their election, no country in the world will think that election legitimate. * One-third of all U.S. children are born out of wedlock. One-half of all U.S. children will live in a one-parent house (CNN, Dec. 10, 2004). * "Americans are now spending more money on gambling than on movies, videos, DVDs, music, and books combined" (The European Dream, p.28). * "Nearly one out of four Americans [believe] that using violence to get what they want is acceptable" (The European Dream, p.32). * Forty-three percent of Americans think torture is sometimes justified, according to a PEW Poll (Associated Press, Aug. 19, 2004). * "Nearly 900,000 children were abused or neglected in 2002, the last year for which such data are available" (USA Today, Dec. 21, 2004). * "The International Association of Chiefs of Police said that cuts by the [Bush] administration in federal aid to local police agencies have left the nation more vulnerable than ever" (USA Today, Nov. 17, 2004). No. 1? In most important categories we're not even in the Top 10 anymore. Not even close. The USA is "No. 1" in nothing but weaponry, consumer spending, debt, and delusion. Reprinted from the Austin Chronicle. www.citypages.com/databank/26/1264/article12985.asp
  • EMBARGOED UNTIL: 12:01 A.M., EST, MARCH 18, 2004 (THURSDAY)  Mike BergmanCB04-44Public Information Office (301) 763-3030/457-3670 (fax)Summary tables(301) 457-1037 (TDD) e-mail: [email_address]   More Diversity, Slower Growth
    Census Bureau Projects Tripling of Hispanic andAsian Populations in 50 Years; Non-Hispanic WhitesMay Drop To Half of Total Population        The nation’s Hispanic and Asian populations would triple over the next half century and non-Hispanic whites would represent about one-half of the total population by 2050, according to interim population projections released today by the U.S. Census Bureau.     Overall, the country’s population would continue to grow, increasing from 282.1 million in 2000 to 419.9 million in 2050. However, after 2030 the rate of increase might be the slowest since the Great Depression of the 1930s as the size of the “baby boom” population continues to decline.     Still, the nation’s projected 49 percent population increase during the next 50 years would be in sharp contrast to most European countries, whose populations are expected to decline by mid-century.     (Statements on race groups in this news release are limited to the single-race white, black, and Asian populations and do not cover other single-race groups or the population of two or more races.) The federal government treats Hispanic origin and race as distinct concepts. (See U.S. Census Bureau Guidance on the Presentation and Comparison of Race and Hispanic Origin Data.)     From 2000 to 2050, the non-Hispanic, white population would increase from 195.7 million to 210.3 million, an increase of 14.6 million or 7 percent. This group is projected to actually lose population in the 2040s and would comprise just 50.1 percent of the total population in 2050, compared with 69.4 percent in 2000. (See Table 1 [Excel].)     Nearly 67 million people of Hispanic origin (who may be of any race) would be added to the nation’s population between 2000 and 2050. Their numbers are projected to grow from 35.6 million to 102.6 million, an increase of 188 percent. Their share of the nation’s population would nearly double, from 12.6 percent to 24.4 percent.     The Asian population is projected to grow 213 percent, from 10.7 million to 33.4 million. Their share of the nation’s population would double, from 3.8 percent to 8 percent.     The black population is projected to rise from 35.8 million to 61.4 million in 2050, an increase of about 26 million or 71 percent. That would raise their share of the country’s population from 12.7 percent to 14.6 percent.     The country’s population also is expected to become older. Childbearing rates are expected to remain low while baby-boomers — people born between 1946 and 1964 — begin to turn 65 in 2011. By 2030, about 1-in-5 people would be 65 or over.     The female population is projected to continue to outnumber the male population, going from a numerical difference of 5.3 million in 2000 (143.7 million females and 138.4 million males) to 6.9 million (213.4 million females and 206.5 million males) by mid-century. (See Table 2 [Excel].)     The projections for the resident population of the United States are by age, sex, race (including the categories white, black, Asian and “all other races”) and Hispanic origin. They are based on Census 2000 results and assumptions about future childbearing, mortality and international migration.
  • Computer Forensics
    Salaries $45,000 - $65,000
    MEMS
    Salaries $35,000 - $45,000
    Hybrd $25,000
    ADM
    $40,000 - $50,000
  • <number>
  • The U.S. output of new engineers raise concerns over America’s ability to compete over the long run. The U.S. is producing less than a third of the number of engineers as China and less than half the number as Europe.
    Electrical and electronic engineers represent a third to a half of all engineers hired by the semiconductor industry. In 1993, U.S. universities granted 17,588 BS EE degrees; but only 13,031 in 2002. (Engineering Workforce Commission)
    The NSF reports that in 39% of engineering masters degrees (in 2000) and 61% of PhD engineering degrees (in 2001) went to foreign students. The NSF also reports that of the 11,500 foreign engineering doctoral recipients from U.S. universities, only 55% had firm plans to stay – i.e. a post doctoral research appointment or firm employment in the U.S. (1998-2001).
    Electrical engineering is the semiconductor industry’s largest engineer employment category. The Engineering Workforce Commission report that in 2001, 9.7% of Bachelors, 51.5% of Masters, and 59.7% of PhD EE graduates were foreign students.
    In 1999, Asia alone accounted for more than 49 percent of all science and engineering degrees granted worldwide, Europe 32 percent, and North America 10 percent. In that same year, China produced 195,354 engineers, the United States only 60,914.
    Fewer U.S. citizens are in a position to pursue engineering degrees due to U.S. K-12 students’ science and math literacy scores being below those in other countries. The Trends in International Math and Science Study Survey (TIMSS) is a comprehensive study comparing science and math achievement for 4th, 8th and 12th grade students in 34 nations. In 1999 TIMSS found that 8th grad students in Singapore, Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Canada, Australia, Hungary and Finland scored significantly above their U.S. counterparts in both math and science.
  • The U.S. output of new engineers raise concerns over America’s ability to compete over the long run. The U.S. is producing less than a third of the number of engineers as China and less than half the number as Europe.
    Electrical and electronic engineers represent a third to a half of all engineers hired by the semiconductor industry. In 1993, U.S. universities granted 17,588 BS EE degrees; but only 13,031 in 2002. (Engineering Workforce Commission)
    The NSF reports that in 39% of engineering masters degrees (in 2000) and 61% of PhD engineering degrees (in 2001) went to foreign students. The NSF also reports that of the 11,500 foreign engineering doctoral recipients from U.S. universities, only 55% had firm plans to stay – i.e. a post doctoral research appointment or firm employment in the U.S. (1998-2001).
    Electrical engineering is the semiconductor industry’s largest engineer employment category. The Engineering Workforce Commission report that in 2001, 9.7% of Bachelors, 51.5% of Masters, and 59.7% of PhD EE graduates were foreign students.
    In 1999, Asia alone accounted for more than 49 percent of all science and engineering degrees granted worldwide, Europe 32 percent, and North America 10 percent. In that same year, China produced 195,354 engineers, the United States only 60,914.
    Fewer U.S. citizens are in a position to pursue engineering degrees due to U.S. K-12 students’ science and math literacy scores being below those in other countries. The Trends in International Math and Science Study Survey (TIMSS) is a comprehensive study comparing science and math achievement for 4th, 8th and 12th grade students in 34 nations. In 1999 TIMSS found that 8th grad students in Singapore, Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Canada, Australia, Hungary and Finland scored significantly above their U.S. counterparts in both math and science.
  • Ender's Game for Science and Engineering: Games for Real, For Now, or We Lose the Brain War Merrilea J. MayoDirector, GUIRR (Govt-Univ-Ind Research Roundtable)The National Academies
  • Ender's Game for Science and Engineering: Games for Real, For Now, or We Lose the Brain War Merrilea J. MayoDirector, GUIRR (Govt-Univ-Ind Research Roundtable)The National Academies
  • Free video game teaches kids about world hungerBY JINNY GUDMUNDSEN
    GANNETT NEWS SERVICE
    Live 8, the global concerts earlier this month to fight poverty in Africa, greatly increased awareness of world hunger. But most kids don't understand how international aid organizations work to help starving people.
    That's where a video game can help. "Food Force" gives kids between the ages of 8 and 13 a better understanding of how relief organizations operate.
    Produced by the United Nations' World Food Programme, "Food Force" is a free Internet download at www.food-force.com.
    Kids join a team of emergency aid workers to save the fictitious island of Sheylan from starvation caused by drought and civil war.
    The team goes on six missions to help save the island. Each mission starts with a briefing by one of the emergency aid characters. Kids then play a hands-on game to score enough points to complete the mission. For example, in the first mission, kids pilot a helicopter by using the computer mouse. Time is limited, and youngsters earn points by locating refugees. After piloting, the Food Force character returns to evaluate the kids' performance and uses an accompanying video that shows the program in action to make the whole process seem realistic.
    The additional missions cleverly use games to demonstrate how emergency aid teams acquire food, make food packs, deliver food and establish long-term food supplies.
    When kids complete all six missions, they can upload their cumulative score to an international database found on the Food Force Web site. The Web site also provides information about how kids can help fight hunger, and it allows them to explore more about the World Food Programme. Teachers also will find lesson plans that incorporate the game.
    The program effectively reaches 'tweens and teens with 3-D graphics and characters that resemble those in popular commercial titles, helping bring closer to home the problems of world hunger, which are most often thousands of miles away.
    The game is best for ages 8 to 13. It scores a perfect five stars.
    For more information, see www.food-force.com, United Nations' World Food Programme, offering free downloadable program for Windows and Macintosh.
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  • “Although we often hear about the reasons kids should not play video games, there is, indeed, a positive correlation between video gaming and increased hand-eye coordination, reaction time, spatial visualization, neuro-psychological tests, visual attentiveness and mental rotation,” says Dr. Rosser. “Those are all skills that are required to be a successful surgeon.”A study conducted at Beth Israel Medical Center by Dr. Rosser, found a significant correlation between video game experience and proficiency at laparoscopic surgery. According to the study, surgeons who currently play or previously played video games had a 37 percent reduction in errors and accomplish laparoscopic surgical tasks 27 percent quicker. “The studies confirm what some physicians have long suspected – video games can be natural teachers,” says Dr. Mogel. “However, this probably has been unintended by the game designers.”
  • Patricia Marks Greenfield Mind (Mind and media: The effects of television, video games and computers)
    Hand eye Brain Coordination
    Mark Prensky How What Where
    Emergent behaviors and strategy
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  • Cybernetics is a theory of the communication and control of regulatory feedback. The term cybernetics stems from the Greek kybernetes (meaning steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder). Cybernetics is the discipline that studies communication and control in living beings and in the machines built by humans.
    A more philosophical definition, suggested in 1958 by Louis Couffignal, one of the pioneers of cybernetics in the 1930s, considers cybernetics as "the art of assuring efficiency of action" (see external links for reference).
    Taylorism
    F. W. Taylor & Scientific Management
    Mr. Bill's Preface: In October 1995, there was an extended and at times intense discussion in the Quality E-Mail forum on "Scientific Management" and Frederick W. Taylor. At one point Vincenzo Sandrone submitted a post on the subject that the forum moderator deemed appropriate to the discussion, but to long to be posted to the list. What he did was post a notice to the list that the paper was available from Mr. Sandrone via private E-Mail. What follows is that paper posted on this site with permission of the author. The paper will form part of an undergraduate thesis entitled "Total Quality Engineering - A Holistic Approach to Engineering Management" to be submitted in 1996 in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a BE in Manufacturing Engineering at the University of Technology, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Mr. Sandrone's source for quotes is:
    Taylor Frederick W., 1964, Scientific Management - Comprising Shop Management, The principles of Scientific Management and Testimony before the Special House Committee, Harper and Row All the quotes are from 'Scientific Management' this needs to be highlighted as the edition restarted page numbers for each separate section. That is, page numbers are not unique. Please address any comments or critique to Mr. Sandrone.
    Regards, Mr. Bill
    ================================================================== With all the discussion of Taylorism on the list and arguments that both sides did not have the facts, I have decided I may be able to provide some information. I have included a copy of the section on Taylorism from my in process Undergraduate Thesis. I hope that it may help put some facts into the discussion. Looking over the section I have realized that it contained the highest density of direct quotes in my thesis. I feel this was my subconscious way of fighting the, what I considered, misinformation that I had received about Taylorism. Unfortunately I could not find a "definition" of science as applied in Scientific method. However, I would like to make two points: 1) Taylor did not call his original paper "Scientific management" and by the time he published it the name had stuck and his publisher changed the name. (I cannot recall the name of his original paper.) 2) He sort of defines "Scientific Management" by saying what it is not - It is not "Rule of Thumb" when you consider that piece work based on arbitrary quotas ( and heavily biased to the employer) was normal practice. The use of work study/measurement to determine a fair quota was a step forward for both management and the workers. Vincenzo Sandrone QA Engineer GEC Marconi Systems Meadowbank (Sydney), Australia vxsand@gecms.com.au ============================================================== Taylorism Under Taylor's management system, factories are managed through scientific methods rather than by use of the empirical "rule of thumb" so widely prevalent in the days of the late nineteenth century when F. W. Taylor devised his system and published "Scientific Management" in 1911. The main elements of the Scientific Management are [1] : "Time studies Functional or specialized supervision Standardization of tools and implements Standardization of work methods Separate Planning function Management by exception principle The use of "slide-rules and similar time-saving devices" Instruction cards for workmen Task allocation and large bonus for successful performance The use of the 'differential rate' Mnemonic systems for classifying products and implements A routing system A modern costing system etc. etc. " Taylor called these elements "merely the elements or details of the mechanisms of management" He saw them as extensions of the four principles of management.[2] 1. The development of a true science 2. The scientific selection of the workman 3. The scientific education and development of the workman 4. Intimate and friendly cooperation between the management and the men. Taylor warned [3] of the risks managers make in attempting to make change in what would presently be called, the culture, of the organization. He stated the importance of management commitment and the need for gradual implementation and education. He described "the really great problem" involved in the change "consists of the complete revolution in the mental attitude and the habits of all those engaged in the management, as well of the workmen." [4] Taylor taught that there was one and only one method of work that maximized efficiency. "And this one best method and best implementation can only be discovered or developed through scientific study and analysis... This involves the gradual substitution of science for 'rule of thumb' throughout the mechanical arts." [5] "Scientific management requires first, a careful investigation of each of the many modifications of the same implement, developed under rule of thumb; and second, after time and motion study has been made of the speed attainable with each of these implements, that the good points of several of them shall be unified in a single standard implementation, which will enable the workman to work faster and with greater easy than he could before. This one implement, then is the adopted as standard in place of the many different kinds before in use and it remains standard for all workmen to use until superseded by an implement which has been shown, through motion and time study, to be still better." [6] An important barrier to use of scientific management was the limited education of the lower level of supervision and of the work force. A large part of the factory population was composed of recent immigrants who lacked literacy in English. In Taylor's view, supervisors and workers with such low levels of education were not qualified to plan how work should be done. Taylor's solution was to separate planning from execution. "In almost all the mechanic arts the science which underlies each act of each workman is so great and amounts to so much that the workman who is best suited to actually doing the work is incapable of fully understanding this science.." [7] To apply his solution, Taylor created planning departments, staffed them with engineers, and gave them the responsibility to: Develop scientific methods for doing work. Establish goals for productivity. Establish systems of rewards for meeting the goals. Train the personnel in how to use the methods and thereby meet the goals. Perhaps the key idea of Scientific management and the one which has drawn the most criticism was the concept of task allocation. Task allocation [8] is the concept that breaking task into smaller and smaller tasks allows the determination of the optimum solution to the task. "The man in the planning room, whose specialty is planning ahead, invariably finds that the work can be done more economically by subdivision of the labour; each act of each mechanic, for example, should be preceded by various preparatory acts done by other men." [9] The main argument against Taylor is this reductionist approach to work dehumanizes the worker. The allocation of work "specifying not only what is to be done but how it is to done and the exact time allowed for doing it" [10] is seen as leaving no scope for the individual worker to excel or think. This argument is mainly due to later writing rather than Taylor's work as Taylor stated "The task is always so regulated that the man who is well suited to his job will thrive while working at this rate during a long term of years and grow happier and more prosperous, instead of being overworked." [11] Taylor's concept of motivation left something to be desired when compared to later ideas. He methods of motivation started and finished at monetary incentives. While critical of the then prevailing distinction of "us "and "them" between the workforce and employers he tried to find a common ground between the working and managing classes. "Scientific Management has for its foundation the firm conviction that the true interests of the two are one and the same; that prosperity for the employer cannot exist a long term of years unless it is accompanied by prosperity for the employee [sic], and vice versa .." [12] However, this emphasis on monetary rewards was only part of the story. Rivalry between the Bethlehem and Pittsburgh Steel plants led to the offer from Pittsburgh of 4.9 cents per ton against Bethlehem's rate of 3.2 cents per day to the ore loaders. The ore loaders were spoken to individually and their value to the company reinforced and offers to re-hire them at any time were made. The majority of the ore loaders took up the Pittsburgh offers. Most had returned after less than six weeks. [13] The rates at Pittsburgh were determined by gang rates. Peer pressure from the Pittsburgh employees to not work hard meant that the Bethlehem workers actually received less pay than at Bethlehem. Two of the Bethlehem workers requested to be placed in a separate gang, this was rejected by management for the extra work required by management to keep separate record for each worker. Taylor places the blame squarely on management and their inability "to do their share of the work in cooperating with the workmen." [14] Taylor's attitudes towards workers were laden with negative bias "in the majority of cases this man deliberately plans to do as little as he safely can." [15] The methods that Taylor adopted were directed solely towards the uneducated. "When he tells you to pick up a pig and walk, you pick it up and walk, and when he tells you to sit down and rest, you sit down. You do that right through the day. And what's more, no back talk". This type of behaviour towards workers appears barbaric in the extreme to the modern reader, however, Taylor used the example of Schmidt at the Bethlehem Steel Company to test his theories. Taylor admits "This seems rather rough talk. And indeed it would be if applied to an educated mechanic, or even an intelligent labourer." [17] The fact that Taylor took the effort to firstly know the workers name and to cite it is some indication that he empathized with the workforce. This study improved the workrate of Schmidt from 12.5 tons to 47.5 tons per day showing the worth of Scientific Management. The greatest abuse of Scientific Management has come from applying the techniques without the philosophy behind them. It is obvious from Taylor's own observations that the above discussion would be misplaced in other workers. Taylor acknowledged the potential for abuse in his methods. "The knowledge obtained from accurate time study, for example, is a powerful implement, and can be used, in one case to promote harmony between workmen and the management, by gradually educating, training, and leading the workmen into new and better methods of doing the work, or in the other case, it may be used more or less as a club to drive the workmen into doing a larger day's work for approximately the same pay that they received in the past." [17] Scientific Study and standardization were important parts of the Scientific Management. One example, was the study undertaken to determine the optimum shovel load for workers. The figure of 21 pounds [18] was arrived at by the study. To ensure that this shovel load was adhered to, a series of different shovels were purchased for different types of material. Each shovel was designed to ensure that only 21 pounds could be lifted. This stopped the situation where "each shoveller owned his own shovel, that he would frequently go from shoveling ore, with a load of about 30 pounds per shovel, to handling rice coal, with a load on the same shovel of less than 4 pounds. In the one case, he was so overloaded that it was impossible for him to do a full day's work, and in the other case he was so ridiculously under-loaded that it was manifestly impossible to even approximate a day's work." [19] Taylor spent a considerable amount of his books in describing "soldiering" the act of 'loafing' both at an individual level and "systematic soldiering". He described the main reasons that workers were not performing their work at the optimum. Though worded in a patronizing way the essence of the descriptions are still valid. [20] The belief that increased output would lead to less workers. Inefficiencies within the management control system such as poorly designed incentive schemes and hourly pay rates not linked to productivity Poor design of the performance of the work by rule-of-thumb The fear of redundancies within the workforce was a valid argument during the previous style of management. Taylor not only countered this argument by using economic arguments of increased demand due to decreased pricing but put forward the idea of sharing the gains with the workforce. Taylor saw the weaknesses of piece work in the workers reactions to gradual decreases in the piece rate as the worker produced more pieces by working harder and/or smarter. The worker then is determined to have no more reduction in rate by "soldiering". This deception leads to an antagonistic view of management and a general deterioration of the worker/management relationship. Taylor also was a strong advocate of worker development. It follows that the most important object of both the workman and the establishment should be the training and development of each individual in the establishment, so that he can do ( at his fastest pace and with the maximum of efficiency) the highest class of work for which his natural abilities for him." [21] Taylor's ideas on management and workers speaks of justice for both parties. "It (the public) will no longer tolerate the type of employer who has his eyes only on dividends alone, who refuses to do his share of the work and who merely cracks the whip over the heads of his workmen and attempts to drive them harder work for low pay. No more will it tolerate tyranny on the part of labour which demands one increase after another in pay and shorter hours while at the same time it becomes less instead of more efficient."[22] Taylor's system was widely adopted in the United States and the world. Although the Taylor system originated in the factory production departments, the concept of separating planning from execution was universal in nature and, hence, had potential application to other areas: production support services offices operations service industries. Management's new responsibilities were extended to include: [23] Replacing the old rule-of-thumb with scientific management Scientifically select and train, teach and develop the workman "Heartily cooperate with the men so as to insure[sic] all the work being done in accordance with the principles of the science which has been developed" Take over the work for which they are "better fitted" than the workmen. Relationship between Taylorism and TQM Taylor's more general summary of the principles of Scientific Management are better suited for inclusion into the TQM methodology, than the narrow definitions. "It is no single element , but rather the this whole combination, that constitutes Scientific Management, which may be summarized as: Science, not rule of thumb Harmony, not discord Cooperation, not individualism Maximum output in place of restricted output The development of each man to his greatest efficiency and prosperity" [24] Much has happened, since Taylor developed his method of Scientific Management, to make obsolete the premises on which he based his concepts: Lack of education is no longer reason enough to separate the planning function The balance of power between managers and the work force has changed. Where in Taylor's time it was heavily weighted against the workers. Unionism (or the threat of it) has profoundly changed that balance. Changes in the climate of social thinking. Revolts against the "dehumanizing" of work. A basic tenet of Scientific management was that employees were not highly educated and thus were unable to perform any but the simplest tasks. Modern thought is that all employees have intimate knowledge of job conditions and are therefore able to make useful contributions. Rather than dehumanizing the work and breaking the work down into smaller and smaller units to maximize efficiency without giving thought to the job satisfaction of the working. Encouragement of work based teams in which all workers may contribute. Such contributions increase worker morale, provide a sense of ownership, and improve management-worker relations generally. References 1. Scientific Management, pg 129-130 2. Scientific Management, pg 130 3. Scientific Management, pg 131 4. Scientific Management, pg 131 5. Scientific Management, pg 25 6. Scientific Management, pg 119 7. Scientific Management, pp 25-25 8. Scientific Management, pg 39 9. Scientific Management, pg 38 10. Scientific Management, pg 39 11. Scientific Management, pg 39 12. Scientific Management, pg 10 13. Scientific Management, pg 75 14. Scientific Management, pg 77 15. Scientific Management, pg 13 16. Scientific Management, pg 46 17. Scientific Management, pp 133-134 18. Scientific Management, pg 66 19. Scientific Management, pg 67 20. Scientific Management, pg 23 21. Scientific Management, pg 12 22. Scientific Management, pg 139 23. Scientific Management, pg 36 24. Scientific Management, pg 140 Vincenzo Sandrone QA Engineer GEC Marconi Systems Meadowbank (Sydney), Australia vxsand@gecms.com.au An mr_bill@grfn.org Internet publication. December 10, 1995
  • 5th world omaha_v1.0

    1. 1. ______ AGE • How would you define the age in which we live?
    2. 2. ______ AGE • How would you define the age in which we live? • What is the defining characteristic of the age in which we live? • What is the progression of ages? AgrarianIndustrialInformational?
    3. 3. “An analysis of the history of technology shows that technological change is exponential, contrary to the common- sense ‘intuitive linear’ view. So we won't experience 100 years of progress in the 21st century -- it will be more like 20,000 years of progress (at today's rate)… because we're doubling the rate of progress every decade, we'll see a century of progress--at today's rate--in only 25 calendar years.” Kurzweil, KurzweilAI.net, March 7, 2001.
    4. 4. www.kurzweilai.net/.../ SIN_headshot_highres.html
    5. 5. “An analysis of the history of technology shows that technological change is exponential, contrary to the common- sense ‘intuitive linear’ view. So we won't experience 100 years of progress in the 21st century -- it will be more like 20,000 years of progress (at today's rate)… because we're doubling the rate of progress every decade, we'll see a century of progress--at today's rate--in only 25 calendar years.” Kurzweil, KurzweilAI.net, March 7, 2001.
    6. 6. What new innovations have been created in the last 100 years?
    7. 7. 1
    8. 8. SuperComputing 95 Teraflop Challenge 1996, $100 million 2001, $1,000,000 2011, $1000 2021, $1 The Future of Computers 1996 Robert A. Freitas Jr., Research Scientist, Zyvex Corp.
    9. 9. TERAFLOP SUPER COMPUTERS for $300 today!
    10. 10. SuperComputing 95 Teraflop Challenge 1996, $100 million 2005, $300 2011, $1 2021, FREE The Future of Computers 1996 Robert A. Freitas Jr., Research Scientist, Zyvex Corp.
    11. 11. 2
    12. 12. http://www.arraycomm.com/pcct/coopers_law.htm Cooper’s Law Martin Cooper’s Law - the no. of conversations (voice and data) conducted over a given area, in all of the useful radio spectrum has doubled every 21/2 years for the last 105 years since Marconi, 1895.
    13. 13. EV-DO data travels over the network at typical speeds of 300 to 500 kilobits per second. EV-DO can theoretically hit data transmission rates of 2.4 megabits per second. http://www.ipma-wa.com/exec_sem/2005/bruno.ppt#14
    14. 14. 3
    15. 15. 1st Gen  Mainframe 2nd Gen Mini 3rd Gen PC 4th Gen Sys on Chip
    16. 16. http://www-bsac.eecs.berkeley.edu/archive/users/warneke-brett/SmartDust/ Berkeley’s Golem Dust 11.7 mm3 total circumscribed volume ~4.8 mm3 total displaced volume Berkeley’s Deputy Dust 6.6 mm3 total circumscribed volume 4th Gen 11.7 mm3 6.6 mm3
    17. 17. My daughter’s first computer at age 1 hour.
    18. 18. Integrates sensors, batteries, a control chip, and an RF transmitter in a 35mm-long housing. Lab-in-a-Pill http://www.olympus.co.jp/en/news/2004b/nr041130capsle.cfm University of Glasgow Capsule Endoscope Examine the lining of the middle part of your gastrointestinal tract, which includes the three portions of the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum).
    19. 19. http://shino8.eng.uci.edu/Pdf/Tomo_MIT_Mems.pdfintel-research.net/ berkeley/features/tiny_db.asp Berkeley Motes/berkeley.intel-research.net/paulos/research/connexus/ www-bsac.eecs.berkeley.edu/archive/users/warneke-brett/SmartDust/ 6 Pack for $120 on the web from xbow.com Time to Market
    20. 20. http://shino8.eng.uci.edu/Pdf/Tomo_MIT_Mems.pdf intel-research.net/ berkeley/features/tiny_db.asp /berkeley.intel-research.net/paulos/research/connexus/ Intel/Berkeley Connexus www-bsac.eecs.berkeley.edu/archive/users/warneke-brett/SmartDust/ Berkeley Motes New H2H Relations
    21. 21. Control a pan/tilt/zoom camera and a firearm to shoot at real targets in real time. Currently, shooters will be able to fire 10 (ten) .22 caliber rounds at paper and silhouette targets. $5.95 for 10 shots and 20 minutes.
    22. 22. MIT Tech Review, 2005 Sensors Physical Chemical Biological http://www.rieti.go.jp/en/events/bbl/03102801.pdf , page 16 Actuators Physical Chemical Biological PhiloMetron™
    23. 23. MIT Tech Review, 2005 This is a ROBOT http://www.rieti.go.jp/en/events/bbl/03102801.pdf , page 16
    24. 24. “Robots at same stage as 1978 PCs.” --Baylor University, Carbonara and Korpi Machine Actors v v
    25. 25. What is driving this progress?
    26. 26. Adapted from Charles Ostman Senior Fellow Institute for Global Futures NEURO NANO BIOINFO
    27. 27. Adapted from Charles Ostman Senior Fellow Institute for Global Futures NEURO NANO BIOINFO S&T Convergence
    28. 28. Mechatronics The synergistic combination of mechanical engineering, electronics, control systems and computers. Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering Departments at RPI All Contents Copyright(C) 2001 Mechatronics Lab at RPI
    29. 29. http://www.adidas.com/campaigns/adidas_1/content/downloads/adidas_1- wp_02_1280_1024.jpg http://www.adidasprlookbook.com/adidas1/index.asp • 1,000th of a second sensor measures gap between heel and a magnet • 20-MHz microcontroller measures changes in compression • Motor spins at 4000 rpm turns a screw loosens cable • Environmentally and operator adaptive shoe sole
    30. 30. Micro-robotics team and biologists at Tsukuba University Source: The Guardian Date: 2 May 2002 State University of New York (Suny) Biotronics "Go go gadget: With a remote control sensor hotwired to its central nervous system, developments like the "roborat," created at SUNY's Downstate Medical Center, herald the coming of the biotronic age.
    31. 31. Richard E. Smalley, Robert Curl and Harold Kroto won 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of a structure of carbon atoms known as a “buckyball”. http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/PR_display.asp?prID=04-85 Nano
    32. 32. http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/PR_display.asp?prID=04-85 A key attribute of the C-60 fullerene molecule is its numerous points of attachment, allowing for precise grafting of C-60 and DNA in three-dimensional (x, y, z) orientations. Nano-Bio
    33. 33. Technical applications of biological molecules including protein-based materials, DNA-based materials, biomineralization, cellular systems and bioelectronics. http://www.nanobionics3.de/ NanoBionics
    34. 34. TRACTOR BEAMS FORCE FIELDS SUPERHERO SUIT PHASERS REPLICATORS IMMORTALITY INVISIBILITY TELEPORTATION THE HOLODECK The Future of Computers 1996 Robert A. Freitas Jr., Research Scientist, Zyvex Corp.
    35. 35. The Age of Non-Science Fiction?
    36. 36. • Economic Development • Workforce • Education • Video Games • The 5th World • Closing the Gaps
    37. 37. Charles Ostman Senior Fellow Institute for Global Futures NEURO NANO BIOINFO Convergence Technopolei S. Korea Finland Japan DC MSA Central Florida San Diego County
    38. 38. transitioning from a manufacturing to an innovation economy http://mit.edu/cre/research/ncc/proceedings/ncc-casestudies.pdf
    39. 39. e-Korea Vision 2006 also set the following basic directions: · From Quantitative Expansion to Qualitative Accomplishments such as the increase in productivity through legal and institutional reforms and innovations in business processes throughout society…Social transformation not just technical. · From Creation of new industries led by the government to Foundation for new industries. The government’s new role is to focus on the enabling environment and the private sector will be developing new independent and creative industries… Bottom up and top down organization for innovation. · From Catch-up Strategy to Leading Strategy - To strengthen competitiveness in IT, the government will increase leading investments in core technologies and strategic services which have the potential to produce significant added value in the future. Innovation leader…. http://www.apdip.net/projects/2003/asian-forum/docs/papers/comparative.pdf
    40. 40. Today, Finland’s progressive strategy includes: multi- disciplinary and multi-industry collaboration to integrate nano science-, bio science-, information science- and cognitive science- based research and development ( Tieke, 2005, p.9); converging design, art and science in the contexts of education and human development (Tahkokallio and Koivusilta, 2004, p.1); national R&D policy and urban-rural development establishing connected regional centers of innovation; partnering with global high tech markets and industries (Embassy of Switzerland, Beijing, 2005, p.12); and leading the world in “Public-Private Partnership” (with efforts dating back to the year of their independence, 1917) (Tieke, 2005, p.12-15).
    41. 41. Charles Ostman Senior Fellow Institute for Global Futures NEURO NANO BIOINFO What differentiates convergence technopolei? ?
    42. 42. Convergence Technopolei • Organizing education and other institutions to cultivate innovation. • Networking urban-to-rural, industry-to- industry and discipline-to-discipline across geography. • STEM plus ART/Design to create brands • Human development and intellectual capital strategy based on S&T convergence and living laboratories.
    43. 43. • Economic Development • Workforce • Education • Video Games • The 5th World • Closing the Gaps
    44. 44. The number of jobs requiring technical training is growing at five times the rate of other occupations. Innovate America, U.S. Council on Competitiveness
    45. 45. Boomers Generation X Generation Y 46-64 65-79 80-Present U.S. Census Bureau, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century , Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, Table 5, November 2002. 1946 20501900 1964 1980 STEM Workers? Boomers, Low SES, Minority & Women. U.S. Census Bureau, "U.S. Interim Projections by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin,“ released November 18, 2004. “Slower Growth”
    46. 46. 2008, US will graduate 198,000 Science and Engineering Students to replace 2MM Retiring Boomers (Gunderson, Texas Workforce Conference, 2005) 2015, 43% of the current workforce will retire (In Barlow, Jamrog, Human Resources Institute, University of Tampa in Navarro) 2030, 30MM Skilled Worker Shortage (Gunderson, Texas Workforce Conference, 2005)
    47. 47. 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100 (inthousands) White Black American Indian Asian and Pacific Islander Hispanic SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of Technology Policy analysis of U.S Census Bureau Data, Population Projections, http://WWW.CENSUS.gov/population/www/projections/natsum-T5.html In John Sargent Senior Policy Analyst U.S. Department of Commerce Census Bureau Projects Tripling of Hispanic & Asian Populations by 2050. Non- Hispanic Whites may Drop To Half of Total Population (US Census, 2004). “More Diversity”
    48. 48. Between 2002 and 2012 – 2 million job openings in computer science, mathematics, engineering and physical sciences. – 2.4 million skilled production jobs available for machinists, machine assemblers and operators, systems operators, and technicians. Source: U.S. Department of Labor in John Stevens 2005
    49. 49. Charles Ostman Senior Fellow Institute for Global Futures NEURO NANO BIOINFO What is the impact of S&T Convergence to workforce?
    50. 50. 100 million jobs are going to be created in a lot of these cross- disciplinary fields Council on Competitiveness: National Innovation Initiative Samuel Palmisano (CEO, IBM): Business Week: 10.11.2004
    51. 51. Navy Job Mergers
    52. 52. $35K - $45K $25K$40K - $50K $45K - $65K
    53. 53. Wind Turbine Job Mergers Lineman Oil Field Farm Mechanic Wind Turbine Tech
    54. 54. Emerging Jobs Workforce Attrition
    55. 55. • Economic Development • Workforce • Education • Video Games • The 5th World • Closing the Gaps
    56. 56. “Over the next ten years, 26 of the top 30 fastest growing jobs will require some post- secondary education or training...The demand for skilled workers is outpacing supply, resulting in attractive, high-paying jobs going unfilled.” Emily Stover De Rocco Assistant Secretary of Labor for Education and Training
    57. 57. “Over the next ten years, 26 of the top 30 fastest growing jobs will require some post- secondary education or training...The demand for skilled workers is outpacing supply, resulting in attractive, high-paying jobs going unfilled.” Emily Stover De Rocco Assistant Secretary of Labor for Education and Training
    58. 58. Tipping Point In China (3.7MM), 42% of students earn science/engineering Degrees compared to 5% in US (380K). Source: Gunderson, 2005 April 9-13, 2006 – San Antonio, Texas
    59. 59. National Science Board, 2004 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 160,000 180,000 200,000 220,000 240,000 China India European Union Japan Russia U.S. SKorea Taiwan # of 1st degree in Engineering / Science Source: National Science Board, “Science and Engineering Indicators – 2004”; Table 2-33. Russia, India and S Korea data from University of Texas NCR Report 2004
    60. 60. 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 160,000 180,000 200,000 220,000 240,000 China India European Union Japan Russia U.S. SKorea Taiwan # of 1st degree in Engineering / Science Source: National Science Board, “Science and Engineering Indicators – 2004”; Table 2-33. Russia, India and S Korea data from University of Texas NCR Report 2004 3 X Each National Science Board, 2004
    61. 61. • International (TIMSS) test scores show U.S. 4th graders to be 12th in the world in math; 6th in the world in science • International (TIMSS) test scores show U.S. 8th graders to be 14th in the world in math; 9th in the world in science • International (PISA) test scores show U.S. 12th graders to be 24th in the world in math; 22nd in the world in science Data from National Center for Education Statistics. In Mayo 2005, National Academies. (http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pisa/PISA2003Highlights.asp and http://nces.ed.gov/timss/Results03.asp) National Center for Education Statistics, Mayo, 2005.
    62. 62. Data from National Center for Education Statistics . In Mayo 2005, National Academies. (http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pisa/PISA2003Highlights.asp and http://nces.ed.gov/timss/Results03.asp) “The longer we stay in the educational system, the worse off we are with respect to our peers.” Source: Mayo, National Academies2005
    63. 63. Percentage of the population scoring at IALS literacy level 3 or higher on the document scale, 1994-95 53 56 62 66666767 7677 80 45 35 50 4547 49 58 52 4546 52 73 51 17 34 52 0 90 Sweden Netherlands Belgium Canada Switzerland (g) Switzerland (Fr) Germany Australia United Kingdom New Zealand Ireland United States Poland % 16-25 yrs of age 46-55 yrs of age Source: Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Education at a Glance OECD Indicators 1998 U.S. Older Adults Have Stronger Skills Than Young AdultsU.S. Older Adults Have Stronger Skills Than Young Adults
    64. 64. Charles Ostman Senior Fellow Institute for Global Futures NEURO NANO BIOINFO What is the impact of S&T Convergence to education?
    65. 65. Transdisciplinarity
    66. 66. Chemistry Engineering BiologyPhysics Educational Convergence Informatics
    67. 67. Transdisciplinarity • Creating new knowledge, processes and systems. • Structurally converging knowledge, processes and systems. • Integrating learning, working and problem solving. • Engaging real world needs and problems.
    68. 68. Source: Brazell, IC2 Institute, 2004 Yang Cai, Ingo Snel, Betty Chenga, Suman Bharathi, Clementine Klein d, Judith Klein- Seetharaman; Carnegie Mellon University, University of Frankfurt, Research Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. www.andrew.cmu.edu/~ycai/biogame.pdf BIOSIM 1.0
    69. 69. • Economic Development • Workforce • Education • Video Games • The 5th World • Closing the Gaps
    70. 70. Games for… Games for Health Serious Games Games for Change Learning Games
    71. 71. Case study: Emergency Response Training, Pjotr van Schothorst VSTEP BV, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    72. 72. Improved Target Acquisition System Trainer
    73. 73. USC ISI and Tactical Language Training (ITSEC 2005)
    74. 74. NETC – 24 Blue (ITSEC 2005)
    75. 75. Virtual U models the attitudes and behaviors of the academic community in five major areas of higher education anagement: • Spending and income decisions such as operating budget, new hires, incoming donations, and management of the endowment; • Faculty, course, and student scheduling issues; • Admissions standards, university prestige, and student enrollment; • Student housing, classrooms, and all other facilities; and • Performance indicators. Enlight Software, the Jackson Hole Higher Education Group, and the Institute for Research on Higher Education at the University of Pennsylvania (data), with support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Spencer Foundation. www.virtual-u.org
    76. 76. Virtual-u.org
    77. 77. food-force.com Produced by the United Nations' World Food Programme, Kids join a team of emergency aid workers to save the fictitious island of Sheylan from starvation caused by drought and civil war. The team goes on six missions to help save the island. The additional missions cleverly use games to demonstrate how emergency aid teams acquire food, make food packs, deliver food and establish long-term food supplies.
    78. 78. GlucoboyThe video game that runs on blood.
    79. 79. • Economic Development • Workforce • Education • Video Games • The 5th World • Closing the Gaps
    80. 80. What is the 5th World?
    81. 81. The other side of the digital divide.
    82. 82. The Other Side of the Digital Divide Not Low Socio-Economic Status Ninja’s Crew, GameCamp, 2005
    83. 83. Creation of new knowledge, processes & systems. Game Building is Transdisciplinary
    84. 84. Female, 4, 8% Male, 46, 92% Average Age Respondent 15 Avg. Age Start Playing Games 5 Avg. Hours of Play Per Week 24 % Mod’ers 34% Average Hours Mod'ing Per Wk. 5 Average Age Start Mod'ing 12 50 Game Camp Respondents to Date
    85. 85. Science MOD MOD’ing MOD’er Art SKIN SKIN’ing SKIN’er
    86. 86. Why do you modify games? 9 8 14 3 9 8 8 9 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Playing Yes Playing No Learning Yes Learning No Show Yes Show No Better Yes Better No
    87. 87. Math Engineering TechScience What are they learning? ?
    88. 88. Math Engineering TechScience ARTS What are they learning?
    89. 89. Math Engineering TechScience TEAMS What are they learning?
    90. 90. 22 48 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Graduate HS Graduate CC or TC Graduate University Plans for education Computer Science 20 Video Game Design 9 Design/Art 8 Write in to survey
    91. 91. Player Incr. hand-eye coord reaction time spatial visualization neuro-psych. tests visual attentiveness and mental rotation http://www.wehealnewyork.org/BI%20Surgeon%20teams%20up%20with%20Hollywood.htm James “Butch” Rosser, M.D., Chief of Minimally Invasive Surgery, Director of the Advanced Medical Technology Institute (AMTI) Beth Israel Medical Center in Manhattan According to Rosser’s study, surgeons who currently play or previously played video games had a 37% reduction in errors and accomplish laparoscopic surgical tasks 27% quicker.
    92. 92. How Have Video Games Changed the Learner? • Increased situational awareness (University of Rochester Study in Clark 2005) • Improved pattern recognition and spatial processing abilities (UCLA Prof. Patricia Marks Greenfield in Clark 2005) • Improved inductive reasoning, users “learn by doing” (Prof. Sherry Turkle, MIT in in Clark 2005)
    93. 93. US Nano Soldier FCS 2020 defenselink.mil/news/Jul2004/n07272004_2004072705.html Game Builder – Nano Soldier
    94. 94. Neuro Evolved Robotic Operatives Agents cope with changing environments and situations, optimize resource management, and form adaptive tactical solutions in real time. Stanley, Bryant, Perry, Patterson, Gold, Thibault, Miikkulainen IC2 Institute: NERO Game Builder – AI for Sensors
    95. 95. Sys Admin
    96. 96. http://www.itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov/JPODOCS/REPTS_TE/13599.htmlhttp://www.roadtraffic-technology.com/contractors/traffic_man/electrosonic/electrosonic1.html  BACK FLIP C4 Operations Centers Air Land Sea Space Cyber
    97. 97. REMIXING – Constructive media remixing TEAMS – Transdisciplinary communities of practice. SWARMING – Network socialization and learning (communal). GROUP – Global Generation? 1980 Emergence of the 5th World 198219641946 Boomers Generation X Millennials 46-64 65-79 82-Present 5th World 4th World = Digital Divide
    98. 98. 5th World Millennials Not Low Socio-Economic Status Ninja’s Crew, GameCamp, 2005
    99. 99. 4th World Millennials Low Socio-Economic Status Goldberg’s Crew, Houston Community College
    100. 100. The toys we play with as children!
    101. 101. • Economic Development • Workforce • Education • Video Games • The 5th World • Closing the Gaps
    102. 102. Move beyond Porter’s cluster analysis to strategy informed by two thousand years of military experience.
    103. 103. Leverage attention economy of games and structure of gaming to increase the pace and quality of human development.
    104. 104. First Flight 3 of 6 Dave Kenny
    105. 105. Leverage the attention economy of games and get children to pierce the veil of play to engage systemics and transdisciplinary action.
    106. 106. GAME TEAMS Games NANO BIO INFO NEURO Game Builder = System Builder
    107. 107. Elementary spaceTEAMS San Antonio,TX Robot competition plus career and academic exploration and history of science and technology.
    108. 108. spaceTEAMS San Antonio,TX Middle School
    109. 109. US First-EISD Andrew Schuetze San Antonio,TX High School
    110. 110. spaceTEAMS San Antonio,TX Middle School Like football or volleyball but academic.
    111. 111. Meet the challenge of globalization with innovation, creativity and innovation.
    112. 112. April 9-13, 2006 30th ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest World Championship The 2005 ACM-ICPC World Champions: Shanghai Jiao Tong University
    113. 113. MarsAnd beyond
    114. 114. • Economic Development • Workforce • Education • Video Games • The 5th World • Closing the Gaps
    115. 115. ______ AGE • How would you define the age in which we live? • What is the defining characteristic of the age in which we live? • What is the progression of ages? AgrarianIndustrialInformational?
    116. 116. http://www.adidas.com/campaigns/adidas_1/content/downloads/adidas_1- wp_02_1280_1024.jpg http://www.adidasprlookbook.com/adidas1/index.asp • 1,000th of a second sensor measures gap between heel and a magnet • 20-MHz microcontroller measures changes in compression • Motor spins at 4000 rpm turns a screw loosens cable • Environmentally and operator adaptive shoe sole
    117. 117. MIT Tech Review, 2005 Sensors Physical Chemical Biological http://www.rieti.go.jp/en/events/bbl/03102801.pdf , page 16 Actuators Physical Chemical Biological PhiloMetron™
    118. 118. GlucoboyThe video game that runs on blood.
    119. 119. Industrial Age Scientific Management, Training, Planning and Task Allocation F.W. Taylor, 1911, Principles of Scientific Management Cybernetic Age Cybernetcs "the art of assuring efficiency of action" 1958 by Louis Couffignal. Communication and control of living organisms and machines through manipulation of physical, chemical, biological and neurological processes, systems and environments. Economic, Historic & Philosophic Shift Notion of Information Age
    120. 120. jim@ventureRAMP.com

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