First Aid Slides

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First Aid Training

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First Aid Slides

  1. 1. First Aid Training
  2. 2. aims of first aid Preserve Life Prevent Worsening Promote Recovery
  3. 3. the airway
  4. 4. emergency action plan DANGER? Make sure it is safe for YES you to give help. Remove NO Danger Response? History YES Make the scene safe. Shout and gently shake or Find out what has happened. Do not take risks. tap the casualty. NO Help! Signs and Symptoms Shout for help, but don’t How does the patient feel or look? leave the casualty yet. Try to work out what’s wrong. Airway Treatment Open the airway by Remember – If you’re not sure, always seek tilting the head back professional medical advice. and lifting the chin. Normal Secondary Survey Breathing? YES Check for bleeding, injuries and clues (see your first aid book). Look, listen and feel for no more than 10 seconds. Recovery Position If you’re not sure if breathing is normal, treat it Recovery Position (see book). as though it is not. Dial 999 if not already done. NO Monitor Airway and Breathing. Keep the casualty Warm. Dial 999 Now (If not already done) Resuscitation  Give 30 chest compressions, then 2 rescue breaths.  Continue giving cycles of 30 compressions to 2 rescue breaths. 30 to 2  Only stop to recheck the patient if they start breathing normally – otherwise do not interrupt resuscitation.  If there is more than one rescuer, change over every 2 minutes to prevent fatigue.
  5. 5. priorities of treatment Primary Survey A B Airway Breathing Secondary Survey B Bleeding (or burns) B Bones
  6. 6. resuscitation D anger R esponse A irway B reathing
  7. 7. Causes of unconsciousness F ainting I mbalance of heat Shock H ead Injury Stroke Heart Attack A sphyxia Poisoning E pilepsy Diabetes
  8. 8. levels of consciousness A lert Confused V oice Inappropriate words Utters sounds No verbal response P ain Localises pain Responds only U nresponsive
  9. 9. secondary survey Primary Survey First! – D.R.A.B. Bleeding or Burns Head and Neck Shoulders and Chest Abdomen and Pelvis Legs and Arms Pockets and Clues Recovery Position
  10. 10. head injuries Compression Concussion Unconsciousness for a short Could have a history of period, followed by an recent head injury with increase in levels of apparent recovery, but then response and recovery. deteriorates Short term memory loss Levels of response become worse as condition develops (particularly of the incident). Confusion, irritability. Mild, general headache. Intense headache. Pale, clammy skin. Flushed, dry skin. Shallow / normal breathing. Deep, noisy, slow breathing. (Pressure on the respiratory control area of the brain) Rapid, weak pulse. Slow, strong pulse. (Blood diverts away from the (Caused by raised blood extremities) pressure) Normal pupils, reacting to One or both pupils dilate as light. pressure increases on the brain. Possible nausea or vomiting Condition becomes worse. on recovery. Fits may occur. No recovery.
  11. 11. compression
  12. 12. pupils
  13. 13. pupils
  14. 14. pupils
  15. 15. the respiratory system
  16. 16. the respiratory system Alveoli
  17. 17. collapsed lung
  18. 18. hypoxia – the causes External Suffocation,Drowning, High Altitude Tongue, Vomit, Choking, Airway Strangulation, Hanging, Burns, Anaphylaxis, Disease. Breathing Crushing, Collapsed Lung, Chest Injury, Poisons, Asthma, Disease, Illness. Heart Attack, Angina, Bleeding, Circulation Poisons, Anaemia. Stroke, Head Injury, Drug Control Overdose/Poisons, Spinal Injury, Centre Electric Shock.
  19. 19. hypoxia – signs and symptoms Pale, Cold, Clammy / Cyanosis Nausea / Vomiting Increase In Pulse Rate Weak Pulse Increase in Breathing Rate / Short of Breath Dizziness / Confusion Lowered Levels of Response
  20. 20. the circulatory system
  21. 21. the heart – blood flow To the From Body the Body To the Lungs From the Lungs Left Atrium Right Atrium Right Left Ventricle Ventricle
  22. 22. the heart
  23. 23. a typical heart attack
  24. 24. electrical impulses of the heart
  25. 25. Shock –normal circulation
  26. 26. Hypovolaemic Shock
  27. 27. cardiogenic shock
  28. 28. fainting Handbrake!!
  29. 29. anaphylactic shock
  30. 30. anaphylaxis Picture: Many Thanks to the Anaphylaxis Campaign.
  31. 31. types of wound C ontusion A brasion L aceration I ncision P uncture G un Shot A mputation D egloved
  32. 32. fractured wrist
  33. 33. eye / face laceration
  34. 34. finger laceration
  35. 35. Fingertip amputation
  36. 36. puncture wound
  37. 37. blood loss Dilate Blood Vessels Constrict 140 Heart 120 Rate 100 80 Blood Pressure 10% 20% 30% 40% Blood Loss
  38. 38. treatment of bleeding S it or Lay E xamine E levate P ressure
  39. 39. severity of burns S ize C ause A ge L ocation Depth
  40. 40. burns – estimating the area
  41. 41. laceration
  42. 42. dislocated kneecap
  43. 43. burns
  44. 44. burns treatment 1 COOL! 2 REMOVE 3 DRESS
  45. 45. the skeleton
  46. 46. the spine 7 Cervical 12 Thoracic 5 Lumbar 5 Fused Sacral
  47. 47. types of fracture Closed Open Complicated Green Stick
  48. 48. types of wound P ain L oss of power U natural movement S welling or bruising Deformity I rregularity C repitus T enderness
  49. 49. open fracture
  50. 50. open fracture Note the poor aseptic technique!
  51. 51. open fractured wrist
  52. 52. sprains and strains R est Ice C ompression E levation
  53. 53. body temperature 0F 0C 109.4 43 Unconsciousness / fitting. Heat 107.6 42 Confused / restless. Headache, dizzy, uncomfortable. 105.8 41 Stroke Strong bounding pulse. 104 40 Flushed dry skin, hot to touch. Heat Cramps in stomach / arms / legs. 102.2 39 Pale sweaty skin. Exhaustion 100.4 38 Nausea / loss of appetite. 98.6 37 Normal Body Temperature Normal 96.8 36 95 35 Shivering Mild 34 Fatigue, Slurred speech 93.2 Confusion, forgetfulness Hypothermia 91.4 33 Shivering stops, muscle rigidity 89.6 32 Very slow, very weak pulse 31 Noticeable drowsiness 87.8 30 Severe reduction in response levels 86 Unconsciousness 84.2 29 Dilated pupils Severe 82.4 28 Pulse undetectable Hypothermia 80.6 27 Appearance of death 78.8 26 77 25 Death 75.2 24
  54. 54. body temperature 0F 0C 109.4 43 Unconsciousness / fitting. Heat 107.6 42 Confused / restless. Headache, dizzy, uncomfortable. 105.8 41 Stroke Strong bounding pulse. 104 40 Flushed dry skin, hot to touch. Heat Cramps in stomach / arms / legs. 102.2 39 Pale sweaty skin. Exhaustion 100.4 38 Nausea / loss of appetite. 98.6 37 Normal Body Temperature Normal 96.8 36 95 35 Shivering Mild 34 Fatigue, Slurred speech 93.2 Confusion, forgetfulness Hypothermia 91.4 33 Shivering stops, muscle rigidity 89.6 32 Very slow, very weak pulse 31 Noticeable drowsiness 87.8 30 Severe reduction in response levels 86 Unconsciousness 84.2 29 Dilated pupils Severe 82.4 28 Pulse undetectable Hypothermia 80.6 27 Appearance of death 78.8 26 77 25 Death 75.2 24
  55. 55. body temperature 0F 0C 109.4 43 Unconsciousness / fitting. Heat 107.6 42 Confused / restless. Headache, dizzy, uncomfortable. 105.8 41 Stroke Strong bounding pulse. 104 40 Flushed dry skin, hot to touch. Heat Cramps in stomach / arms / legs. 102.2 39 Pale sweaty skin. Exhaustion 100.4 38 Nausea / loss of appetite. 98.6 37 Normal Body Temperature Normal 96.8 36 95 35 Shivering Mild 34 Fatigue, Slurred speech 93.2 Confusion, forgetfulness Hypothermia 91.4 33 Shivering stops, muscle rigidity 89.6 32 Very slow, very weak pulse 31 Noticeable drowsiness 87.8 30 Severe reduction in response levels 86 Unconsciousness 84.2 29 Dilated pupils Severe 82.4 28 Pulse undetectable Hypothermia 80.6 27 Appearance of death 78.8 26 77 25 Death 75.2 24
  56. 56. body temperature 0F 0C 109.4 43 Unconsciousness / fitting. Heat 107.6 42 Confused / restless. Headache, dizzy, uncomfortable. 105.8 41 Stroke Strong bounding pulse. 104 40 Flushed dry skin, hot to touch. Heat Cramps in stomach / arms / legs. 102.2 39 Pale sweaty skin. Exhaustion 100.4 38 Nausea / loss of appetite. 98.6 37 Normal Body Temperature Normal 96.8 36 95 35 Shivering Mild 34 Fatigue, Slurred speech 93.2 Confusion, forgetfulness Hypothermia 91.4 33 Shivering stops, muscle rigidity 89.6 32 Very slow, very weak pulse 31 Noticeable drowsiness 87.8 30 Severe reduction in response levels 86 Unconsciousness 84.2 29 Dilated pupils Severe 82.4 28 Pulse undetectable Hypothermia 80.6 27 Appearance of death 78.8 26 77 25 Death 75.2 24
  57. 57. body temperature 0F 0C 109.4 43 Unconsciousness / fitting. Heat 107.6 42 Confused / restless. Headache, dizzy, uncomfortable. 105.8 41 Stroke Strong bounding pulse. 104 40 Flushed dry skin, hot to touch. Heat Cramps in stomach / arms / legs. 102.2 39 Pale sweaty skin. Exhaustion 100.4 38 Nausea / loss of appetite. 98.6 37 Normal Body Temperature Normal 96.8 36 95 35 Shivering Mild 34 Fatigue, Slurred speech 93.2 Confusion, forgetfulness Hypothermia 91.4 33 Shivering stops, muscle rigidity 89.6 32 Very slow, very weak pulse 31 Noticeable drowsiness 87.8 30 Severe reduction in response levels 86 Unconsciousness 84.2 29 Dilated pupils Severe 82.4 28 Pulse undetectable Hypothermia 80.6 27 Appearance of death 78.8 26 77 25 Death 75.2 24
  58. 58. the digestive system
  59. 59. diabetes High Blood Sugar Low Blood Sugar Slow Fast Onset Levels of Deteriorate slowly Deteriorate rapidly response Pale, cold, sweaty Skin Dry and Warm Deep sighing Breathing Shallow and rapid breaths Rapid Pulse Rapid Excessive urination Other May be confused Very thirsty symptoms for drunkenness Hunger Fruity smell on breath
  60. 60. moving and handling An average adult weighs 60 to 70kg! For most women, reduce weight by one third Reduce weight by 10% for twisting 45o Reduce weight by 20% for twisting 90 o Assumptions: The load is grasped in both hands. The handler is in a stable body position The lift takes place in reasonable working conditions
  61. 61. moving and handling Chin up as Keep your you lift back upright Bend with your knees not your back Keep the Feet apart to load as close give you to your body balance as possible

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