emergency action plan
Make sure it is safe for
you to give help.
History YES Make the scene safe.
Shout and gently shake or
Find out what has happened. Do not take risks.
tap the casualty.
Signs and Symptoms Shout for help, but don’t
How does the patient feel or look?
leave the casualty yet.
Try to work out what’s wrong.
Open the airway by
Remember – If you’re not sure, always seek
tilting the head back
professional medical advice.
and lifting the chin.
Normal Secondary Survey
Breathing? YES Check for bleeding, injuries and clues
(see your first aid book).
Look, listen and feel
for no more than 10
If you’re not sure if
breathing is normal, treat it
Recovery Position (see book).
as though it is not.
Dial 999 if not already done.
NO Monitor Airway and Breathing.
Keep the casualty Warm.
(If not already done)
Give 30 chest compressions, then 2 rescue breaths.
Continue giving cycles of 30 compressions to 2 rescue breaths.
30 to 2 Only stop to recheck the patient if they start breathing normally
– otherwise do not interrupt resuscitation.
If there is more than one rescuer, change over every 2 minutes
to prevent fatigue.
priorities of treatment
Bleeding (or burns)
Causes of unconsciousness
I mbalance of heat
H ead Injury
levels of consciousness
V oice Inappropriate words
No verbal response
P ain Localises pain
Primary Survey First! – D.R.A.B.
Bleeding or Burns
Head and Neck
Shoulders and Chest
Abdomen and Pelvis
Legs and Arms
Pockets and Clues
Unconsciousness for a short Could have a history of
period, followed by an recent head injury with
increase in levels of apparent recovery, but then
response and recovery. deteriorates
Short term memory loss Levels of response become
worse as condition develops
(particularly of the incident).
Mild, general headache. Intense headache.
Pale, clammy skin. Flushed, dry skin.
Shallow / normal breathing. Deep, noisy, slow breathing.
(Pressure on the respiratory
control area of the brain)
Rapid, weak pulse. Slow, strong pulse.
(Blood diverts away from the (Caused by raised blood
Normal pupils, reacting to One or both pupils dilate as
light. pressure increases on the
Possible nausea or vomiting Condition becomes worse.
on recovery. Fits may occur. No recovery.
High Blood Sugar Low Blood Sugar
Deteriorate slowly Deteriorate rapidly
Pale, cold, sweaty
Skin Dry and Warm
Breathing Shallow and rapid
May be confused
Fruity smell on breath
moving and handling
An average adult weighs 60 to 70kg!
For most women, reduce weight by one third
Reduce weight by 10% for twisting 45o
Reduce weight by 20% for twisting 90 o
The load is grasped in both hands.
The handler is in a stable body position
The lift takes place in reasonable working conditions
moving and handling
Chin up as Keep your
you lift back upright
Feet apart to
load as close
to your body