Electricity at Work
Basic Principles of Electricity
 Volt = Electrical pressure
 Ampere = Electric current flow
 Ohm = Electrical resistanc...
Electrical Hazards
 Electric shocks
 Electric burns
 Electrical fires
 Electric arcing
 Explosion
 Portable Electric...
Electrical Control Measures
  Insulation/Enclosure of live parts

 Low Voltages
 Earthing
 Fuse
 Circuit Breaker
 RC...
Insulation/Enclosure of Live Parts
  Live parts cannot be touched
  If equipment has a metal enclosure,
   precautions m...
Low Voltages
 For hand tools, the 100 volt centre-tapped
  (CTE) system is recommended.
 System relies on the mid-point ...
Earthing
 By connecting exposed metal parts to
  earth, any fault current is provided with low
  impedance path to earth ...
Fuses
 Forms a weak link in a circuit by
  overheating and melting by design if the
  current exceeds the safe limit
 Ra...
Circuit Breakers
 A mechanical switch which automatically
  opens if the circuit is overloaded
 Rating should be above o...
RCDs
 Interrupt supply in event of a small leak of
  current to earth
 Sensitivity can be adjusted so that shocks
  are ...
Equipotential Bonding
 All extraneous metalwork is is connected
  by a common bonding conductor which
  ensures that all ...
Isolation
 Isolation means depriving something of
  power, AND ensuring that tit cannot be re-
  energised
 Establishes ...
Other Control Measures
 Insulating gloves
 Insulating mats
 FR clothing
 Insulated tools
 Face shields
 Shrouding
 ...
Portable Electrical Equipment
Control Measures
 Regular checks/maintenance
 Roll out leads
 Do not use in harsh conditi...
Electricity at Work Regs 1989
    Require that all electrical systems should be:

    • Constructed & maintained to preve...
Maintaining Electrical Equipment
 User checks
 Formal visual inspections
 Combined Inspections and tests
 Maintenance ...
User Checks
 Check for:
  •   Damage to cable sheath
  •   Damage to plug, casing or pins
  •   Inadequate joints or tape...
Formal Visual Inspections
 Carried out by competent person
 Most faults can be picked up this way
 Include removal of p...
Combined Inspection & Test
 Likely to be justified when:
  • Reason to suspect equipment may be faulty
  • After repair o...
Maintenance & Test Records
 Useful for reviewing & monitoring
  effectiveness of maintenance regime
 Can be used as inve...
Frequency of Inspections
 Factors to consider:
  •   Type of equipment e.g. portable or hand held
  •   Manufacturers rec...
Effects of Electric Shock
 Muscular contractions
 Respiratory failure
 Fibrillation of the heart
 Cardiac arrest
 Bur...
First Aid for Electric Shock
 Break contact between current and victim
  either by switching off or removing victim
 Ens...
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B Part 14 Electricity

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Electricity Health and Safety

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B Part 14 Electricity

  1. 1. Electricity at Work
  2. 2. Basic Principles of Electricity  Volt = Electrical pressure  Ampere = Electric current flow  Ohm = Electrical resistance (or impedance)  Power (watts) = voltage x current
  3. 3. Electrical Hazards  Electric shocks  Electric burns  Electrical fires  Electric arcing  Explosion  Portable Electrical equipment
  4. 4. Electrical Control Measures Insulation/Enclosure of live parts   Low Voltages  Earthing  Fuse  Circuit Breaker  RCD  Equipotential bonding  Isolation
  5. 5. Insulation/Enclosure of Live Parts  Live parts cannot be touched  If equipment has a metal enclosure, precautions must be taken to prevent metalwork becoming live. This is achieved by double insulation in which live parts are covered by 2 layers of insulator.  Each layer is capable of adequate insulation
  6. 6. Low Voltages  For hand tools, the 100 volt centre-tapped (CTE) system is recommended.  System relies on the mid-point of the reduced voltage transformer to be earthed  Maximum shock voltage is 55 volts, but full 110 volt supply powers the equipment
  7. 7. Earthing  By connecting exposed metal parts to earth, any fault current is provided with low impedance path to earth I.e. one with little resistance so that fault current will operate protective devices and cut off the supply by breaking the circuit  If all exposed metalwork is properly bonded to earth, it cannot be made live by a fault and the risk of shock is eliminated.
  8. 8. Fuses  Forms a weak link in a circuit by overheating and melting by design if the current exceeds the safe limit  Rating should be above operating current required by equipment but less than the current rating of the cable in the circuit
  9. 9. Circuit Breakers  A mechanical switch which automatically opens if the circuit is overloaded  Rating should be above operating current required by equipment but less than the current rating of the cable in the circuit
  10. 10. RCDs  Interrupt supply in event of a small leak of current to earth  Sensitivity can be adjusted so that shocks are not lethal  Determine when a current flows to earth by comparing current in live and neutral conductors  Test buttons should be regularly checked
  11. 11. Equipotential Bonding  All extraneous metalwork is is connected by a common bonding conductor which ensures that all the metalwork is at the same potential  Current will not flow between two points at the same potential  A common connection to earth is usually made
  12. 12. Isolation  Isolation means depriving something of power, AND ensuring that tit cannot be re- energised  Establishes an effective barrier between equipment and supply and ensures that no unauthorised person is able to remove the barrier  Should be clearly labelled
  13. 13. Other Control Measures  Insulating gloves  Insulating mats  FR clothing  Insulated tools  Face shields  Shrouding  Distance
  14. 14. Portable Electrical Equipment Control Measures  Regular checks/maintenance  Roll out leads  Do not use in harsh conditions  Manufacturers instructions  110v CTE system
  15. 15. Electricity at Work Regs 1989 Require that all electrical systems should be:  • Constructed & maintained to prevent danger • Regularly checked & tested by a competent person • Suitable & sufficient for the environment in which they are to be used • Protected by earthing, double earthing, double insulation and/or RCDs • Capable of being made dead (isolated) Live working should only be used as a last resort and then  with all due precautions to prevent/minimise injury Systems should normally be made dead, checked and  isolated so that they cannot accidentally become energised – may require PtW systems
  16. 16. Maintaining Electrical Equipment  User checks  Formal visual inspections  Combined Inspections and tests  Maintenance and test records  Frequency of maintenance
  17. 17. User Checks  Check for: • Damage to cable sheath • Damage to plug, casing or pins • Inadequate joints or taped joints • Coloured internal cables showing • Wet or contamination • Damage to external casing or loose parts or screws  Equipment should be taken out of use and reported immediately
  18. 18. Formal Visual Inspections  Carried out by competent person  Most faults can be picked up this way  Include removal of plug cover and checking fuse  Provide simple written guidance  Faulty equipment should be taken out of service and not used until properly repaired  Data should be kept and can be used to identify trends
  19. 19. Combined Inspection & Test  Likely to be justified when: • Reason to suspect equipment may be faulty • After repair or modification • At periods appropriate to the equipment  PAT testing
  20. 20. Maintenance & Test Records  Useful for reviewing & monitoring effectiveness of maintenance regime  Can be used as inventory of equipment and a check on use of unauthorised equipment  Can be used to identify trends  Useful to label equipment
  21. 21. Frequency of Inspections  Factors to consider: • Type of equipment e.g. portable or hand held • Manufacturers recommendations • Initial integrity and soundness • Age of equipment • Working environment e.g. wet , hot, dusty • Frequency and duration of use • Foreseeable abuse of equipment • Effects of any modifications or repairs • Analysis of records of previous maintenance
  22. 22. Effects of Electric Shock  Muscular contractions  Respiratory failure  Fibrillation of the heart  Cardiac arrest  Burns  Can result in secondary injuries e.g. falls from height or muscle tears
  23. 23. First Aid for Electric Shock  Break contact between current and victim either by switching off or removing victim  Ensure rescuer does not come into contact with anything live e.g. victims skin  Artificial respiration should commence immediately and continue until the victim recovers or qualified medical aid intervenes

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