Job – a repetitive activity that provides both sustenance and survival. Vocation – provides sustenance and survival, but also guarantees personal autonomy and personal significance. Career – long term involvement in an activity, but doesn’t necessarily provide fulfillment.
Occupation – an endeavor within society’s economic, social and political system, but may not entail a sense of calling. Profession – emphasizes the expertise and social contribution to society, but not necessarily a calling for personal fulfillment.
To create optimal conditions for desired learning to take place in as short a time as possible.
Hats off to teachers for their many roles: › Artist and Architect › Scientist and Psychologist › Manager and Mentor › Controller and Counselor › Sage on the Stage › Guide on the Side
Teachers as Passive Technicians › Conduit Teachers as Reflective Practitioners › Facilitator Teachers as Transformative Intellectuals › Change Agent
Primary focus of teaching is content knowledge. Simply use “teacher-proof” packages. Professional experts create the knowledge base and teachers pass it on to students. Leads to disempowerment. Passive form of teaching.
First proposed by John Dewey: › Teaching is not just a series of predetermined and pre-sequenced procedures. › Teachers are problem solvers. › This is a holistic approach that emphasizes the creativity, artistry, and context sensitivity. Don Schon added: › Teachers bring perspectives that cannot be matched by experts who are far removed from the classroom.
There are 2 types of Reflection: Reflection-on-Action: › Reflection-on-action – can happen before and after a lesson as teachers plan for a lesson and then evaluate the effectiveness of their teaching acts afterward. Reflection-in-Action › Happens during the teaching act when teachers monitor their ongoing performance, locate unexpected problems, and adjust instantaneously.
Kenneth Zeichner and Daniel Liston say that to be considered reflective, teachers must: › 1. examine frames and attempt to solve the dilemmas of classroom practice. › 2. be aware of and question the assumptions and values of his or her teaching. › 3. be attentive to the institutional and cultural contexts in which he or she teaches. › 4. take part in curriculum development and be involved in school change efforts › 5. take responsibility for own professional development.
Focuses on the teacher alone, not on learners, colleagues, planners, and administrators. Focuses on what teachers do in the classroom and not the sociopolitical factors that shape a teacher’s reflective practice. Contributes very little change to the reliance on established professional wisdom.
Developed by critical pedagogists. Empowers teachers and learners. Takes seriously the lived experiences that teachers and learners bring and teach according to student needs and wants. Requires teachers to be sociopolitically conscious and to be assertive in acting on it. Dual Task – strives for educational advancement and personal transformation.
Inquiry oriented Socially contextualized Grounded on a commitment to world making Dedicated to an art of improvisation Extended by a concern with critical self and social reflection Shaped by a commitment to democratic self- directed education Committed to action Concerned with the affective dimension of human beings
Teachers as Teachers as Teachers asTransformative Reflective Passive Intellectuals Practitioners Technicians
Professional Theory – Professional Theory – created and unique to each perpetuated within the person, developed professional culture. through testing professional theories.
Technical Level: Concerned with effective achievement of short-term, classroom centered instructional goals. › Passive Technicians Practical Level: Concerned with assumptions, values, and consequences of classroom activities. › Reflective Practitioners Critical or Emancipatory Level: Concerned with the wider ethical, social, historical and political issues. › Transformative Intellectuals
1. This chapter gave several different synonyms and definitions for the act of teaching (job, vocation, career, etc.). In thinking about yourself and your own teaching philosophy, which do you feel is the most relevant? Why?2. What are the obstacles you may face in carrying out the responsibilities of a reflective teacher and how might you overcome them?
Kumaravadivelu, B. (2003). Chapter 1: Conceptualizing Teaching Acts (p. 5-22).Found in: Beyond methods: Macrostrategies for Language Teaching.