Foundations of Education


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Foundations of Education

  1. 1. S Five Elements of Balanced Literacy Program By: Jillian Wanex
  2. 2. Phonemic Awareness Definition S “Phonemic awareness is the ability to identify and manipulate the sounds letters represent, including blending sounds to make words, creating rhyming patterns, and counting phonemes (individual sounds)” (McEwan, 2009).
  3. 3. Phonemic Awareness Features/Facts S Students can learn from their environment/ listening to caregivers, word games, poems and nursery rhymes, and teachers who teach is explicitly and systematically. S Students must learn PA skills before you learn phonics skills. S PA is a critical factor when learning the alphabetic principle.
  4. 4. Phonemic Awareness S Instructional Resource that meets the learning needs of diverse population (print-based): Print words on cards so that the student is able to follow along with the letter sounds as they read the word. S Instructional Resource that meets the learning needs of diverse population (non-print-based): Clapping and tapping the syllables in the words.
  5. 5. Phonemic Awareness Instructional Strategies S Instruction must be differentiated, explicit, systematic, supportive, intensive, and specialized: S Explicit instruction: I do, We do, You do. Teacher will model first, then all of the students do it, then the student does it independently. S Supportive Instruction: First graders will be given many opportunities to practice sounds orally modeled by the teacher while the teacher encourages the students to stay on task.
  6. 6. Phonemic Awareness Assessments S 1. Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills Assessment: this test can be given in k-2 to test students’ PA awareness skills. S 2. Phonological Awareness Skills Test: this test can be given to first graders to find out which PA skills they have mastered and which skills they need more help with.
  7. 7. Phonics Definition S “Phonics is an understanding of the alphabetic principle (that letters either singly or in combination represent various sounds) and the ability to apply this knowledge in decoding of unfamiliar words.” (McEwan, 2009).
  8. 8. Phonics Features/Facts S “The evidence for phonics instruction is most persuasive for students who begin first grade with weaker PA skills.” (Foorman et al., 1998) S Systematic phonics programs helps students understand why they are learning the relationships between letters and sounds. S Synthetic phonics focuses on graphemes and phonemes.
  9. 9. Phonics S Instructional Resource that meets the learning needs of diverse population (print-based): First graders should be provided with passages or books to be able to decode the words. S Instructional Resource that meets the learning needs of diverse population (non-print-based): First graders can use magnetic letters to help students manipulate the words.
  10. 10. Phonics S Instructional Strategy and an explanation of their implementation and methodologies for specific grade level S 1. Teachers should be flexible when making their groups. Teachers want to create their groups depending on their reading level and reading skills. First graders can be separated into low, middle, and high groups. S 2. Teachers should choose books for their first graders that are on their correct reading level and then scaffolding the books to higher levels.
  11. 11. Phonics Assessments S 1. Use decodable books to see how the first graders are able to decode the words in the passage. S 2. Use a set list of decodable words to see how the first graders figure out the word.
  12. 12. Fluency Definition S Fluency is the ability to read so effortlessly and automatically that working memory is available for the ultimate purpose of reading – extracting and constructing meaning from the text” (McEwan, 2009).
  13. 13. Fluency Features/Facts S Sight word can be immediately retrieved from long-term memory. S Prosody is important with fluency (because it is reading with expression that indicates that the reader fully understands the meaning conveyed by the author, which improves comprehension.) S Fluency is the variation in speed which sight words are processed.
  14. 14. Fluency S Instructional Resource that meets the learning needs of diverse population (print-based): Teachers should find text that is on the students level so that they can practice sounding fluent. (First graders can re-read independently to help with fluency) S Instructional Resource that meets the learning needs of diverse population (non-print-based): Teacher can say a sentence from the story and have the students repeat it. Use flash cards with pictures and the word on it. The student will hear the teacher read fluently and the flash cards will help with the unfamiliar words.
  15. 15. Fluency: Instructional Strategies S Teacher will read the students the story as they follow along S Students will echo read with the teacher S Everyone will choral read the selection S Teacher will break class into paired reading S Student will independently read the story on their own. S Repetition will help the first graders understand and listen to how fluent reading should sound.
  16. 16. Fluency: Instructional Strategies S In small group, so that all the students are on the same reading level, have students take turns reading a sentence from the story. S Teacher will write any missed words on the board and help decode the decodable words. S Students will read the story in pairs and then independently. S This helps the first graders listen to each other and practice the unfamiliar words so that they are prepared to read on their own.
  17. 17. Fluency Assessments S Running record: a teacher can give a student a running record by timing them read the passage and markng any missed words. S A teacher can use a Fluency scale to see how a student performs while reading a passage.
  18. 18. Vocabulary Definition S Vocabulary is the body of words. S “Word Knowledge is knowing the meaning of words, knowing about the relationships between words (word schema), and having linguistic knowledge about words” (McEwan, 2009).
  19. 19. Vocabulary Features/Facts S Word knowledge is simply knowing the meaning of lots of words. S “Students need many exposures and experiences with new words to fully understand them in new text or use them in writing and speaking” (McEwan, 2009). S Vocabulary can be learned by incidental learning.
  20. 20. Vocabulary S Instructional Resource that meets the learning needs of diverse population (print-based): Students can review vocabulary words and then read them in a passage to see how it relates to the story. S Instructional Resource that meets the learning needs of diverse population (non-print-based): Teachers can engage students in discussions about what experiences they have had with certain words.
  21. 21. Vocabulary: Instructional Strategies S Teacher will provide definitional and contextual information about new words. S First graders are eager to learn new words but a teacher must really help them understand the new word. S Teacher must provide definition, synonyms, antonyms, sentences, etc. S Students can relate other words to their experiences as well.
  22. 22. Vocabulary: Instructional Strategies S Teacher can provide students with multiple opportunities for cognitive processing. S Students can write about the words. S Students can create a story about the words. S Students can act out their experiences with the words. S This will help first graders make connections to the words.
  23. 23. Vocabulary Assessments S Teacher can have students write their own sentences using the vocabulary words. This shows that they understand what the word is and how it fits in a sentence. First graders would be able to express their personal relevancy with these words. S Teacher can ask the students to create a project (storybook, poem, song, etc.) with these words to show that they understand what they mean. This lets first grade choose what activity they want while showing the teacher they understand the vocabulary.
  24. 24. Comprehension Definition S “Comprehension is the extraction or construction of meaning from text using the seven cognitive strategies or highly skilled readers as appropriate” (McEwan, 2009).
  25. 25. Comprehension Features/Facts S Activating helps a student to recall prior knowledge to construct meaning. S Inferring brings together what is written in text and what is unwritten in text, and helps reader to construct meaning. S Visualizing helps the reader visualize a mental image to construct meaning from the text.
  26. 26. Comprehension S Instructional Resource that meets the learning needs of diverse population (print-based): A first grader is able to read a story independently and then answer question to help understand the story. S Instructional Resource that meets the learning needs of diverse population (non-print-based): A first grader can listen to the teacher read a story aloud, and then verbally answer questions about the story.
  27. 27. Comprehension: Instructional Strategies S The teacher will directly and explicitly what the students are expected to do during the lesson. S The teacher will do a think aloud of how to think about how one is reading both during and after the act of reading. S A first grader needs to be able to monitor his/her reading. This is important for a student so that they are paying attention to the details in the story and understanding what they are reading.
  28. 28. Comprehension: Instructional Strategies S It is always important for a teacher to recap the lesson. S The act of summarizing what has been learned is important for first graders to hear so that they know it is important and should be applied during their reading.
  29. 29. Comprehension Assessments S A teacher can have a first graders independently read a passage and answer questions about the text. This allows the teacher to understand if the student understood the story. S The students can read a story and then write a summary about the story. The teacher can use a scale to rate the students summary of the story. This is important to see if the student understood what the story was about and if details were provided.
  30. 30. Resources: S Delaware Department of Education (2009). Delaware literacy resource guide. Retrieved from S Educational Leadership: Schools and Learning Communities: What is a Professional Learning Community?. (n.d.). iCyte. Retrieved May 20, 2014, from S Effective Strategies for Teaching Phonemic Awareness. (n.d.). Reading Worksheets Grammar Comprehension Lesson Plans. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from strategies-for-teaching-phonemic-awareness/ S Hasbrouck, J. (2006). For Students Who Are Not Yet Fluent, Silent Reading Is Not the Best Use of Classroom Time. American Educator, Summer 2006, 30(2). S McEwan, E. K. (2009). Teach them all to read: catching kids before they fall through the cracks (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin. S What is Wilson Fluency/Basics?. (n.d.). iCyte. Retrieved May 28, 2014, from