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Proper Maintenance for the Long Life of Concrete Pavements

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Gordon Smith, PE

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Proper Maintenance for the Long Life of Concrete Pavements

  1. 1. Gordon Smith, P.E. glsmith@iastate.edu Proper Maintenance for the Long Life of Concrete Pavements 40th Annual Concrete Paving Workshop January 22, 2019 Lincoln, Nebraska
  2. 2. Outline • Service Life • Typical Treatments  Diamond Grinding  Full Depth Repairs  Partial Depth Repairs  Dowel Bar Retrofit  Joint Sealing or Resealing  Slab Stabilization/Jacking  Cross stitching • Concrete Overlays • References/Guides/Aides • Early Opening • Summary 2
  3. 3. Maintaining the Service and Investment of a Concrete Pavement by Improved Designs and Cost-Effective PAVEMENT PRESERVATION TECHNIQUES Service/Investment 3
  4. 4. Service Life 4 SHORT-TERM PAVEMENT
  5. 5. Why Concrete Pavement Preservation Bellefontaine, OH 1925 5
  6. 6. Service Life 6 LONG-TERM PAVEMENT PDR and/or DG
  7. 7. 2018 = 125th Anniversary 7
  8. 8. Typical Concrete Preservation Activities • Diamond Grinding or Diamond Grooving • Full Depth repairs • Partial Depth Repairs • Dowel Bar Retrofit • Joint Sealing or Resealing • Slab Stabilization/Jacking • Cross stitching 8
  9. 9. Concrete Pavement Preservation Guide 2014 http://www.cptechcenter.org/technical-library/documents/preservation_guide_2nd_ed_508_final.pdf Contains 12 Chapters on Preservation Techniques • Introduction • Preventive Maintenance and Pavement Preservation Concepts • Concrete Pavement Evaluation • Slab Stabilization and Slab Jacking • Partial-Depth Repairs • Full-Depth Repairs • Retrofitted Edgedrains • Dowel Bar Retrofit, Cross Stitching, and Slot Stitching • Diamond Grinding and Grooving • Joint Resealing and Crack Sealing • Concrete Overlays • Strategy Selection 9
  10. 10. Diamond Grinding • Removal of thin surface layer of hardened PCC using closely spaced diamond saw blades • Results in smooth, level pavement surface • Provides a longitudinal texture with desirable friction and low noise characteristics • Frequently performed in conjunction with other CPP techniques, such as full- depth repair, dowel bar retrofit, and joint resealing 10
  11. 11. Diamond Grinding 11
  12. 12. International Roughness Index (IRI) I-10, Katy Freeway, Houston 701,900 sq yds 12 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Left Right Average Left Right Average Left Right Average Left Right Average R1 R2 L1 L2 IRI(in/mi) Pre-NGDG 3-mo Post-NGDG 6-mo Post-NGDG Avg. Post-NGDG
  13. 13. OBSI Data (Level by Lane) I-10, Katy Freeway, Houston 701,900 sq yds 13
  14. 14. Full-Depth Repair Key Factors for Success • Removal (4’ min.) • Dowel bar holes (grout vs. epoxy) • Proper material selection • Proper placement and curing • Include as part of Partial-Depth Repair 14
  15. 15. Full Depth Repair 15
  16. 16. Partial-Depth Repair Key Factors for Success • Proper selection of candidate projects • Proper material selection • Identification of repair boundaries • Use of joint/crack reformers • Achieving good bond • Proper placement and curing 16
  17. 17. Partial Depth Repairs 17
  18. 18. Dowel Bar Retrofit • Restores load transfer • Reduces probability of pumping, faulting, and corner breaks • Improves long-term rideability • Increases service life 18
  19. 19. Dowel Bar Retrofit 19
  20. 20. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 4107 4235 4340 4616 4706 4902 5009 5122 5144 5193 5270 5686 5712 5827 5926 5968 5981 6025 6334 6473 6520 6529 6757 6883 6916 7084 7293 Age(years) Contract Number – Washington DOT PCC Age at DBR DBR In-Service (2018) Portion DBR Out-of-Service) HMA Overlay Reconstructed Pavement Age vs. DBR Placement 20
  21. 21. Slab Stabilization/Jacking • Used for Sub Grade Repair  Soil collapse  Poor Compaction  Loss of fines • Restore support of slabs • Reduce progression of  Pumping  Joint faulting  Corner breaks Fill Void or Level Slab Grout 21
  22. 22. Slab Stabilization/ Jacking 22
  23. 23. Joint and Crack Resealing Minimize infiltration of water and incompressibles • Types  Hot pour  Silicone  Compressive seals • Reservoir preparation  Clean  Shape • Reduces:  Subgrade softening  Erosion of fines  Spalling 23
  24. 24. Joint Resealing 24
  25. 25. Cross Stitching • Used for longitudinal cracks that are in good condition • Used to maintain aggregate interlock and provide added reinforcement to crack  Strengthen longitudinal cracks  Prevent slab migration  Maintain aggregate interlock  Prevent lane separation  Prevent longitudinal joint faulting 25
  26. 26. Cross Stitching 26
  27. 27. Concrete Overlays # of miles in Iowa • 1204 on asphalt • 734 on concrete Oldest road • On asphalt - 1977 • On concrete - 1980 Average age – half of projects constructed since 2005 • 12 on asphalt (25.1 prior to 2005) • 13.5 on concrete (20.1 prior to 2005) Range in thickness 2” - 12” Range in panel size 3’ - 40’ 27 http://www.cproadmap.org/publications/MAPbriefApr2018.pdf
  28. 28. 28 IA 13 - 2002OK I-35 - 2004 LeMars, IA - 2010 Washington Co, IA - 1977 General Aviation - 2000 Grundy Co, IA - 1978 Buchannan Co, IA - 2006 Storm Lake, IA - 1971
  29. 29. References/Guides/Helpful Aides Best Practice Technology Briefs: Missouri DOT (complete) • #1 Cross stitching • #2 Dowel bar retrofit • #3 Diamond grinding • #4 Full depth repair • #5 Partial depth repair • #6 Slab stabilization https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/preservation/resources.cfm 4 Regional Pavement Preservation Partnership Workshops 10 Peer-to-Peer Exchanges and database of treatments Update checklist series 29
  30. 30. Concrete Repair Best Practices: A Series of Case Studies Published Nov 2017 Michael Darter, Ph.D., P.E., Applied Research Associates, Inc. 119 pages Links to the 6 tech briefs 27 figures 13 tables
  31. 31. Concrete Checklists • Inspection Checklist #06 Joint Sealing Portland Cement Concrete Pavements • Inspection Checklist #07 Diamond Grinding of Portland Cement Concrete Pavements • Inspection Checklist #08 Dowel-Bar Retrofit of Portland Cement Concrete Pavements • Inspection Checklist #09 Partial-Depth Repair of Portland Cement Concrete Pavement • Inspection Checklist #10 Full-Depth Repair of Portland Cement Concrete Pavements • Being developed: cross-stitching and grooving 31
  32. 32. Modernizing Checklist Series App based • Phone • Tablet • Print • Link to supporting document • See if can link to AASHTO edocument • Accept photos • Brief videos 32
  33. 33. Free WBT Preservation Courses NHI 134207 Courses (coming in the Spring) Rigid Pavements • Diamond grinding • Partial-depth repair • Full-depth repair • Dowel bar retrofit/cross stitching • Joint sealing 33
  34. 34. http://www.cproadmap.org/publications/MAPbriefDec2017.pdf http://www.intrans.iastate.edu/research/documents/research- reports/2016_joint_deterioration_in_pvmts_guide.pdf 34
  35. 35. 1. Surface Defects 2. Surface Delamination 3. Material Related Cracks 4. Transverse & Diagonal Cracking 5. Longitudinal Cracking 6. Corner Cracking 7. Spalling 8. Faulting 9. Joint Warping and Curling 10. Blowups 11. Settlement and Heaves 12. Subgrades & Base Support Conditions 13. CRCP 14. Concrete Overlays, BCOA, BCOC, UBCOA, UBCOC 15. Laboratory & Field Testing Concrete Pavement Distress Assessments and Solutions Guide Focus: • Identification • Causes • Prevention • Rehabilitation https://intrans.iastate.edu/app/uploads/2018/12/concrete_pv mt_distress_assessments_and_solutions_guide_w_cvr.pdf
  36. 36. International Grooving and Grinding Assoc https://www.igga.net/ July 2009 4 lane section • Inner 2 lanes built in 1950s • Outer 2 lanes built in 1970s • 18,000 square yards • Patching and diamond grinding Under Resources • Case studies • Fact sheets • Technical information • Specifications
  37. 37. Minnesota - The Experiment, 6” slab 124 224 324 424 524 3 hrs. 5-3/4 hrs. 8-1/3 hrs. 10-1/2 hrs. No Load Concrete Age: Burnham - NCC 2017 37
  38. 38. MnROAD – Early Opening 38
  39. 39. 3 hours 39
  40. 40. Summary • This is a challenging time for the transportation industry • Innovative, cost-effective solutions are needed to meet these challenges • Concrete Pavement Preservation (CPP) can extend pavement life significantly at a competitive cost • Many CPP techniques provide sustainable benefits such as increased friction (safety), reduced noise, improved smoothness and long life • When building roadways we must begin with the end in mind to ensure durable pavements are constructed 40
  41. 41. Thank You www.cptechcenter.org Kevin Merryman, Iowa DOT, 2016 41 Dallas Co, IA - 1977

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