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PCC Pavement: Repair vs. Overlay vs. Reconstruction

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Brandon Varilek, PE, PMP

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PCC Pavement: Repair vs. Overlay vs. Reconstruction

  1. 1. PCC Pavement Repair vs. Overlay vs. Reconstruction Brandon Varilek, P.E., PMP
  2. 2. Outline • Maintenance (Repair) • Options • Considerations • Impacts • Example Projects • Cost • 3R; Resurfacing, Restoration, Rehabilitation (Repair & Overlay) • Options • Considerations • Impacts • Example Projects • Cost • Reconstruction • Options • Considerations • Impacts • Example Projects • Cost
  3. 3. Maintenance • Options • PCC Rpr, Joint Seal • PCC Repair, Joint Seal, Concrete Sealer • PCC Repair, Joint Seal, Diamond Grind • Considerations • Thickness Caution against grinding PCC <8” • Age vs. Design Life DOT: 35 yr initial + 15 yr Overlay = 50 yrs • Condition • < 5% PCC Rpr • Roughness - Faulting, construction, previous and future repairs • Material Defects (ASR) • Traffic • Truck traffic Steady? Increasing? • Detour Road Standard 47B w/1P cement – Durable, permanent repair • Open Daily PR Concrete – Brittle, susceptible to ASR, 10 yr+ life • Budget • Impacts • Minimal – No grade raise, no earthwork, no ROW, etc.
  4. 4. PCC Repair Costs: 8” x 24’ x 1mi 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 $/mix1000 % PCC Repaired PCC Repair Costs $500K ~ 1/2 Cost of Reconstruction Reconstruction *Data limited to 12 recent DOT projects Assumes 8”x24’x1 mile PCC
  5. 5. Maintenance • Options • PCC Rpr, Joint Seal • PCC Repair, Joint Seal, Concrete Sealer • PCC Repair, Joint Seal, Diamond Grind • Considerations • Thickness Caution against grinding PCC <8” • Age vs. Design Life DOT: 35 yr initial + 15 yr Overlay = 50 yrs • Condition • < 5% PCC Rpr • Roughness - Faulting, construction, previous and future repairs • Material Defects (ASR) • Traffic • Truck traffic Steady? Increasing? • Detour Road Standard 47B w/1P cement – Durable, permanent repair • Open Daily PR Concrete – Brittle, susceptible to ASR, 10 yr+ life • Budget • Impacts • Minimal – No grade raise, no earthwork, no ROW, etc.
  6. 6. Alkali Silica Reaction • Alkalis (cement) react with Silica (sand and gravel) and Water to form an expansive gel that crack concrete from within • National problem resulting from multiple factors • Higher alkali content in cement due to new environmental regulations • NDOT pavement • Significant from ~ 1985 – 1995 • Partially/Fully Mitigated ~ 1995 – 2005 • Eliminated ~ 2005
  7. 7. Maintenance • Options • PCC Rpr, Joint Seal • PCC Repair, Joint Seal, Concrete Sealer • PCC Repair, Joint Seal, Diamond Grind • Considerations • Thickness Caution against grinding PCC <8” • Age vs. Design Life DOT: 35 yr initial + 15 yr Overlay = 50 yrs • Condition • < 5% PCC Rpr • Roughness - Faulting, construction, previous and future repairs • Material Defects (ASR) • Traffic • Truck traffic Steady? Increasing? • Detour Road Standard 47B w/1P cement – Durable, permanent repair • Open Daily PR Concrete – Brittle, susceptible to ASR, 10 yr+ life • Budget • Impacts • Minimal – No grade raise, no earthwork, no ROW, etc.
  8. 8. Maintenance Example PCC Rpr, Diamond Grind, Jnt Seal, Concrete Sealer • Hwy 2, Mason City SE • 9” non-doweled PCC • 24 yrs old • 365 Trucks • <0.5% repairs, $7K/mile • 1.4 mm faulting • Driving factor(s) for Rehab • ASR Susceptible • Roughness
  9. 9. Penetrating Concrete Sealers • Clear, breathable, penetrating water repellent • Purpose • Seal PCC pavements in good condition but susceptible to ASR • Materials • 100% Silane – NDOT Approved Products List
  10. 10. Maintenance Example Rpr, Grind, Jnt Seal • Hwy 77, Ceresco South • 10” non-doweled PCC • 23 yrs old (2019) • 950 Trucks • 1% repairs, $24K/mile* • 5.6 mm faulting • 4-lane allows lane closures for 47B • Driving factor(s) for Rehab • Roughness *Converted to 24’ Rdwy
  11. 11. Maintenance Cost • Assume 8”x24’x1mile PCC • PCC Rpr and Joint Seal • ~2% PCC Rpr ~ 282 SY • ~ $45K/mile Rpr + $47K/mile Seal = $92K/mile • PCC Rpr, Joint Seal, Concrete Sealer • ~2% PCC Rpr = 282 SY • ~ $45K/mile Rpr + $47/mile Jnt. Seal + $25K/mile Concrete Sealer = $117/mile • PCC Rpr, Joint Seal, Diamond Grind • ~2% PCC Rpr = 282 SY • ~ $45K/mile Rpr + $47K/mile Jnt. Seal + $87K/mile Grind = $179K/mile
  12. 12. 3R • Options • PCC Rpr, HMA or PCC Overlay • Considerations • Thickness Added Structure • Age vs. Design Life • Condition • 3 -20% PCC Rpr • Roughness Corrected w/overlay • Material Defects (ASR) HMA Overlay will seal • Traffic • Truck Traffic Steady? Increasing? • Detour Road Less important for HMA- PR concrete adequate Likely Needed for PCC • Budget • Impacts • 3-4” Grade raise w/HMA, 5-6” w/PCC • Significant shouldering, grading • Reduced drainage capacity • Potential ROW issues, sensitive areas; wetlands, historic properties, etc. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 $/mix1000 % PCC Repaired PCC Repair Costs
  13. 13. 3R Example PCC Rpr, 4” HMA Overlay • Hwy 6 & 34, Culbertson - McCook • 8” RCP • 44-49 Yrs old (2012) • 300 Trucks • 5% Rprs, $92K/mile • Driving factor for Rehab • Roughness • Spalled joints, 3mm faulting • Grade raise acceptable • (ROW, Sensitive Areas, etc.)
  14. 14. 3R Example PCC Rpr, PCC Overlay • Hwy 30 Sutherland - Hershey • 5”+ HMA/7”PCC • 17 yr old HMA Surface • 270 Trucks • 1.3% Rprs, $40K/mile • Driving factor for Rehab • Old, oxidized surface • Transverse, longitudinal cracks • Rutting • Detoured road for construction
  15. 15. 3R Costs • Assume 8”x24’x1mile PCC • PCC Rpr, 4” HMA Overlay • ~10% PCC Rpr ~ 1400 SY • ~ $220K/mile Rpr + 268K/mile HMA Overlay= $488K/mile • PCC Rpr, 5” PCC Overlay • ~10% PCC Rpr = 1400 SY • ~ $220K/mile Rpr + $397K/mile PCC Overlay= $617K/mile
  16. 16. Reconstruction • Options • New Doweled PCC, Foundation Course & Drains • Considerations • Age vs. Design Life • Condition • 15% + Rpr Often due to Alkali Silica Reaction • Subgrade and/or moisture issues • Traffic Handling • Generally requires road closure & detours • Budget • Final Product • PCC repair and overlay rarely approaches cost of N&R • Vastly different end products • Impacts • Scope increase • Urban – Water/Sewer work, ADA, ROW • Rural – Wider pavement, surfaced shoulders, bridge work, culvert extensions, grading to correct geometrics, etc 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 $/mix1000 % PCC Repaired PCC Repair Costs
  17. 17. Reconstruction Example 10” DCP, 4” FC, Prepared Subgrade • Hwy 6 In Hastings • 9” PCC • 29 Yrs old • 875 Trucks • ?% Rprs • Driving Factor for Reconstruction • Severe ASR Deterioration • ~3 mm faulting
  18. 18. Reconstruction Example 10” DCP on Stabilized Subgrade • Hwy 50/Platteview Rd Intersection Impr. • ?” PCC • ? Yrs old • Driving Factor for Reconstruction • Intersection Improvement (Turn lane) • Shattered slabs • No solid pavement to tie Turn lane PCC to
  19. 19. Reconstruction Cont. • Assume 8”x24’x1mile PCC • 8” DCP on Prepared Subgrade • ~ 14K SY ~ $988K/mile • Pavement Only!
  20. 20. 0 200 400 600 0 10 20 30 $/mix1000 % PCC Repaired PCC Repair Costs Summary Repair vs. Overlay vs. Reconstruction • Considerations • Thickness • Age • Condition • Traffic • Budget Reconstruction; 8” DCP on Prep ~ $990K/mi 3R Rpr (10%)/4” HMA Overlay ~ $490K/mi Maintenance Rpr (2%)/Jnt Seal ~ $90K/mi

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