This road had wide, stable shoulders and could have been done under traffic in the Odebolt area. It was determined to close the road to traffic and pave two lanes at a time due to lower traffic
This was set up to be built two lane with detour, but the contractor went to one lane with detour to learn about the smoothness with stringless paving. It had wide, stable shoulders with geometry to accommodate traffic., but chose to close to traffic.
We already do Items 1, 3 & 4. Item 2 is new and is a joint effort – agency notification of properties and nearby towns and contractor description of the work plan and scheduling to inform the public and understand traffic problems before they exist. Item 3 keeps all players on the same page Item 4 helps all be prepared for disaster before it happens at the plant or on the grade.
20 yr. 30 yr, etc Truck traffic is key Does land use or directional lanes impact design thickness Talk to maintenance staff Collect distress, pci data Data is available locally or from central office
Safety closures - Warn traffic one mile back on side roads so a large truck isn't trapped at the work zone
Advisory signs help warn public ahead of time and some will use alternate routes. Generally public is more acceptable when advanced warning is given
Note only minor reduction in traffic due to the pilot car Queues are relatively minor & no problems were noted during the contract
This plan & any intermediate time limits should be spelled out in the plan The actual construction schedule should come from the contractor, follow the general 4 stage plan, and be approved by the highway agency As a rule of thumb, consider 5 working days per mile of overlay. US 18 could have been completed in less than 120 days Liquidated damages control the contractor’s schedule. During this project some of the contractor’ force mobilized to other projects with higher liquidated damages.
Manatt’s earthwork and shouldering crew was able to jump around on the project. Subdrain crew went east to west about 2 miles per day The patching crew followed the subdrain crew
Eliminate centerline wedge – was not utilized
2 mi work zone for patching, drainage, etc 3.5 mi work zone for paving operations Discuss with IDOT allowing work zone to be measured from flaggers instead of outside signs
Close only one paved intersection at a time or every other one. Typically there is one paved intersection every 4-5 miles in Iowa
With the use of two or more work areas, the paving crew can pave for 5-6 days of every week. This allows for good use of equipment, manpower and demonstrates to public the will to accelerate the work.
Do not remove perfectly good PCC approaches of an intersection with full depth pavement when and inlay would work. If grades of mainline dictate and they are slightly higher then the existing pavement then the inlay is the right option. At V-68, the turning lane was widened and grade maintained. The mainline was inlaid by coring out existing asphalt. A majority of the pavement on V-68 was maintained.
Maintaining Access on Concrete Overlay Projects
Maintaining Access on Concrete
39th Annual Concrete Paving Workshop,
January 16, 2018
Dale S. Harrington P.E. -Representing the CP Tech Center
Traffic Management for concrete overlay projects are no more
challenging than for any other paving project, particularly under
traffic, with proper planning for ingress and egress of adjacent
property owners as long as straightforward practices are
Traffic Management/ Access To Adjacent Properties
- Concrete Overlays-
Roadways Closed or Open to Traffic
-Local Access to Properties-
Who are affected?- Everyone
– Businesses and Farmers
– Schools and Churches
– Fire and Police Protection
– Special Events, etc.
Concrete Overlays (Closed or Not
Closed to Traffic)
• Always analyze the option of closing
road where feasible.
• Concrete overlays can be successfully
and cost-effectively constructed
without closing the roadway to traffic
• A common misperception is that
concrete overlay construction on two-
lane roadways requires road closures
• Concrete overlays may be constructed
on four-lane divided roadways without
crossovers and head-to-head traffic or
on 2 or 3 lane roadways
2 Lane Roadways-Too close or not
Close for Overlay Construction
Partly or completely closing a work zone to traffic
can help minimize traffic management costs.
Projects closed to traffic can save time and cost of
25% to 35%.
The contract documents should clearly state that
the contractor is responsible for maintaining local
access for residents and businesses.
Allow the contractor the flexibility in their methods
for providing local access is a preferred strategy
2 Lane Roadways-Too close or not
Close for Overlay Construction
Example of costs savings with closed overlay project.
• Midwest State Highway Overlay Project 2012.
• 4.5” Thick Concrete and Asphalt on 2 lane project
• Each project 8.5 miles long, same highway
• Constructed same year; paving costs very equal
– Asphalt Overlay constructed under traffic: $3,410,000
– Concrete Overlay Closed to Traffic: $2,521,000
Savings: $ 889,000
35% savings was mainly in traffic control operations
IA 175 Two Lane Paving With Detour
• This road had wide, stable shoulders and could have
been done under traffic in the Odebolt area.
• It was determined to close the road to traffic and pave
two lanes at a time due to lower traffic
US 65 Single Lane Paving With Detour
Project set up to be built two lane with detour, but the contractor
chose one lane with detour to learn about the smoothness with
1. Preconstruction conference
2. Preconstruction conference
3. Biweekly construction team meetings
4. Prepaving team meeting
5. Regular discussion with Landowners
6. Weekly Notice in Newspapers
7. Website Access
• “All reasonable mitigation measures should be
assessed in an effort to keep the delay below
the threshold limits”
• This can amount up to 25% of the projects cost
• Minimizing disruption to traffic in work zones
• Involving officials and the public during early
stages of project planning
• Broadly publicizing the work zone well before
Traffic Flow - Concrete Overlays
• Level of Service – must be D or better
– Significant reduction in speed
• Volume to Capacity Ratio – greater than 0.80
– Impacts on Capacity
• Close work activity
• Narrow Lanes
• Number of Lanes
• Travel Time Delay – less than 10 minutes
– Speed reduction and length of construction zone
• Traffic strategies in work zones can significantly
affect project costs
• Traffic control costs and construction costs
should be balanced against the impact on the
• Many urban intersections have been overlaid
with concrete utilizing only weekend work hours
• Partly or completely closing a work zone to
traffic can help minimize traffic management
Two Lane Paving vs.
Single Lane Paving
– 3000-5000 vpd consider single lane paving
and open to traffic
– Less than 3000 vpd may not be feasible to
– More than 5000 vpd may be four lane and
can stage traffic accordingly
• Existing Section (shoulders)
– Wide enough and stable for traffic?
• Make sure agency provides the contractor with a
map showing the names, phone numbers and
email addresses of the adjacent landowners.
• Make sure the landowners as got the contractors
name and phone number
• Contractor needs to provide access availability to
the landowners whether the roadway is open or
close to through traffic during construction.
• Well and the contractor must communicate
regarding the project staging so they know what
Overlay for Two Lane Roadway with Paved
Shoulders (Conventional Paver)
Work Zones Under Traffic
Maintenance and Protection of Traffic
• A well thought out traffic control plan is essential.
• Where possible, establish detours to accommodate
• Temporarily shutting off intersections for paving
allowed for smooth and efficient concrete
• Proper staging of operations allowed the contractor
to complete phases more efficiently.
Overlay for Four Lane Roadway with Paved
Shoulders (Conventional Paver)
• Consider advisory sign “Road Const. Next ____
Miles, Expect Traffic Delays”
̶ Advisory signs help warn public ahead of time and some
will use alternate routes. Generally public is more
acceptable when advanced warning is given
Concrete Overlay Constructed
• When a roadway cannot be closed, higher costs
are probably justifiable.
• Possible ways to manage costs include:
– Where possible, reducing traffic volume through
– Reducing the frequency and duration of work
zones ( typically no more than 3 miles).
Two-Lane Highway Under Traffic
• Typically traffic control zones are kept to
0.25 mile (0.4 km) in length without the
use of a pilot car.
• In rural areas it is more feasible to pave
longer sections, so a pilot car and
flaggers are often used. (2.5 to 3.5 miles)
• Other traffic control measures including
flaggers and traffic control signals may
be warranted according to jurisdictional
Pilot Car Impact
* Thru traffic reduced 10%
with pilot car introduction
•6-8 vehicle queue with 2
mi. work zone (for misc
•15+ vehicle queue with
3.5 mi. work zone (for
•Pilot car speed = 35 mph
Stage Work to Meet Both Public &
• Any intermediate time limits should be spelled out in the
• The actual construction schedule should come from the
contractor, follow the general 4 stage plan, and be
approved by the highway agency
• As a rule of thumb, consider 5 working days per mile of
overlay. US 18 could have been completed in less than
• Transverse joints were spaced 25 feet apart and
leapfrogged down the pavement
Create an Efficient Construction
• Allow & encourage multiple work zones for each
• Shoulder & mark as maturity is reached
• Use the pilot car 24/7 to eliminate centerline
• Encourage bridge transition & approach
construction by mainline paving equipment
• Close only cross roads in paving area & only
one paved cross road per 5 miles of construction
• With the use of two or more work areas, the paving crew can pave for
5-6 days of every week.
• This allows for good use of equipment, manpower and demonstrates
to public the will to accelerate the work.
US 18 Paving Schedule-Under Traffic
• Do not remove perfectly good
intersection PCC approaches
with full depth pavement when
inlay would work. If grades of
mainline are slightly higher then
the existing pavement then the
inlay is the right option.
• At V-68, the turning lane was
widened and grade maintained.
The mainline was inlaid by coring
out existing asphalt.
• A majority of the pavement on V-
68 was maintained
National Concrete Pavement