OBJECTIVESDescribe the planning phaseExplain value of proper planningLook at goals, objectives, deliverablesCreate project...
INTRODUCTIONThis section dedicated to planning of theproject:- All about detail More effort more likelihood of success
ADDING VALUE VS COST OF CHANGEBurke (2007):-PROJECT MANAGERS HAVE GREATEST CHANCE OF ADDINGVALUE AT THE BEGINNING OF A PRO...
GOALS VS OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESBroadly defined objective intentionsGOALSMore detailed, focused aim
USE “SMART” TO DEFINE GOALSSpecific – goals should be clearly defined, when, whereMeasurable – quantifiableAchievable – Al...
“SMART” EXAMPLEBuild a road to PretoriaPage 85
INDIVIDUAL EXERCISE Think of a goal you wish to achieve personally Write it down Take the goal and write it the smart w...
DELIVERABLES• Specific, measurable outcomes• Must be completed for goals to be  achieved• SMART criterion can be used to w...
EXAMPLES OF DELIVERABLES• Obtain result of feasibility study by  01/08/2011• Create charter by 02/12/2011• Finalise constr...
ASSUMPTIONS“……..the act or an instance of accepting withoutproof. Arrogance”• Negative connotations• Avoidance of responsi...
PROJECT SCOPEP87 of manual• Detailed document• Contains list of all goals and deliverables• Used to generate resource and ...
COMMUNICATION PLAN• Usually constructed in table form• Type of communication and person  responsible listed• Type of commu...
WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE“ …. a      tool used to graphically  display the deliverables of the  project in a hierarchical f...
GANTT CHARTS - BASIC
GANTT CHART – MULTIPLE MILESTONE
GANT CHART - HOURLY
GANTT - SUMMARY
GANTT – EARNED VALUE
NETWORK DIAGRAMS AND CPA  Network diagrams illustrate graphically the  relationships between tasksNumber of different meth...
NETWORK DIAGRAM METHOD• Identify all tasks in a project• Sequence them• Present tasks, predecessors and durations in a  ta...
TASKS, PREDECESSORS AND DURATIONS Identify tasks with      TASK     PREDECESSOR   DURATION no predecessor                 ...
BURSTSActivity on NodePrecedence Diagramming Method
MERGEActivity on NodePrecedence Diagramming Method
INDIVIDUAL EXERCISE1. Identify the Bursts and Merges in the example below2. Draw a network for the situation using the Pre...
NETWORK DIAGRAM BURST         B  A           D           E   F         C                  MERGE
NETWORK EXAMPLES1. Complete the network examples   worksheet2. Work individually!
TASK BOXPrecedence Diagramming Method uses task boxes to represent tasks and connectors                 ES                ...
TASKS, PREDECESSORS AND DURATIONS          TASK      PREDECESSOR      DURATION           A               -             2  ...
TASKSPut task name into diagram                 ES                    EF                 Early Start           Early Finis...
DURATION An activities duration will run from the start to the finish of the activity.. Time units can be expressed in hou...
DURATIONSAdd durations to your network as per the task box convention                  ES                            EF   ...
CRITICAL PATHCalculate the critical path by adding up the durations on each pathThe longest time is the critical pathMark ...
FLOAT   Float is a measure of flexibility or surplus time in an   activity’s schedule. It indicates how many days an activ...
FLOATAdd floats to your network as per the task box convention                  ES                            EF          ...
FLOAT – NON CRITICAL PATHSECOND LONGEST PATHTotal critical path duration – 2nd longest path duration = 2nd longest path fl...
EARLY START  Early start is the earliest date by which an  activity can start assuming all of the preceding  activities ar...
EARLY STARTAdd EARLY STARTS to your network as per the task box convention                 ES                           EF...
EARLY FINISH Early finish is the earliest date by which an activity can be completed assuming all of the preceding activit...
EARLY FINISH Add EARLY STARTS to your network as per the task box convention                  ES                          ...
LATE START Late start is the latest date an activity can finish to meet the planned completion date                LS = ES...
LATE STARTAdd LATE STARTS to your network as per the task box convention                 ES                           EF  ...
LATE FINISH  Late finish is the latest date an activity can finish to  meet the planned completion date                   ...
LATE FINISHAdd LATE FINISHES to your network as per the task box convention                 ES                           E...
SUMMARY CPA ES       EF F    T   D    EF = ES + D – 1 LS       LF   LS = ES + F               ES = ES PRECEDING TASK + D P...
CPA EXERCISES PREPARE CPA FOR EACH OF THE EXAMPLES ON THE NETWORK EXAMPLE SHEET WORK INDIVIDUALLY
IMPLICATION TO THE CRITICAL PATH• When float is used up critical path may change• Tasks on critical path have zero float, ...
PLANNING FOR REQUIRED RESOURCESMsProjectPage 107 manual
BUDGETING TECHNIQUES• Carefully controlled budget good  indication of projects financial state• Senior management VERY unh...
RESPONSIBILITY ASSIGNMENT MATRIX- ENSURES EVERYONE KNOWS WHO IS  RESPONSIBLE- ENABLES PROJECT MANAGER TO  KEEP TRACK OF DU...
RISK MANAGEMENTDEFINITION:risk:-A CHANCE OR POSSIBILITY OF DANGER, LOSS, INJURY ETC
SOURCES OF RISKCan come from internal or external sourcesExternal – risks originate from macro –  environment, includes po...
RISK ELEMENTSRisks are analysed according to two variables:PROBABILITY – measured by a %100% - sure thing0% - impossible t...
CONSTRUCT A RISK MATRIXSee page 116 in manual
RESPONSE TO RISKSee table 3AJ page 117AvoidanceMitigationTransferenceAcceptance
RISK MANAGEMENTShow risk management video
ACCIDENTS AT WORKShow H&S video
HEALTH & SAFETY AT WORKShow top 10 photos H&S
Lu3 – the planning phase lectures
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INPM210 - LU 3 - The Planning Phase

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Lu3 – the planning phase lectures

  1. 1. OBJECTIVESDescribe the planning phaseExplain value of proper planningLook at goals, objectives, deliverablesCreate project scope statementCreate communication planCreate WBS & Gantt Chart (MSProject)Create a network diagramConduct critical path analysisPlanning for required resourcesOver allocated resourcesBudgeting techniquesResponsibility assignment matrix
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONThis section dedicated to planning of theproject:- All about detail More effort more likelihood of success
  3. 3. ADDING VALUE VS COST OF CHANGEBurke (2007):-PROJECT MANAGERS HAVE GREATEST CHANCE OF ADDINGVALUE AT THE BEGINNING OF A PROJECT- Cost of change minimised at planning phase because it is a “paper” exercise- Changes later in project involve additional work, wasted time and resourcesCLASS EXERCISERead case study page 83 of manual
  4. 4. GOALS VS OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESBroadly defined objective intentionsGOALSMore detailed, focused aim
  5. 5. USE “SMART” TO DEFINE GOALSSpecific – goals should be clearly defined, when, whereMeasurable – quantifiableAchievable – All parties must agree it is achievableRealistic – must be physically possible to attainTime Bound – must be driven by deadlines
  6. 6. “SMART” EXAMPLEBuild a road to PretoriaPage 85
  7. 7. INDIVIDUAL EXERCISE Think of a goal you wish to achieve personally Write it down Take the goal and write it the smart way10 minutesDo individually please!
  8. 8. DELIVERABLES• Specific, measurable outcomes• Must be completed for goals to be achieved• SMART criterion can be used to write deliverable• Tangible results are outcome of deliverables• When all deliverables complete project is complete
  9. 9. EXAMPLES OF DELIVERABLES• Obtain result of feasibility study by 01/08/2011• Create charter by 02/12/2011• Finalise construction drawings by 01/01/2012
  10. 10. ASSUMPTIONS“……..the act or an instance of accepting withoutproof. Arrogance”• Negative connotations• Avoidance of responsibilities
  11. 11. PROJECT SCOPEP87 of manual• Detailed document• Contains list of all goals and deliverables• Used to generate resource and cost estimates• Essential tool for guiding and controlling project• List of exclusions is KEY
  12. 12. COMMUNICATION PLAN• Usually constructed in table form• Type of communication and person responsible listed• Type of communication includes: status reports, progress reports, forecasts etc.• Recipients , method and frequency of delivery listedSee p88 in manual
  13. 13. WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE“ …. a tool used to graphically display the deliverables of the project in a hierarchical fashion. It organises the work of the project in logical groupings and displays the information in a tree form or an outline form”
  14. 14. GANTT CHARTS - BASIC
  15. 15. GANTT CHART – MULTIPLE MILESTONE
  16. 16. GANT CHART - HOURLY
  17. 17. GANTT - SUMMARY
  18. 18. GANTT – EARNED VALUE
  19. 19. NETWORK DIAGRAMS AND CPA Network diagrams illustrate graphically the relationships between tasksNumber of different methods:- • Precedence Diagramming Method • Activity on Arrow Method • Activity on Node Method
  20. 20. NETWORK DIAGRAM METHOD• Identify all tasks in a project• Sequence them• Present tasks, predecessors and durations in a table• Draw a network
  21. 21. TASKS, PREDECESSORS AND DURATIONS Identify tasks with TASK PREDECESSOR DURATION no predecessor A - 2 B A 3Identify bursts – C A 2tasks sharing a D B 1commonpredecessor E C 5 F C 4 G E,F 7Identify merges –tasks with more H D,G 2than one I H 4predecessor NO PREDECESSOR THEN MUST BE FIRST TASK
  22. 22. BURSTSActivity on NodePrecedence Diagramming Method
  23. 23. MERGEActivity on NodePrecedence Diagramming Method
  24. 24. INDIVIDUAL EXERCISE1. Identify the Bursts and Merges in the example below2. Draw a network for the situation using the Precedence Diagramming Method TASK PREDECESSOR A - B A C A D B,C E D F E
  25. 25. NETWORK DIAGRAM BURST B A D E F C MERGE
  26. 26. NETWORK EXAMPLES1. Complete the network examples worksheet2. Work individually!
  27. 27. TASK BOXPrecedence Diagramming Method uses task boxes to represent tasks and connectors ES EF Early Start Early Finish FLOAT TASK DURATION LS LF Late Start Late Finish YOU NEED TO MEMORISE THIS – IT WILL NOT BE GIVEN YOU IN EXAM
  28. 28. TASKS, PREDECESSORS AND DURATIONS TASK PREDECESSOR DURATION A - 2 B A 3 C A 2 D B 1 E C 5 F C 4 G E,F 7 H D,G 2 I H 4 Draw a network diagram for this example Double-check the tasks against their predecessors to make sure it is correct
  29. 29. TASKSPut task name into diagram ES EF Early Start Early Finish FLOAT TASK DURATION LS LF Late Start Late Finish
  30. 30. DURATION An activities duration will run from the start to the finish of the activity.. Time units can be expressed in hours, days, weeks, months, shifts – whatever is appropriate for the project. For simplicity we will always use days as our time unit. PUT DURATIONS ONTO YOUR DIAGRAM
  31. 31. DURATIONSAdd durations to your network as per the task box convention ES EF Early Start Early Finish FLOAT TASK DURATION LS LF Late Start Late Finish
  32. 32. CRITICAL PATHCalculate the critical path by adding up the durations on each pathThe longest time is the critical pathMark the critical path in a different colour on your diagram
  33. 33. FLOAT Float is a measure of flexibility or surplus time in an activity’s schedule. It indicates how many days an activity can be delayed before if affects the project completion dateAll activities on the critical path have a float of 0Put this onto your diagram
  34. 34. FLOATAdd floats to your network as per the task box convention ES EF Early Start Early Finish FLOAT TASK DURATION LS LF Late Start Late Finish
  35. 35. FLOAT – NON CRITICAL PATHSECOND LONGEST PATHTotal critical path duration – 2nd longest path duration = 2nd longest path floatPUT THIS ONTO YOUR DIAGRAMTHIRD LONGEST PATHTotal critical path duration – 3rdlongest path duration = 3rd longest path floatPUT THIS ONTO YOUR DIAGRAMWhen a task is part of more than 1 path the smallest number is always selected for the float
  36. 36. EARLY START Early start is the earliest date by which an activity can start assuming all of the preceding activities are completed as plannedES = ES preceding task + duration preceding taskPUT THIS ONTO YOUR DIAGRAM
  37. 37. EARLY STARTAdd EARLY STARTS to your network as per the task box convention ES EF Early Start Early Finish FLOAT TASK DURATION LS LF Late Start Late Finish
  38. 38. EARLY FINISH Early finish is the earliest date by which an activity can be completed assuming all of the preceding activities are completed as planned EF = ES + Duration -1 PUT THIS ONTO YOUR DIAGRAM
  39. 39. EARLY FINISH Add EARLY STARTS to your network as per the task box convention ES EF Early Start Early Finish FLOAT TASK DURATION LS LF Late Start Late FinishMake sure that the last tasks EF = critical path duration. If not you have made anerror
  40. 40. LATE START Late start is the latest date an activity can finish to meet the planned completion date LS = ES + FLOAT PUT THIS ON YOUR DIAGRAM
  41. 41. LATE STARTAdd LATE STARTS to your network as per the task box convention ES EF Early Start Early Finish FLOAT TASK DURATION LS LF Late Start Late Finish
  42. 42. LATE FINISH Late finish is the latest date an activity can finish to meet the planned completion date LF = EF + FLOAT PUT THIS ON YOUR DIAGRAM
  43. 43. LATE FINISHAdd LATE FINISHES to your network as per the task box convention ES EF Early Start Early Finish FLOAT TASK DURATION LS LF Late Start Late Finish Check the late finishes at merges. The merging tasks should have same LF otherwise there is an error
  44. 44. SUMMARY CPA ES EF F T D EF = ES + D – 1 LS LF LS = ES + F ES = ES PRECEDING TASK + D PRECEDING TASK LF = EF + F F = LS –ES OR LF-EF ES 1ST TASK =1 F CRITICAL PATH = 0 F ON MORE THAN 1 PATH SMALLEST SELECTED ES FROM MERGED TASKS SELECT HIGHEST ONE
  45. 45. CPA EXERCISES PREPARE CPA FOR EACH OF THE EXAMPLES ON THE NETWORK EXAMPLE SHEET WORK INDIVIDUALLY
  46. 46. IMPLICATION TO THE CRITICAL PATH• When float is used up critical path may change• Tasks on critical path have zero float, therefore a task with no float left will fall on critical path• This tells us that there may be more than one critical path AND the critical path is subject to change• Float in a task box represents float for entire path. If a task is delayed, all the succeeding tasks will also be delayed and their float days will be reduced
  47. 47. PLANNING FOR REQUIRED RESOURCESMsProjectPage 107 manual
  48. 48. BUDGETING TECHNIQUES• Carefully controlled budget good indication of projects financial state• Senior management VERY unhappy with poor budget control
  49. 49. RESPONSIBILITY ASSIGNMENT MATRIX- ENSURES EVERYONE KNOWS WHO IS RESPONSIBLE- ENABLES PROJECT MANAGER TO KEEP TRACK OF DUTIES AND LIABILITIES EVERYONE KNOWS WHO IS RESPONSIBLE- Page 114 of manual
  50. 50. RISK MANAGEMENTDEFINITION:risk:-A CHANCE OR POSSIBILITY OF DANGER, LOSS, INJURY ETC
  51. 51. SOURCES OF RISKCan come from internal or external sourcesExternal – risks originate from macro – environment, includes political and legal issuesInternal - risks come from the project or from within the organisation, workforce problems, inadequate resources and outdated technologies
  52. 52. RISK ELEMENTSRisks are analysed according to two variables:PROBABILITY – measured by a %100% - sure thing0% - impossible to happen70% - likely to happen30% - unlikely to happenAfter assessing probability need to asses the impact it will have if it happensIMPACT
  53. 53. CONSTRUCT A RISK MATRIXSee page 116 in manual
  54. 54. RESPONSE TO RISKSee table 3AJ page 117AvoidanceMitigationTransferenceAcceptance
  55. 55. RISK MANAGEMENTShow risk management video
  56. 56. ACCIDENTS AT WORKShow H&S video
  57. 57. HEALTH & SAFETY AT WORKShow top 10 photos H&S

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