Criminology in the Professions Guidance for your Practitioner Discourse Analysis:This section has a 1500 word limitYour discourse analysis should be a comparison of all practitioner talks.You should begin your work by briefly defining what a discourse analysis is andhow this methodology might help you to analyse these talks (the discourse).You must use sources to inform this work in defining the pertinentcharacteristics of discourse analysis as a methodology; to inform yourdiscussions and application of issues such as organisational cultures,performance indicators, managerialism, equal opportunities etc; to inform yourdiscussions on the practitioner organisations.You therefore must provide a bibliography that specifically covers yourdiscourse analysis.In their presentations, you should look for the following issues: • Evidence of Professionalism and Power. • Evidence of ‘organisational cultures’. • The dominant values and norms that they aspire to. • Evidence of managerialism and multi-agency partnerships. • What sort of partnerships they are involved in. • How they ensure equal opportunities. • Which criminological theories you think might help explain the participant’s views or the apparent values of the organisation that they are representing.Your discourse analysis should therefore be a comparison of all the practitioner talksmaking reference to the above issues.Some hints:Professionalism and Power: • Professions often have knowledge that others do not have. This gives them a certain amount of power over others who do not possess the same knowledge or expertise. • What knowledge/expertise do you think each of the practitioners demonstrates that marks out the professionalism of their work? Think about jargon, procedures and working practices. • Do they have power to construct or change the dominant ‘truths’, or is this a ‘top down’ phenomenon? • Who constructs the dominant truths in the discourse?
Criminology in the ProfessionsOrganisational Culture: • Within organisations, values and norms shared by people or groups that affect the way in which those individuals interact with others may signify an organisational culture. • Look for the values and norms that the practitioner promotes. • Can you detect an organisational culture or a number of competing cultures? • How do they deal with ‘crime’/ or what they see as ‘their problem’. • How they refer to their ‘service users’? • What appears to be their underlying ethos…welfare/justice/crime control? • How do they talk about their colleagues or management? • How do they talk about other organisations? • Does the practitioner have the same aims as their organisation?Managerialism: • Managerialism has an emphasis on management, performance and cost effectiveness related to specific aims or ‘performance indicators’. • Does the practitioner talk about things related to performance, efficiency, value for money/cost effectiveness or performance indicators? • How do they measure and evaluate their aims and successes?Multi-agency Partnerships: • The creation of ‘multi-agency’ partnerships as a way of dealing with ‘problems’ in society gained ground throughout the 80’s and 90’s building on a historical tradition of attempts to create ‘joined up’ government. Multi-agency partnerships are exactly what the term suggests, which is a group of practitioners from different agencies who are charged with addressing a particular problem. • Find out which other agencies the practitioners work with? • What are the fundamental aims that the practitioners have? • Do they have the goals in common with other related organisations or are there possible contradictions between organisations in relation to their underlying aims and goals?Models of Partnership: • What models of partnership might the practitioners talk about? • Is there evidence of Public/private partnerships? • Is there evidence of central and/or local public service delivery? • Is their evidence of local community based partnerships? • What sector does the practitioner represent: Public/private/voluntary sector?Equal Opportunities: • The concept of ‘Equal opportunities’ is an important concept within all organisations, both in terms of service users and employees. • Does the practitioner talk about equal opportunities or equality? • How is equality of opportunity ensured?
Criminology in the Professions • Might race, class, gender, disability or age be significant in their work?Criminological Theories: Some of the following might be relevant: Risk Management Rehabilitation New Penology Right or left realism Authoritarian populism Labelling Classicism Positivism Radical Criminology/Criminalisation