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  • As a society, our rights as individuals are based on the sense of responsibility we have towards others and to our families and communities. Balancing rights and responsibilities This means respecting each other’s property, respecting the streets and public places we share Respecting places and respecting our neighbours’ right to live free from harassment and distress. Respecting others rights It is the foundation of a civic society. Building civilised societies This White Paper is all about this sense of responsibility: Responsibilisation an acceptance that anti-social behaviour, in whatever guise, is not acceptable unacceptability of ASB and that together we will take responsibility to stamp it out, whenever we come across it. Responsibilisation This responsibility starts in the family, Responsibilising families where parents are accountable for the actions of their children and set the standards they are to live by. Parental accountability It extends to neighbours, who should not have to endure noise nuisance. Neighbours enduring nuisance It continues into local communities, Responsibilising communities where people take pride in the appearance of estates and do not tolerate vandalism, litter or yobbish behaviour. Pride in places Our aim is a ‘something for something’ society Balancing rights and responsibilities where we treat one another with respect treating with respect and where we all share responsibility for taking a stand against what is unacceptable. Sharing responsibility
  • As a society, our rights as individuals are based on the sense of responsibility we have towards others and to our families and communities. Balancing rights and responsibilities This means respecting each other’s property, respecting the streets and public places we share Respecting places and respecting our neighbours’ right to live free from harassment and distress. Respecting others rights It is the foundation of a civic society. Building civilised societies This White Paper is all about this sense of responsibility: Responsibilisation an acceptance that anti-social behaviour, in whatever guise, is not acceptable unacceptability of ASB and that together we will take responsibility to stamp it out, whenever we come across it. Responsibilisation This responsibility starts in the family, Responsibilising families where parents are accountable for the actions of their children and set the standards they are to live by. Parental accountability It extends to neighbours, who should not have to endure noise nuisance. Neighbours enduring nuisance It continues into local communities, Responsibilising communities where people take pride in the appearance of estates and do not tolerate vandalism, litter or yobbish behaviour. Pride in places Our aim is a ‘something for something’ society Balancing rights and responsibilities where we treat one another with respect treating with respect and where we all share responsibility for taking a stand against what is unacceptable. Sharing responsibility
  • Questions emerge as to what is being signified by the words within the text and the task becomes more linguistic in nature.
  • Wearing a hoodie may therefore have greater meaning than simply wearing a warm jumper. It has become symbolic of ‘membership’ of certain groups who will be aware of its symbolic currency within popular culture.
  • Statements about the topics being studied, eg in Foucault’s research ‘madness’ (but for the purpose of this research ‘anti-social behaviour’). The rules which prescribe certain ways of talking about these topics and exclude other ways, ie what is ‘thinkable’ or ‘sayable’ about madness (or ASB) at that historical moment. ‘ Subjects’ who personify the discourse, eg the ‘madman’ ( or the ‘yob’) and the attributes we would expect them to have. How this knowledge about the topic acquires authority and becomes viewed as ‘truth’. The practices within institutions for dealing with the subjects, eg medical treatment for the insane (or ASBOS for the yob). Acknowledgement that in a later period a different discourse will arise, opening up a new ‘discursive formation’ and supporting a new ‘regime of truth’.
  • X discourse%20analysis%201213[1]

    1. 1. Discourse Analysis Introducing theory and method foranalysing content, conversation and meaning Sue Bond-Taylor
    2. 2. Aims of the Lecture To introduce a range of theoretical perspectives for analysing meaning in talk and text: 1) Content analysis - quantitative & qualitative 2) Grounded Theory 3) Semiotics 4) Discourse analysis To illustrate these techniques with examples from my own research : A discourse analysis of Anti-Social Behaviour policy.
    3. 3. Content Analysis – Quantitative Method Involves identifying categories within a text and counting the number of instances that fall into each category. “Content analysis translates frequency of occurrence of certain symbols into summary judgements and comparisons of content of the discourse” (Starosta 1984, cited in Altheide, 1987:66) Hence, the greater the space and/or time taken up by the category, the greater its significance.
    4. 4. Content Analysis- Criticisms of Quantitative Method Considers only data which can be standardised and placed into categories. Tells us little about how representations are produced. It therefore reproduces the meanings used by the author rather than critically evaluating those meanings within the context of their production. Audience may interpret the message differently from researcher / there may be a number of possible readings. “The frequency with which words or phrases occur in a text (a quantitative emphasis) may therefore say nothing about its ‘significance within the document’ (a qualitative emphasis).” (May, 2001:192)
    5. 5. Content Analysis - Qualitative / Ethnographic Method Ethnographic content analysis is used to ‘document and understand the communication of meaning, as well as to verify theoretical relationships’ (Altheide, 1987:68). A more reflexive process. Initial categories might guide the study, but further categories will emerge. The researcher is not limited by rigid research design created at the outset.
    6. 6. Content Analysis in Practice: Respect and Responsibility (2003) As a society, our rights as individuals are based on the sense of responsibility we have towards others and to our families and communities. This means respecting each other’s property, respecting the streets and public places we share and respecting our neighbours’ right to live free from harassment and distress. It is the foundation of a civic society. This White Paper is all about this sense of responsibility: an acceptance that anti-social behaviour, in whatever guise, is not acceptable and that together we will take responsibility to stamp it out, whenever we come across it. This responsibility starts in the family, where parents are accountable for the actions of their children and set the standards they are to live by. It extends to neighbours, who should not have to endure noise nuisance. It continues into local communities, where people take pride in the appearance of estates and do not tolerate vandalism, litter or yobbish behaviour. Our aim is a ‘something for something’ society where we treat one another with respect and where we all share responsibility for taking a stand against what is unacceptable.
    7. 7. Content Analysis in Practice: Respect and Responsibility (2003) As a society, our rights as individuals are based on the sense of responsibility we have towards others and to our families and communities. This means respecting each other’s property, respecting the streets and public places we share and respecting our neighbours’ right to live free from harassment and distress. It is the foundation of a civic society. This White Paper is all about this sense of responsibility: an acceptance that anti-social behaviour, in whatever guise, is not acceptable and that together we will take responsibility to stamp it out, whenever we come across it. This responsibility starts in the family, where parents are accountable for the actions of their children and set the standards they are to live by. It extends to neighbours, who should not have to endure noise nuisance. It continues into local communities, where people take pride in the appearance of estates and do not tolerate vandalism, litter or yobbish behaviour. Our aim is a ‘something for something’ society where we treat one another with respect and where we all share responsibility for taking a stand against what is unacceptable.
    8. 8. Content Analysis in Practice:Respect and Responsibility (2003) A quantitative content analysis identifies repetition of words: Responsibility (5), Respect (4), Community (2), Rights (2) But tells us little about the meaning of those words. We could assume that responsibility is more important than rights?
    9. 9. Ethnographic Content Analysis: Predicate Analysis “focuses on the language practices of predication – the verbs, adverbs and adjectives that attach to nouns. Predications of a noun construct the thing(s) named as a particular sort of thing, with particular features and capacities.” (Milliken 1999:232) ‘Communities’“Local…, …spiralling downwards, ASB ruins…, responsibility to…, families and…”Can this give us an impression of how ‘community’ is defined within this discourse?
    10. 10. Ethnographic Content Analysis: Grounded Theory Method Highly theorised and widely used in social research. A process of constant comparison in which data collection, coding, analysis, interpretation and literature review are continually and simultaneously undertaken. Initial themes may be identified at the outset in order to shape the research design, but hypotheses will not be in place and the research process is constantly evolving. By ‘grounding’ the theoretical evaluations in the data in this way, the qualitative researcher can avoid charges of subjectivity and produce conclusions clearly supported by the data.
    11. 11. Grounded Theory in Practice:Respect and Responsibility (2003) A GT method encourages us to go through line by line to identify themes or ‘tags’. We can compare tags and group them into categories, eg:  Balancing rights and responsibilities  Respecting places  Respecting others rights  Responsibilisation  Responsibilising families  Responsibilising communities Through this analysis we can see that: Rights are just as important as responsibilities because it is only through our responsibilities that we can demand rights. ‘Community’ is perceived largely geographically, by places and spaces.
    12. 12. Semiotics Semiotics offers an analysis of the use of ‘signs’ within modes of representation. Language is a set of signs which are quite arbitrarily assigned and are connected to the objects which they represent only by the shared understanding of cultures. Because of this, such signs are subject to history and therefore shifts in meaning, interpretations and understandings. There is thus no universal true meaning to any representation or text.
    13. 13. “Chair” http://www.flickr.com/photos/stewf/52793227 /http://www.flickr.com/photos/epsos/6018530849 /
    14. 14. “Chair” http://www.flickr.com/photos/baltic-development-forum/5380626101/http://www.flickr.com/photos/barbietron/3296163134 /“ *~¬¬¬#^^ ” http://www.flickr.com/photos/hiddedevries/5980995875/
    15. 15. Semiotics Roland Barthes (1967) developed this semiotic approach to the analysis of social behaviour and popular culture Everyday activities are a language through which meaning is communicated (ibid). Two levels of signification: denotation and connotation. A symbol denotes on a descriptive level what is signified, but the connotation draws upon wider ideological and cultural depictions.
    16. 16. “Hoodie” We might recognise a ‘hoodie’ on a descriptive level, but this connotes further imagery in relation to youth, disorder and anti-social behaviour. This is the second level of signification. http://www.freefoto.com/images/11/ 23/11_23_18---Broken- Window_web.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/severalseconhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/sonia ds/4440007946/sizes/o/in/photostream /luna/2503576586/
    17. 17. So What is Discourse Analysis? DA “emphasizes the way versions of the world, of society, events and inner psychological worlds are produced in discourse” (Potter, 1997:146) Discourse as the ‘solution to a problem’ (Gill, 1996, cited in Bryman: 2004). Need to search for the purpose behind the way things are represented in discourse. Gill (2000)identifies 4 key themes in DA:
    18. 18. Theme 1: Discourse is a topic A focus of enquiry in itself. Contrasts with some forms of content analysis which see language only as a means of accessing social reality. Researchers are interested in how discourses are constructed and why.
    19. 19. Theme 2: Language is constructive Discourse is a way of constructing a particular view of the social world. It reflects the individual constructing that view. It reflects the context in which it is constructed. We can use language devices to construct ‘facts’.
    20. 20. Theme 3: Discourse is a form of action Discourse is a way of doing something. Individuals construct different discursive strategies or ‘repertoires’ about the same topic. E.g. you might construct different ways of talking about Uni life when talking to your mum, your mates, an employer. What are you trying to accomplish in each discourse?
    21. 21. Theme 4:Discourse is rhetorically organised  Discourse is concerned with “establishing one version of the world in the face of competing versions” (Gill, 2000:176).  Discourses are therefore actively constructed to persuade others to accept that this version is social reality.  Think about how certain people are presented in discourses eg ‘youth’ ‘asylum seekers’ ‘benefit cheats’ ‘rioters’ etc.
    22. 22. Foucault on Discourses Foucault identifies the issue of power within discourse: • Power gives knowledge the authority of truth, • Power allows that knowledge to make itself true “There is no power relation without the correlative constitution of a field of knowledge, nor any knowledge that does not presuppose and constitute at the same time, power relations.” (Foucault, 1977:27)
    23. 23. A Foucauldian discourse analysis should therefore identify: Statements about the topics being studied. The rules which prescribe certain ways of talking about these topics and exclude other ways, ie what is ‘thinkable’ or ‘sayable’ about it. ‘Subjects’ who personify the discourse How this knowledge about the topic acquires authority and becomes viewed as ‘truth’. The practices within institutions for dealing with the subjects. Acknowledgement that in a later period a different discourse will arise, opening up a new ‘discursive formation’ and supporting a new ‘regime of truth’. (Hall, 1997:45-46)
    24. 24. Discourse Analysis & ASB An analysis of political discourse re anti-social behaviour thus requires not just a content analysis of the language within the texts, but a critique of the processes and practices which evolve out of, support or construct this discourse. In what ways are policies addressing ASB not onlya. A response to the ‘knowledge’ represented by such political documents? But also...a. Reinforcing that ‘knowledge’ and therefore constructing the problem itself?
    25. 25. Confused? This lecture has provided the theoretical context of Discourse Analysis methods. Next week’s lecture (JJ) will be exploring how you can apply these theories to your DA assignment. Analysing practitioner discourses, eg re managerialism, public sector funding crisis, organisational cultures and values. Using real examples from past speakers. Don’t miss it!!

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