Where did the word“carnival” come from?• Hundred and hundreds of years ago, the followers of the Catholic religion in Italy started the tradition of holding a wild costume festival right before the ﬁrst day of Lent. Because Catholics are not supposed to eat meat during Lent, they called their festival, carnevale — which means “to put away the meat.” As time passed, carnivals in Italy became quite famous; and in fact the practice spread to France, Spain, and all the Catholic countries in Europe. Then as the French, Spanish, and Portuguese began to take control of the Americas and other parts of the world, they brought with them their tradition of celebrating carnival.
History of Carnival• Carnival celebrations are believed to have roots in the pagan festival of Saturnalia, which, adapted to Christianity, became a farewell to bad things in a season of religious discipline to practice repentance and prepare for Christs death and resurrection.• The dance and music of samba history entered Rio with refugee slaves coming from Africa, the origin of samba. The slave trading focus point in Brazil was the Bahia and Salvador. But the holding of slaves was prohibited in 1888; many went south to the Capitol of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro.
African Inﬂuences African traditions of parading and moving in circles through villages in costumes and masks. Circling villages was believed to bring good fortune, to heal problems, and chill out angry relatives who had died and passed into the next world. Carnival traditions also borrow from the African tradition of putting together natural objects (bones, grasses, beads, shells, fabric) to create a piece of sculpture, a mask, or costume — with each object or combination of objects representing a certain idea or spiritual force.Feathers were frequently used by Africans in their motherland on masks and headdresses as asymbol of our ability as humans to rise above problems, pains, heartbreaks, illness — to travel toanother world to be reborn and to grow spiritually. Today, we see feathers used in many, manyforms in creating carnival costumes.African dance and music traditions transformed the early carnival celebrations in the Americas,as African drum rhythms, large puppets, stick ﬁghters, and stilt dancers began to make theirappearances in the carnival festivities.In many parts of the world, where Catholic Europeans set up colonies and entered into the slavetrade, carnival took root. Brazil, once a Portuguese colony, is famous for its carnival, as is MardiGras in Louisiana (where African-Americans mixed with French settlers and Native Americans).Carnival celebrations are now found throughout the Caribbean in Barbados, Jamaica, Grenada,Dominica, Haiti, Cuba, St. Thomas, St. Marten; in Central and South America in Belize, Panama,Brazil; and in large cities in Canada and the U.S. where Caribbean people have settled, includingBrooklyn, Miami, and Toronto.
ABOUT CARNIVAL• Carnival is held before lent every year, and it usually is continues on for four days. Was ﬁrst celebrated in many places around the world, but the Carnival capital is in Rio.• It ofﬁcially starts on Saturday and ﬁnishes on Fat Tuesday with the beginning of Lent on Ash Wednesday after which one is supposed to abstain from all bodily pleasures• Carnival is equivalent to Mardi Gras Celebrated in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Costuming• The costuming is suppose to go along with the ﬂoat and music each samba school creates.• The costumes deals a lot with feathers, glitter, bright colors, sequins ,masks, wings, hats, very over the top.•
Music Almost all of the music played during Rio Carnival is samba. It is a uniquely Brazilian music originating from Rio, a dance form that was invented by the poor Afro-Brazilians.The musical styles are different at eachcarnival; in Bahia there are many rhythms,including samba, samba-reggae, etc.And AXE is not exactly about a style or musicalmovement, but rather about a brand namegiven to artists from Salvador who made musicupon northeastern Brazilian, Caribbean andAfrican rhythms with a pop-rock twist, whichhelped them take over the Brazilian hitparades since 1992.
Dancing • Samba is a lively, rhythmical dance of Brazilian origin in 2/4 time danced under the Samba music. However, there are three steps to every bar, making the Samba feel like a 3/4 timed dance. • Samba no pé is a solo dance that is most often danced when samba music is played. The movement involves a straight body and a bending of one knee at a time. The feet move very slightly - only a few inches at a time. The rhythm is 2/4, with 3 steps per measure. It can be thought of as a step-ball-change.It can be described calling it and-a-one, and-a-two, then back to one. The basic movement is the same to either side, where one foot moves to the outside lifting up just before the ﬁrst beat (i.e. the right leg moves slightly to the right) and leg is kept straight as a . The other foot moves slightly towards the front, and closer to the ﬁrst foot. The second leg bends lightly at the knee so that the left side of the hip lowers and the right side appears to move higher. The weight is shifted to this inside foot brieﬂy for the next "and-a", then shifted back to the outside foot on the "two", and the same series of actions is repeated towards the other side. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FoLIwao1Z_Q •http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G1U47zwkljk