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Chapter 4 Popular Radio


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Chapter 4 Popular Radio

  1. 1. Chapter 4 - Popular Radio<br />While these slides were created using material from the above textbook, they are not official presentations from the publisher, Bedford/St. Martin’s. In addition, many slides may contain professor’s supplemental notes on various media topics.<br />
  2. 2. In This Chapter…<br />Economics of Radio<br />Commercial Radio Formats<br />Latest Technology<br />Payola<br />
  3. 3. “Radio affects most people intimately, person-to-person, offering a world of unspoken communication between writer-speaker and listener. That is the immediate aspect of radio. A private experience.”<br />Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media 1964<br />
  4. 4. Economics of Radio<br />Radio gets:<br />8% of all media advertising<br />$1500 for a 30-second spot in large markets to a few dollars a spot in small markets<br />20% of a station’s operating costs go to programming, because the music is free (TV has to allocate 40%)<br />Radio has:<br />13,800 stations nationwide<br />4,800 AM stations<br />6,200 FM commercial stations<br />2,800 FM educational stations<br />
  5. 5. Economics of Radio<br />The Telecommunications Act of 1996:<br />Relaxed ownership rules—meaning companies could own more than the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) previously regulated<br />From 1996-2004, the number of radio station owners declined by 34%!!!!<br />Owners:<br />Most commercial stations are owned by a “group owner”<br />Clear Channel Communications is the LARGEST owner of commercial radio stations – 1,150<br />Other big names: Citadel, Cumulus, and Cox<br />
  6. 6. Radio Formats - Commercial<br />p. 142 – graph of Most Popular<br />Radio Formats in the United States<br />News/talk<br />Adult Contemporary (AC)<br />Contemporary Hits Radio (CHR)<br />Country<br />Urban<br />Hispanic<br />Album-Oriented Rock<br />Alternative <br />Oldies<br /><ul><li>Dayparts:
  7. 7. Morning Drive 6-9a.m.
  8. 8. Afternoon Drive 4-7p.m.</li></ul>Can you put a local<br />St. Louis station’s name<br />Next to each of these?<br />Format Radio: management, rather than deejays controlled programming each hour; <br />Uses a program log, pictured on p. 138 <br />
  9. 9. Radio Formats - Nonprofit<br />National Public Radio (NPR)<br />Created under the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB)<br />NPR provides an alternative to commercial broadcasting<br />St. Louis station: 90.7 KWMU<br />
  10. 10. Latest Technology<br /><ul><li>The youth audience of radio is in decline—down 15% between 1999 and 2006 among 12-24 year olds, who have embraced iPods and the Internet.</li></ul>Internet Radio<br />Satellite Radio<br />Podcasting<br />iPhone Apps like “I Heart Radio”<br />Pandora<br />Do any of these help or hurt traditional radio?<br />
  11. 11. Payola-a practice by which record promoters paid deejays to play particular records<br />Yesterday’s Payola Scandals:<br />1950’s—payola runs rampant<br />Congress gets involved—it doesn’t stop<br />1970’s--records are played in exchanged for drugs as well as $$$<br />1986—stories emerge of promoters having mafia ties<br />Today’s Payola Scandals:<br />Dept. of Justice and FCC stepped up regulations<br />2005-Sony-BMG and Warner Music settle $15 million dollars with NY<br />2007-4 largest broadcasting companies pay $12.5 million to settle FCC payola investigation<br />Agreed to provide 8,400 half hour blocks of airtime to independent labels<br />Jessica Simpson story p. <br />