23 konstantinos giannakas

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23 konstantinos giannakas

  1. 1. Food Policy & International Markets Konstantinos Giannakas, Ph.D. Department of Agricultural Economics University of Nebraska-Lincoln
  2. 2. Industrialization of the Agri-Food System Move from commodities to differentiated products• Changes in Consumer Preferences• Technological Progress Product Variety• Global Competition Differentiation Quality•  Gov’t Support to Agriculture Innovation
  3. 3. Examples of New (and “New”) Products• Genetically Modified• Organic (a.k.a. Biological)• Sustainable• Natural Key: Differentiating• rBST-Free Milk Attributes are Credence Process Attributes• Cage-Free Eggs• Dolphin-Safe Tuna• Fair-Trade Coffee, Cocoa, Sugar, Bananas• Functional Foods & Neutraceuticals• Origin-Labeled Products
  4. 4. Certification & Labeling Critical for:• Co-existence & Separation of the Different Products• Enabling Consumers to Make Informed Decisions• Enabling Producers to Capture Price Premia
  5. 5. Labeling Policy also Critical for:• Research & Development• Access of Domestic Products to Int’nal Markets• Acceptance of Domestic Products in Int’nal Markets
  6. 6. Labeling of Genetically Modified Products (GMPs)Highly ControversialUS: No Labeling (“substantial equivalence” of GMPs & conventional products)EU: Mandatory Labeling (“precautionary principal” and consumer opposition)
  7. 7. Mandatory Labeling StandardsEU: > 0.9% biotech materialSouth Korea: > 2% GM food ingredientsJapan: > 5% GM food ingredients
  8. 8. Differences in Labeling Policies affect:• Trade of GM Products• Incentives for R&D• Type of R&D• Developing Countries’ Regulatory Decisions• Food Security• Political Stability
  9. 9. Critical• Policy Harmonization -- 2nd Generation, Consumer-Oriented GMPs Labeled as Not Substantially Equivalent to Conventional Products• Importance of Innovation for Food Security
  10. 10. Food Policy Research at UNL• Effects of, and Optimal Regulatory Response to Ag Biotech• Mandatory Country-Of-Origin-Labeling• National Organic Program• Purity Standards in Food Labeling Laws• Food Safety & Optimal Regulation of Credence Goods
  11. 11. Food Policy Research at UNL• Impact of Public Firms & Co-ops on Innovation & Food Quality• Genetic Use Restriction Technologies (Terminator Genes)• Impact of Length & Breadth of IPRs Protection on Innovation• Impact of GMOs & IPRs Policies on Hunger
  12. 12. Impact of GMOs & IPRs on HungerHunger can be reduced through increased quantities of nutritionalfood offered at affordable prices• Impact of different types of GMOs on quantity, quality & price• Impact of IPRs policies on innovation and adoption incentives• Role of NGOs• Determination of optimal GMOs & IPRs policies

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