Sustainable Beef Systems  Don Adams and Rick Funston
Agriculture Nebraska’s Largest Industry• Employs 1 in every 3 Nebraskans• Livestock 48% of $15 Billion Ag Industry• Livest...
Beef Production    Where Nebraska Stacks up Nationally•   1st.... Red meat production            Commercial cattle slaught...
UNL – Beef Research and Extension                               BBR              GSL                   NERECPHREC        ...
Beef Cows That Have Calved          227                          January 1, 2010                               1465       ...
Change In Beef Cow Numbers               January 1, 2001 To January 1, 2010                                               ...
U.S. Beef Cow Operations        Beef Cow Operations, 2009              Beef Cow 1-49    50-99     100-499      500+       ...
"Produce low-cost/high-profit cattle that yieldcompetitively priced, highly palatable, lean products.""Manage the availabl...
CONCEPTS FOR UNL BEEF SYSTEMS 1) Environmentally and economically sustainable 2) Cattle harvest the forage e.g. Limited us...
Challenge:Utilize a limited window (100 to 120 days) ofhigh quality forage for efficient and sustainablebeef production.
Approach:Match nutrient requirements of the cowto nutrients in grazed forages withstrategic supplementation.
Crude protein in cattle diets on Sandhills                  range       APR   MAY   JUN   JUL   AUG   SEP     OCT   NOV   ...
Feed Inputs for March and   June Calving Cows                March   JuneHay fed, lb     3947    227Supp. fed, lb    96   ...
More hay for March   calving cows                           More grazing for                           June calving cows  ...
We have developed systems where:The cow grazes year long with a calf atside until the calf is 7 to 9 months of age.After w...
Strategic Feeding of Protein             (Cow Body Condition)                               Pregnancy                     ...
Steer Feedlot Performance
Feedlot Performance                  Weaning       Protein Supp.                 Early  Late   Supp. No Supp.In wt, lb    ...
Corn crop residue provides a reasonably  priced alternative to grazing dormant               winter range
WT     BCS   PGRS    1142   5.2   96RNS   1058   4.8   94SS    1204   5.4   98SNS   1184   5.2   95
Final Live Weight and ADGRS     1371    829     3.77RNS    1303    787     3.66SS     1343    811     3.73SNS    1354    8...
Quality Grade (% Choice)RS      85   43 PS 86RNS     77   27 NS 71SS      88   35SNS     65   15
Heifer Pregnancy Diagnosis and Weights  Treatment          BW    Pregnancy (%)  Range S            810       91  Range NS ...
Reproduction is the single mostimportant factor  for profitablebeef production.
Sustainable heifer development systems
Extensive heifer development          systemsLower Development Costs $70 +Selling open heifers was profitableDetermine ...
Opportunities with the heifer enterprise
BEEF SYSTEMSRESEARCH
14 & 15   adams-funston
14 & 15   adams-funston
14 & 15   adams-funston
14 & 15   adams-funston
14 & 15   adams-funston
14 & 15   adams-funston
14 & 15   adams-funston
14 & 15   adams-funston
14 & 15   adams-funston
14 & 15   adams-funston
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14 & 15 adams-funston

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14 & 15 adams-funston

  1. 1. Sustainable Beef Systems Don Adams and Rick Funston
  2. 2. Agriculture Nebraska’s Largest Industry• Employs 1 in every 3 Nebraskans• Livestock 48% of $15 Billion Ag Industry• Livestock Consumes 38% of Annual Grain Harvest
  3. 3. Beef Production Where Nebraska Stacks up Nationally• 1st.... Red meat production Commercial cattle slaughter• 2nd.... All cattle on feed• 3rd…. All cattle and calves• 4th.... Cash receipts from all livestock products Beef cows
  4. 4. UNL – Beef Research and Extension BBR GSL  NERECPHREC    ARDC    KCWL WCREC  Lincoln  NCTA  Dalbey
  5. 5. Beef Cows That Have Calved 227 January 1, 2010 1465 869 (1000 Head) VT 10 11 380 NH 4 546 260 90 MA 8 440 1618 RI 1.3 694 96 CT 5.5 885 160 NJ 10 1781 221 288 237 389 DE 4 338 190 665 MD 41 714 1434 1968 1070 610 367 2073 997 208 502 937 183 503 524 890 to 5,140 (11) Alaska 5.4 499 669 440 to 890 (13) 5140 160 to 440 (13) Hawaii 81.2 0 to 160 (13) US Total 31376 958Livestock Marketing Information Center C-N-15Data Source: USDA/NASS 01/29/10
  6. 6. Change In Beef Cow Numbers January 1, 2001 To January 1, 2010 (1000 Head) -42 0 -66 -135 -30 -2 -44 0 MA 3 35 10 -46 -189 RI -0 -151 11 CT -3 -100 10 NJ 2 -13 -164 13 -63 -8 DE 0 -17 -3 MD 4 -126 -6 -90 -102 10 -170 -69 -48 13 -37 160 14 -35 -76 -68 -90 3 to 160 (12) Alaska 2 -8 to 3 (12) -325 26 Hawaii 0 -68 to -8 (13) -325 to -68 (13) US Total -2022 -17Livestock Marketing Information CenterData Source: USDA/NASS Iowa is declining faster than national averageC-N-29 01/29/10
  7. 7. U.S. Beef Cow Operations Beef Cow Operations, 2009 Beef Cow 1-49 50-99 100-499 500+ Inventory Total Head Head Head Head 2010598,000 82,000 67,200 5,800 753,000 31,375,90079.1% 11.2% 8.9% 0.8% 100% % of Ops.28.7% 17.2% 38.0 % 16.1% 100% % of Cows • Average 42 Cows Per Operation • Large Number Of Small Operations Source: USDA-NASS
  8. 8. "Produce low-cost/high-profit cattle that yieldcompetitively priced, highly palatable, lean products.""Manage the available resources (optimum, low-cost combination) for maximum continuing net profit,while conserving and improving the resources." Taylor and Field, 1995 “Strategic inputs when cost effective” Adams and Funston, 2011
  9. 9. CONCEPTS FOR UNL BEEF SYSTEMS 1) Environmentally and economically sustainable 2) Cattle harvest the forage e.g. Limited use of harvested forage and fossil fuel 3) Adapt the animal to the forage supply, rather than the forage supply to the animal 4) Produce a high quality product for the consumer
  10. 10. Challenge:Utilize a limited window (100 to 120 days) ofhigh quality forage for efficient and sustainablebeef production.
  11. 11. Approach:Match nutrient requirements of the cowto nutrients in grazed forages withstrategic supplementation.
  12. 12. Crude protein in cattle diets on Sandhills range APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB Month
  13. 13. Feed Inputs for March and June Calving Cows March JuneHay fed, lb 3947 227Supp. fed, lb 96 154
  14. 14. More hay for March calving cows More grazing for June calving cows 233 days vs. 357 days grazing grazing
  15. 15. We have developed systems where:The cow grazes year long with a calf atside until the calf is 7 to 9 months of age.After weaning the calf grazes forage toabout 1 year of age with as little as 2weeks of harvested forage.
  16. 16. Strategic Feeding of Protein (Cow Body Condition) Pregnancy 93.8% 95.5%P<.0001
  17. 17. Steer Feedlot Performance
  18. 18. Feedlot Performance Weaning Protein Supp. Early Late Supp. No Supp.In wt, lb 432 518 487 463Days on feed 244 194Interactions ES ENS LS LNSOut wt, lb 1274 1259 1314 1213Daily gain, lb 3.4 3.4 4.0 3.7HCW, lb 796 780 816 754
  19. 19. Corn crop residue provides a reasonably priced alternative to grazing dormant winter range
  20. 20. WT BCS PGRS 1142 5.2 96RNS 1058 4.8 94SS 1204 5.4 98SNS 1184 5.2 95
  21. 21. Final Live Weight and ADGRS 1371 829 3.77RNS 1303 787 3.66SS 1343 811 3.73SNS 1354 818 3.66
  22. 22. Quality Grade (% Choice)RS 85 43 PS 86RNS 77 27 NS 71SS 88 35SNS 65 15
  23. 23. Heifer Pregnancy Diagnosis and Weights Treatment BW Pregnancy (%) Range S 810 91 Range NS 783 77 Stalks S 808 88 Stalks NS 826 8345 day breeding season
  24. 24. Reproduction is the single mostimportant factor for profitablebeef production.
  25. 25. Sustainable heifer development systems
  26. 26. Extensive heifer development systemsLower Development Costs $70 +Selling open heifers was profitableDetermine adaptability early?o Short breeding seasono Lighter breeding weightso Lighter mature weightsMust continue to grow through calving
  27. 27. Opportunities with the heifer enterprise
  28. 28. BEEF SYSTEMSRESEARCH

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