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11 sally mackenzie


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11 sally mackenzie

  1. 1. Future innovative biotechnologies and the regulatory hurdles that impede them Sally MackenzieCenter for Plant Science Innovation University of Nebraska-Lincoln
  2. 2. These projections requireus to increase yields onless land with fewerinputs…
  3. 3. Modern problems and technologies cause us to rethink…•The way we do research:The value of The importance of BASIC APPLICATION
  4. 4. Wish List for Crops of the Future• Improved nutrient content of seed and edible parts• Modified cell wall components for more efficient biofuel processing• Genetic strategies to bypass sexual reproduction:apomixis or perennialism• Development of biosensors to signal plant stress• Modify plant architecture for water use efficiency• Altered ripening and senescence properties for enhanced shelf life• Improvement of nitrogen efficiency, introduce nitrogen fixation• More innovative pest defenses
  5. 5. Chromatin, Inc.
  6. 6. Mini-chromosome biology
  7. 7. RNA interference (RNAi) for Selective Suppression of Genes… These technologies can be used to change the expression of a plant gene These technologies can be targeted to suppress expression of an invading plant pathogen (virus, bacterium, fungus)
  8. 8. Targeted Gene Replacement
  9. 9. Laboratory and Plant Culture Automation Plant Phenomics
  10. 10. In 2008, GM crops were grown on almost 300 million acres in 25 countries (15 developing) The world has consumed GM crops for 15 years without incident. •increased productivity and farmer income •decreased pesticide/herbicide use •increased no-till farmingC James, Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2008 (IntlService for Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications, Ithaca, NY)
  11. 11. The current situation:• In the US, case-by-case review by at least two, sometimes three regulatory agencies (USDA, EPA, FDA) is commonly the rule.• This has added about 10 years and $20M to the testing and approval process• This process excludes public sector researchers from the use of molecular methods to improve crops for farmers.• Therefore, the benefits of biotechnology have not been realized for the vast majority of food crops.
  12. 12. New agricultural paradigms Strategies to close the loop of nutrient flows from microorganisms and plant to animals and back, powered and irrigated by sunlight and seawater. Cultivation of non-traditional species in arid locations
  13. 13. Future Agricultural Approaches on the Horizon: Domestication and adaptation of crops for adverse environments…high heat, high salt, flooding and drought conditions Engineering novel metabolic pathways for enhanced nutritionExploiting a plant’s naturalenvironmental sensingmechanisms to createepigenetic variation forbreeding