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From “Shelter” to New Safe
      Confinement




             A. Gora
             Deputy General Director for Personnel
             Management
             SSE “Chernobyl NPP“, Ukraine
Commissioning


                                                            Turbine Hall
                                                            Sight on
                                                            turbogenerators
                                                            TG-1,2




    Development of established ChNPP capacities:
    September 26, 1977       – Unit 1 was commissioned
    December 21, 1978        – Unit 2 was commissioned
    December 3, 1981         – Unit 3 was commissioned
    December 21, 1983        – Unit 4 was commissioned

2                        ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
Accident of April 26, 1986

                               Accident at Chernobyl NPP
                               Unit 4 occurred on April,
                               26, 1986 at 01:23:40 a.m.
                               (Moscow time)


                               It was possible to stop
                               active release of radioactive
                               substances from destroyed
                               reactor only in the end of
                               May, 1986




3   3   ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
Accident of April 26, 1986

                           The rate of gamma-radiation dose
                           was up to 2,000 R/h (20 Sv/h) and
                           mainly was determined by
                           radiation from reactor breakdown
                           itself, inside of which measurable
                           values of dose rate amounted to
                           50,000 R/h (500 Sv/h).




4   ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
Creation of Shelter Object

•   Designing of protective sarcophagus
    (Shelter) commenced on May 20,
    1986;
•   Construction lasted 206 days and
    nights from June to November 1986.




5                        ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
New Safe Confinement Creation (NSC)

    In 2012 it is planned to start production of steel
    constructions of NSC Arch.




    Milestones for NSC creation:
    •   Foundations construction completion – May, 2013.
    •   Main Arch construction assembly – November, 2014.
    •   NSC Commissioning – October, 2015.
6                        ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
ChNPP Units shutdown




    Chernobyl NPP Unit 3 was finally shutdown on December 15,
    2000 at 13:17 according to the Decree of the President of
    Ukraine. Plant stopped power generation.
7                    ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
ChNPP Units shutdown
      Before the accident Chernobyl NPP generated 150.2 billion kW/h .
      After the accident – 158.6 billion kW/h.
      In total it was generated 308.8 billion kW/h.



Shelter        Unit 3                 Unit 2                       Unit 1
Object




1983÷1986         1981÷2000              1978÷1991                   1977÷1996


      Chernobyl NPP site from satellite
  8                             ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
STRESS-TEST

     In 2011 the Chernobyl NPP, the first among Ukrainian NPPs, performed
     the targeted unscheduled safety assessment of ChNPP nuclear facilities
     by its own forces taking into consideration the events at Fukushima 1 NPP
     (stress-test).
     The full-scale emergency trainings including personnel actions in case of
     accident and examination of the capabilities of emergency response units
     were conducted.
     Safety Improvement Plan for ChNPP facilities was developed:
    • control, collection and return system for ISF-1 leakages was created;
    • conditions enabling to connect a mobile diesel generator for ISF-1
      consumers were created, tests were carried out;
    • it is planned to conduct psychological training of personnel aimed at
      increasing resistance to psychological stress, development of endurance,
      self-control, mutual supportiveness and interaction;
    • system of psychological selection and training of persons involved in
      managing the accidents with severe consequences is being developed
      (similar to system of operational personnel selection).

9                           ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (SNF)

     At the moment reactors of Units 1, 2 and 3 are
     completely released from nuclear fuel.
     Fuel is only in cooling pools of Units 1 and 2.
     To reduce risks during New Safe Confinement
     construction, spent nuclear fuel was transferred from
     cooling pools of Unit 3 to Interim Spent Fuel Storage
     Facility (ISF-1).
     In order to improve nuclear safety, it was proposed to
     transport SNF from Units 1 and 2 to ISF-1 for storage.
     In November 2011, the State Nuclear Regulatory
     Inspectorate of Ukraine agreed the Decision to place
     all conditioned SNF from Units 1, 2 and 3 to ISF-1.
     Works on spent nuclear fuel transportation from
     cooling pools of Units 1 and 2 to ISF-1 were
     commenced.



10                          ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
The Final State of
                         Decommissioning NPP can be changed
      ChNPP is located at the territory of Exclusion             "Green field" status
      Zone contaminated with radioactive
      substances as a result of accident in 1986.
      That’s why decommissioning of Chernobyl
      NPP up to the "green field" status is
      unreasonable.
      A brown spot is a condition of ChNPP industrial           "Brown spot" status
      site when its territory and buildings can be
      restricted released from the regulating control.
       Reuse of ChNPP site as “National operator of
       NPP units decommissioning, SNF and RAW
       management” is the most desirable final state:
     • a fast and cheap way to reach decommissioning                  Developed
       objectives                                                   industrial site
     • using financial and technical resources and
       qualified staff of ChNPP more effectively;
     • solving problems of nuclear industry.

11                           ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
SSE ChNPP Emergency Preparedness
                 System
                 System


          The Main Tasks of ChNPP Emergency
          Preparedness and Response System
     • Assurance of preparedness to eliminate accidents
       and emergencies at SSE “Chernobyl NPP” facilities;
     • Response to accidents and emergencies at the SSE
       “Chernobyl NPP” facilities;
     • Implementation of measures on protecting the NPP
       personnel and environment.




12                   ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
SSE ChNPP Emergency Preparedness
                          System
                          System
      Emergency organizational structures of SSE “Chernobyl NPP” includes:

      Emergency Manager at industrial sites of SSE “Chernobyl NPP” facilities
       (EMS);
      Coordination and Management Body – EMS Staff Office or SSE “Chernobyl
       NPP” Commission on the Issues of Emergencies (as a synonym);
      Standing Management Body – Emergency Preparedness and Response
       Department (EP&RD);
      SSE “Chernobyl NPP” emergency teams and units:
          Radiation control unit;
          Dosimetric survey unit;
          Physical protection assurance unit;
          Personnel sanitary treatment unit;
          Transport unit, etc.;
          Teams for elimination of equipment
           failures.




13                                ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
SSE ChNPP Emergency Units
                               SSE ChNPP Emergency Units



               The Main Tasks of NPP Emergency Units are:
      Actions on preventing beyond-design-basis accidents and
       eliminating their consequences;
      Measures on personnel protection;
      Recommendations on population protection.

       A General Director is an Emergency Manager at the ChNPP
       industrial site.




14                       ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
SSE ChNPP Emergency Units
                                SSE ChNPP Emergency Units


                        The Main Functions of EMS:
      Primary and subsequent classification of an accident;
      Notification of personnel and external organizations;
      Initiation of Emergency Plan;
      Management of actions on accident containment and elimination;
      Coordination of actions of external organizations involved into
       emergency and rescue operations;
      Provision of information to a Ministry of Emergencies management,
       regulatory body, authorities and mass media;
      Decision-making on Emergency Plan’s ending.

         The SSE ChNPP personnel is contained in protective shelters
         having ‫-ץ‬radiation dose rate ≥ 0,5 mSv/h.
         The SSE ChNPP personnel is evacuated having ‫-ץ‬radiation dose
         rate ≥ 1 mSv/h.


15                        ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
Thank you for attention!




16        ChNPP Strategic Planning Service

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From sheltertonsc

  • 1. From “Shelter” to New Safe Confinement A. Gora Deputy General Director for Personnel Management SSE “Chernobyl NPP“, Ukraine
  • 2. Commissioning Turbine Hall Sight on turbogenerators TG-1,2 Development of established ChNPP capacities: September 26, 1977 – Unit 1 was commissioned December 21, 1978 – Unit 2 was commissioned December 3, 1981 – Unit 3 was commissioned December 21, 1983 – Unit 4 was commissioned 2 ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
  • 3. Accident of April 26, 1986 Accident at Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 occurred on April, 26, 1986 at 01:23:40 a.m. (Moscow time) It was possible to stop active release of radioactive substances from destroyed reactor only in the end of May, 1986 3 3 ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
  • 4. Accident of April 26, 1986 The rate of gamma-radiation dose was up to 2,000 R/h (20 Sv/h) and mainly was determined by radiation from reactor breakdown itself, inside of which measurable values of dose rate amounted to 50,000 R/h (500 Sv/h). 4 ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
  • 5. Creation of Shelter Object • Designing of protective sarcophagus (Shelter) commenced on May 20, 1986; • Construction lasted 206 days and nights from June to November 1986. 5 ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
  • 6. New Safe Confinement Creation (NSC) In 2012 it is planned to start production of steel constructions of NSC Arch. Milestones for NSC creation: • Foundations construction completion – May, 2013. • Main Arch construction assembly – November, 2014. • NSC Commissioning – October, 2015. 6 ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
  • 7. ChNPP Units shutdown Chernobyl NPP Unit 3 was finally shutdown on December 15, 2000 at 13:17 according to the Decree of the President of Ukraine. Plant stopped power generation. 7 ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
  • 8. ChNPP Units shutdown Before the accident Chernobyl NPP generated 150.2 billion kW/h . After the accident – 158.6 billion kW/h. In total it was generated 308.8 billion kW/h. Shelter Unit 3 Unit 2 Unit 1 Object 1983÷1986 1981÷2000 1978÷1991 1977÷1996 Chernobyl NPP site from satellite 8 ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
  • 9. STRESS-TEST In 2011 the Chernobyl NPP, the first among Ukrainian NPPs, performed the targeted unscheduled safety assessment of ChNPP nuclear facilities by its own forces taking into consideration the events at Fukushima 1 NPP (stress-test). The full-scale emergency trainings including personnel actions in case of accident and examination of the capabilities of emergency response units were conducted. Safety Improvement Plan for ChNPP facilities was developed: • control, collection and return system for ISF-1 leakages was created; • conditions enabling to connect a mobile diesel generator for ISF-1 consumers were created, tests were carried out; • it is planned to conduct psychological training of personnel aimed at increasing resistance to psychological stress, development of endurance, self-control, mutual supportiveness and interaction; • system of psychological selection and training of persons involved in managing the accidents with severe consequences is being developed (similar to system of operational personnel selection). 9 ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
  • 10. Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (SNF) At the moment reactors of Units 1, 2 and 3 are completely released from nuclear fuel. Fuel is only in cooling pools of Units 1 and 2. To reduce risks during New Safe Confinement construction, spent nuclear fuel was transferred from cooling pools of Unit 3 to Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (ISF-1). In order to improve nuclear safety, it was proposed to transport SNF from Units 1 and 2 to ISF-1 for storage. In November 2011, the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine agreed the Decision to place all conditioned SNF from Units 1, 2 and 3 to ISF-1. Works on spent nuclear fuel transportation from cooling pools of Units 1 and 2 to ISF-1 were commenced. 10 ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
  • 11. The Final State of Decommissioning NPP can be changed ChNPP is located at the territory of Exclusion "Green field" status Zone contaminated with radioactive substances as a result of accident in 1986. That’s why decommissioning of Chernobyl NPP up to the "green field" status is unreasonable. A brown spot is a condition of ChNPP industrial "Brown spot" status site when its territory and buildings can be restricted released from the regulating control. Reuse of ChNPP site as “National operator of NPP units decommissioning, SNF and RAW management” is the most desirable final state: • a fast and cheap way to reach decommissioning Developed objectives industrial site • using financial and technical resources and qualified staff of ChNPP more effectively; • solving problems of nuclear industry. 11 ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
  • 12. SSE ChNPP Emergency Preparedness System System The Main Tasks of ChNPP Emergency Preparedness and Response System • Assurance of preparedness to eliminate accidents and emergencies at SSE “Chernobyl NPP” facilities; • Response to accidents and emergencies at the SSE “Chernobyl NPP” facilities; • Implementation of measures on protecting the NPP personnel and environment. 12 ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
  • 13. SSE ChNPP Emergency Preparedness System System Emergency organizational structures of SSE “Chernobyl NPP” includes:  Emergency Manager at industrial sites of SSE “Chernobyl NPP” facilities (EMS);  Coordination and Management Body – EMS Staff Office or SSE “Chernobyl NPP” Commission on the Issues of Emergencies (as a synonym);  Standing Management Body – Emergency Preparedness and Response Department (EP&RD);  SSE “Chernobyl NPP” emergency teams and units:  Radiation control unit;  Dosimetric survey unit;  Physical protection assurance unit;  Personnel sanitary treatment unit;  Transport unit, etc.;  Teams for elimination of equipment failures. 13 ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
  • 14. SSE ChNPP Emergency Units SSE ChNPP Emergency Units The Main Tasks of NPP Emergency Units are:  Actions on preventing beyond-design-basis accidents and eliminating their consequences;  Measures on personnel protection;  Recommendations on population protection. A General Director is an Emergency Manager at the ChNPP industrial site. 14 ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
  • 15. SSE ChNPP Emergency Units SSE ChNPP Emergency Units The Main Functions of EMS:  Primary and subsequent classification of an accident;  Notification of personnel and external organizations;  Initiation of Emergency Plan;  Management of actions on accident containment and elimination;  Coordination of actions of external organizations involved into emergency and rescue operations;  Provision of information to a Ministry of Emergencies management, regulatory body, authorities and mass media;  Decision-making on Emergency Plan’s ending. The SSE ChNPP personnel is contained in protective shelters having ‫-ץ‬radiation dose rate ≥ 0,5 mSv/h. The SSE ChNPP personnel is evacuated having ‫-ץ‬radiation dose rate ≥ 1 mSv/h. 15 ChNPP Strategic Planning Service
  • 16. Thank you for attention! 16 ChNPP Strategic Planning Service