•2550-2650s BC Gilded Egyptian Style•2000-2500s BC Ancient Greek Style•700- 800s BC Phrygian Tumulus Style•800- 900s BC Assyrian Nimrud Style•500-1000s BC Chu/Ancient Chinese Style•1400-1500S mIddLE AgE (BARoQUE) STYLE•1600-1700S JAcoBEAN STYLE•1640-1700S EARLY AmERIcAN STYLE•1690-1725S WILLIAm & mARY STYLE•1700-1760S QUEEN ANNE STYLE•1700-1780S coLoNIAL STYLE•1714-1770S gEoRgIAN STYLE•1720-1830s Pennsylvania Dutch Style•1750-1800S cHIppENdALE STYLE•1780-1820S FEdERAL STYLE•1770-1800s Sheraton Style•1800-1840s American Empire Style•1820-1860S SHAKER STYLE•1840-1920S vIcToRIAN STYLE•1880-1910’S ART NoUvEAU•1930-1970s Scandinavian Contemporary Style•1945-1965s Mid-Century Modernism Style•1960-1970s Postmodern Style•1970-Today Modern StyleFURNITURE TImELINEIn next slides we will discuss some common furniture styles.
BARoQUE(EARLY BARoQUEc.1590-c.1690) (HIgH BARoQUEc.1625-c.1660) (LATEBARoQUEc.1660-c.1725 )During the 17th century, the Baroque style had a markedeffect upon furniture design throughout western Europe.Large wardrobes, cupboards, and cabinets had twistedcolumns, broken pediments, and heavy moldings. In Baroquefurniture the details are related to the whole; instead of aframework of unrelated surfaces, each detail contributes tothe harmonious movement of the overall design. TheBaroque style was adopted in the Low Countries in the 1620sand extended late into the 17th century, when Germany andEngland began to develop it. It owed much to the Asianinfluence that swept over Europe in the 17th century, whenseveral maritime countries, particularly Portugal, theNetherlands, and England, established regular tradingrelations with India and East Asia. Lacquered furniture anddomestic goods were imported from the East, where Asiancraftsmen also worked in a pseudo-European style fromdesigns supplied by the traders. Before the end of the 17thcentury, Asian decorative techniques were being widelyimitated in Europe, and the roots of the “Chinese taste” werefirmly entrenched. Heavy tropical woods were also broughtto Europe, and from these, furniture was made that borrowedmuch from the prevailing taste for “Oriental” elaboration.
JAcoBEAN (1600-1690)The early Jacobean period inspired much early American furniture.The period is named after James I, and covers the right of bothJames I and Charles I (1603-1649). The middle of the Jacobeanperiod is known as the Commonwealth Style (1649-1660). The lateJacobean (1660-1688) is called the Carloean , after Charles II.Characteristics of these styles are as follows:Almost all Jacobean furniture is made of oak, a wood well-suited tothe massive, sturdy style. Almost all flat surfaces on chairs, chests,etc. are carved in low relief.The method of construction was very simple; almost all mortise andtennon joints, held together with pegs.The lines are square and rectangular.Some veneering and inlay were used, and many pieces were painted.Upholstering materials were leather, tapestries, crewelwork, wool,linen, silk, and velvet.The most outstanding characteristics were heavy turning knobbedbun feet on chests and tables. Spiral turning was also very popular.Tables were rectangular in shape, with small melon ball turning on thelegs. Gate-leg circular tables were introduced at this time as well.Almost all American furniture made in the colonies copied Englishfurniture styles. Most of the American primitive furniture was producedduring this period by colonists to made do, because there were fewskilled cabinetmakers in the colonies.
Early amErican (1640-1700)Early American furniture, furniture made in the last half of the 17th century by American colonists. The earliest known American-made furniture dates from the mid-17th century, when life in the colonies was becoming increasingly settled. Many of these early pieces were massive in size and were based on styles recalled from earlier days in England. In general, furniture styles followed those of England, with adaptations, after an interval of about 15 years. Instead of shaped legs or feet, American case furniture had legs and feet that were simply downward extensions of the rectangular styles. Decoration consisted of carved flower motifs or lunettes (crescent shapes) and chip carved (executed with mallet and chisel) scrolls and leaves, occasionally highlighted by painting, mainly in black, red, and yellow; but the carving was flatter, less finished, and more primitive than its English predecessors. Turned (shaped on a lathe) split balusters stained to look like ebony were also applied. Joinery was confined to simple rectangular panelling with mortise and tenon joints. Oak and pine were the commonest woods.
William and mary (1690-1725)William IIIand Mary IIreigned overEngland, Ireland and Scotlandfrom 1689. Mary died in 1694, William in 1702.William and Mary style has Flemish, Dutch, French and Chineseinfluences.It is characterized by trumpet turned legs, terminating in a hoof,claw, orball feet, padded orcaned chairseats, and Orientallacquer-work.The chairbacks were high, and rounded at the top with carving,shaped slightly to fit the shape of yourbody. The banisterbackchair, with and without arms, replaced the cane back chair. Theback legs of the chairs were splayed out at the bottom. Settees,upholstered orwith loose cushions came in the main room.Highboys and lowboys, with six high elaborated trumpet-shapedlegs orspiral-turned legs, appeared and rapidly became a favoriteof the Colonial craftsmen.Some of the furniture was made of OAK, but the Colonialworkmen were finding WALNUT,MAPLE,PINEand othernativewoods much easierto use.Marquetry became an important feature of decoration often theform of elaborate floral patterns, cockle shell and acanthus leaf, or seaweed.Some of the furniture was painted and gilded.Hardware, made of cast brass, became decorative as well asfunctional.
QUEEn annE (1700-1755)“Queen Anne style furniture is a style of furniture designthat developed during and around the reign of Anne , Queenof Great Britain . The Queen Anne style is a refinement of theWilliam and Mary style with lighter, graceful, morecomfortable furniture.In Britain, the style of Queen Annes reign is frequentlydescribed as “late Baroque” rather than "Queen Anne," whilein the United States the term "Queen Anne" describesdecorative styles from the mid-1720s to around 1760,although Queen Anne reigned earlier.The cabriole leg has been described as "the mostrecognizable element" of Queen Anne furniture. Cabriole legswere influenced by the designs of the French cabinetmakerAndre-Charles Boulle and the Rococo style from the Frenchcourt of Louis XV . But the intricate ornamentation of post-Restoration furniture was abandoned in favor moreconservative designs, possibly under the influence of thesimple and elegant lines of imported Chinese Furniture.Cabinetmakers replaced the straight, turned furniture legswith more graceful cabriole furniture legs. The furniture leghad an out-curved knee and an in curved ankle. Walnutbecame the preferred wood along with Cherry and Maple.Imported Mahogany began to be favored. Regardless of thewood, a small amount of Queen Anne furniture was paintedwhite.
QUEEn annE (1700-1755)Queen Anne hall table Hall Table Chinese Tea CabinetChair Queen Anne style Queen Anne ChairQueen Annecoffee tableChair in Queen Anne style
COLONIAL STYLE (1700-1780)American Colonial furniture styles wereinfluenced by some of the style characteristicsof the William and Mary and Queen Anneperiods. During the mid to latter part of theColonial era, designs were also influenced bythe strength and simplicity of country madefurniture designs by Thomas Chippendale(1718-1779) of England. In the United States,the Chippendale style was a more elaborateversion of Queen Anne style with cabriole legs,ball-and-claw feet, and broken pediment scrolltops on taller pieces.The Colonial style combines characteristicsof William and Mary, Queen Anne, andChippendale. Colonial furniture tended to bemore conservative and less ornate than Englishand European furniture of the same styleperiod.
GEOrGIAN (1714-1760)Georgian (1714-1760) – Coinciding with the reignof Kings George I and George II of England from1714-1760. in terms of furniture, works from thisperiod can be described as more ornate version ofQueen Anne with heavier proportions, elaboratelycarved cabriole legs terminating in a pad or ball-and-claw foot, ornate carvings, pierced back splatsand the use of gilding. Early Georgian furnituresaw the cabriole leg remaining popular and laterthese gradually ended in ball and claw feet.During the reign of George I (1714-27) the BritishBaroque continued to evolve and the Queen AnneStyle persisted.The architectural forms of furniture - Palladianstyle - became popular during the reign of GeorgeII (1727-60), influenced by designers such asWilliam Kent who were in turn inspired by 17thcentury Italian architecture
This style is known forthe claws at thebottom of chairs,sofas, dressers andalso they are knowsdoe the detailednatural design likeleaves, fruits, flowers,and birds.ChIppENdALEFurNITurE (1750-1790)
ChIppENdALE FurNITurE (1750-1790)The “Chippendale furniture style” was bestknown between 1749 and 1779. This was thecreation of Thomas Chippendale, who published hisfurniture designs in “The gentleman and CabinetMaker’s Director” in 1754. In fact, ThomasChippendale was the first creator to have a style offurniture named after him. He is known as a great designer but in fact he wasa great adapter. Chippendale combined the mostimportant elements of previous styles and the stylesof his contemporaries. He adapted from the QueenAnne style and the Louis XV primarily yet took a fewideas from the Gothic and embraced Chinesestyling. In fact, he developed a style known asChinese Chippendale, although it has never been aspopular as some of his other designs.Thomas Chippendale had his own originality thatadded to his furniture designs. Chippendale was aversatile designer, a master wood carver, a skilledcabinet maker, and an excellent business man.
FEDERAL STYLE (1780-1820)Federal furniture was at its peak between 1780-1820 inAmerican society, and it derived its main inspiration from theneoclassical style that was simultaneously, the trend in Europe.The distinct characteristics of Federal furniture make it a firmfavorite even today.Federal style furniture, also known as neoclassical furniture orAmerican neoclassical furniture outside the United States, is thestyle of furniture that gained prominence and becamesynonymous with the Federal period in American history. Thisperiod converged with the period right after the RevolutionaryWar around 1789,when the Federalists and anti-Federalists were at loggerheadsover the new proposed direction of the United StatesGovernment. The peak period for Federal furniture was said to be between the1780s and the 1820s. The areas that were most captivated bythis style were mostly the large portcities on the Eastern coastline like New York, Boston,Philadelphia , Charleston and Baltimore. The reason for this wasprimarily the collection of affluent wealthy families in thesecities that had close ties to European culture. And after all, it wasthe European culture and the English furniture designs inparticular of Sheraton and Hepplewhite that influenced theAmerican Federal furniture. Sheraton and Hepplewhite also
FEDERAL STYLEemerged as influential furniture styles around the same timeperiod. Inadvertently, these cities also became the productionand manufacturing centers of this furniture. Federal furniture is more than just a style or a trend, as itbecame synonymous with the times. History cannot be completeuntil all facets of civil life adopts the prevalent trends andcultures, and studying the rise and prominence of this furniturestyle simply highlights this fact.
ShAkER (1820-1860)ThiS STYLE iSbASED on puRESimpLiciTY.iT wAScREATED To bESimpLE buTuSEFuL.
Shaker (1820-1860) – Shaker furniture represents asubstantial contribution of the utilitarian lifestyle of thereligious group, the United Society of Believers. Living inself-contained communities, Shaker craftsmen wereresponsible for creating “beauty through utility”. Shakerfurniture was often constructed from maple, andsometimes cherry, birch, and walnut: furniture woods thatwere readily available within their communities. Shakerchairs, including side chairs used at meetings, and rockingchairs for the elderly, sewing rockers for Shaker women,made without arms to allow access to the sewing basket,are all important contributions to American furnituredesign. Shaker communities continue to exist today,where furniture craftsmen continue to construct beautifullypractical, handmade furniture pieces in small numbers,with careful attention to detail. Shaker style ischaracterized by straight tapered legs (tilted legs onchairs, with ball and socket construction) and mushroomshaped wooden knobs.ShAkER (1820-1860)
VicToRiAn (1840-1910)ThERE wAS noT onEDominAnT STYLE oFFuRniTuRE in ThEVicToRiAn pERioD.DESignERS RAThERuSED AnD moDiFiEDmAnY STYLES TAkEnFRom VARiouS TimEpERioDS in hiSToRYLikE goThic, TuDoR,ELizAbEThAn,EngLiSh Rococo,nEocLASSicAL AnDoThERS. ThE goThicAnD Rococo REViVALSTYLE wERE ThE moSTcommon STYLES To bESEEn in FuRniTuREDuRing ThiS TimE inhiSToRY.
Extending for a period of 70 years during the reign of QueenVictoria, the Victorian era in England saw noted changesfrom its early days to late Victorian style. During its earlyyears, no single style emerged as dominant. Instead,furniture was styled around influences from earlier periods,including Gothic, Tudor, Elizabethan, Renaissance, EnglishRococo, and Neo Classical. Ornamentation was extensive,and, in the opinion of some, a bit overdone. Mahogany androsewood were often used, and, to a lesser extent, oak infurniture designed for the masses. Iron and paper maicheswere also used in some pieces. During the latter part of theVictorian era, the Arts and Crafts and the Aesthetic or ArtFurniture movement were born. A number of antique styleswere also revived. Late Victorian furniture was known for itsstraight lines and solid woods with dark stains and lessupholstery than earlier Victorian pieces. Painted decorationsreplaced carvings. The Victorian period was the first furniturestyle to be mass produced.VicToRiAn (1840-1910)
ART nouVEAu(1880-1910)ThiS STYLE iSchARAcTERizEDbYSuDDEncuRVESAnDDYnAmicFLowingLinES
Art Nouveau (French for New Art) was an international movementand style of fine art, architecture and decorative art that peaked inpopularity at the turn of the twentieth century (1890–1905). ArtNouveau was in part influenced by the naturalistic details of theRococo style and took from the Art and Crafts movement itsreverence of good craftsmanship. Art Nouveau had two strands,the European style which flourished in France, Belgium andCzechoslovakia and was characterized by sinuous, elegant linesinspired by nature and the female form; and the more austere andgeometric approach of the Scottish architect and designer CharlesRennie Mackintosh.(http://www.slideshare.net/jik_1959/furniture-by-charles-rennie-mackintosh-2012#)Art Nouveau was developed by a brilliant and energetic generationof artists and designers, who wanted to create an art formappropriate to the modern age but inspired by nature and beauty.Society was changing tremendously at this time, the IndustrialRevolution brought many more people into the burgeoning cities,creating urban life as we now know it. Technological advancesand new materials such as cast iron allowed artists to createpreviously impossible shapes and structures. While many artists,designers and architects were excited by these new technologiesand lifestyles, others retreated into the past, embracing the worldof fantasy and myth in their designs.ART nouVEAu(1880-1910)