Jerusalem : city in transition


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Jerusalem : city in transition

  1. 1. Jerusalem: A City in Transition Population and Spatial Relations March 2005 Note: The source for all statistical data hereafter is the Statistical Yearbook of Jerusalem, edited by Maya Choshen and published in cooperation by the Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies and the Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies This is a PDF document. Use PgUp and PgDown to navigate JIIS
  2. 2. Jerusalem is Israel's largest city: <ul><li>Area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>126 km 2 jurisdiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The area of the second largest city, Tel Aviv–Yafo, is 51 km 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population – both Jews and Arabs </li></ul><ul><li>Not the country's major urban area; Israel's &quot;core&quot; is Metropolitan Tel-Aviv </li></ul>Jerusalem Beer Sheva Tel-Aviv - Yafo Haifa JIIS
  4. 4. Corpus Seperatum , 1947 JIIS Current Municipal Boundary
  5. 5. Before reunification 1948-1967 <ul><li>Israeli controlled west Jerusalem: 38 km 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Jordanian controlled east Jerusalem: 6 km 2 </li></ul>JIIS
  6. 6. Following the Six-Day War of 1967 <ul><li>The city's jurisdiction was enlarged by some 70 km 2 on 28 June 1967, in an accelerated legislative process. </li></ul><ul><li>With an area of 108 km 2 , the city encompassed west Jerusalem, east Jerusalem, the Old City, and extensive additional areas, mainly to the north and south, including 28 Arab villages. </li></ul>JIIS
  7. 7. In the late 1980s <ul><li>Re-evaluation of the city's boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Westwards extension (1993) by 15 km 2 , to 126 km 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Never built </li></ul>JIIS
  9. 9. Population Distribution (end of 2003) <ul><li>Jews: about 67 percent of the city's population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haredi Jews (ultra-orthodox) : about 30 percent of the Jewish population and 20 percent of the city's total population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arabs: the dominant component of the non-Jewish 33 percent </li></ul>JIIS
  10. 10. Age structure – Israel vs. Europe Source: United States census bureau - JIIS
  11. 11. Age Structure - Jerusalem JIIS 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Age % Jews Arabs
  12. 12. Jerusalem vs. other Localities Tel-Aviv - Yafo Maale Adumim Jerusalem Mevaseret-Zion JIIS
  13. 13. Population Growth JIIS   2.9%   1.3%   1.8% Average Annual Growth 2003-1997 (33.0) 228.7 (67.0) 464.5 (100.0) 693.2 2003   3.5%   2.2%   2.6% Average Annual Growth 1997-1987 (31.0) 193.0 (69.0) 429.1 (100.0) 622.1 1997   2.8%   2.4%   2.5% Average Annual Growth 1987-1977 (28.3) 136.5 (71.7) 346.1 (100.0) 482.6 1987   4.2%   3.3%   3.5% Average Annual Growth 1977-1967 (27.6) 103.7 (72.4) 272.3 (100.0) 376.0 1977 (25.8) 68.6 (74.2) 197.7 (100.0) 266.3 1967 (%) Arabs &others (%) Jews (%) Total Year
  14. 14. Population Growth 1967–2003 The rapid growth of the Arab population compared to the Jewish population has increased the share of the former and decreased the share of the later. JIIS 218% 225% Arab population 138% 160% Total population 124% 135% Jewish (and other non-arab) population Israel Jerusalem
  15. 15. Jewish and Arab Population (%) The reality in the city conflicts with the declared government policy of maintaining the demographic advantage of the Jewish population vis-a-vis the Arab population at a certain level. JIIS 19 % 14 % 33 % 26 % Arab population 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % Total Population 81 % 86 % 67 % 74 % Jewish (and other) population 2002 1967 2002 1967 Israel Jerusalem
  16. 16. Geographic Distribution of the Population <ul><li>highly diversified population; a mosaic of different neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Seam lines&quot; between different ways of life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jewish – Arab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secular (General) – Haredi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>impact on the city at a day - to - day level </li></ul>JIIS Har Homa 2002
  17. 17. Distribution – East-West <ul><li>At the end of 2002, about 175,000 Jews resided in the area that was added to the city in 1967 (East Jerusalem), accounting for 38% of the city's total Jewish population and 46% of the overall population of East Jerusalem. </li></ul>Har Homa JIIS Har Homa 2002
  18. 18. Employed Persons by Economic Branch JIIS Industry 8% 10% 18% Financial services 15% 29% 15% Public sector 48% 27% 33% Jerusalem Tel-Aviv Israel
  19. 19. Poverty % of Families Below &quot;Poverty Line&quot;, 2003 % of Aged 15+ in Civilian Labor Force, 2003 JIIS
  20. 20. New suburban Jewish neighborhoods <ul><li>A policy of maintaining the Jewish-Arab demographic balance </li></ul><ul><li>Inhabited largely by young people most of whom come from the older neigh- borhoods </li></ul>2004 JIIS
  21. 21. Sources of Population Growth <ul><li>Demographic processes reflect the interplay between the characteristics of the population at a given time and economic, social, and political processes in the country in general and a specific city or region in particular. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural increase : The difference between the birth and mortality rates (number of births less the number of deaths). </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration : The first dwelling place of new immigrants who choose Jerusalem as their first home in Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>Balance of migration to and from the city : The difference between the number of people arriving in Jerusalem from other localities in the country and those leaving Jerusalem and moving elsewhere. </li></ul>JIIS
  22. 22. Natural Increase <ul><li>A major source of population growth in Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>1967: the Jewish population's rate of natural increase was far below that of the Arab population. </li></ul><ul><li>1987: Jews and Arabs had about the same natural increase </li></ul><ul><li>since 1988: as a result of the Intifada (which had a baby boom effect), the birth rate among the Arab population increased. </li></ul>Arabs Jews Birth rate JIIS
  23. 23. Births (2002) <ul><li>Jerusalem: 18,300 babies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11,000 babies born to Jewish (and other non-Arab) families (60%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7,300 babies born to Arab families (40%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Birthrate (Births per 1000 pop.) in Israel and Jerusalem, 2002 </li></ul>JIIS 29.9 31.8 Arab population 18.6 24.7 Jewish (and other non-arab) population 21.2 27.1 Total Israel Jerusalem
  24. 24. Fertility Rate, 2002 (Number of children a woman is expected to bear in her lifetime) The high fertility rate among Jewish women in Jerusalem is due to the city's large Haredi population. Ultra-Orthodox women bear an average of 7.5 or more children in their lifetime. JIIS .. .. 1.7 1.7 Haifa .. .. 1.9 1.9 Tel Aviv-Yafo 4.3 4.2 2.6 2.9 Israel 4.6 4.1 3.8 3.9 Jerusalem Of whom, Muslim Total Arabs Jews (and others) Entire Population
  25. 25. Migration Movements - Immigration <ul><li>Between 1990 and 2002, Jerusalem absorbed 75,300 immigrants — only 7 percent of all immigrants to Israel (1,093,300) in this period. </li></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem does not have a strong pull for immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU), as reflected in their relatively low proportion in the city's population. </li></ul><ul><li>Many FSU immigrants subsequently left the city, and in 2002, only 55,700 newcomers who had immigrated to Israel since 1990 were living in Jerusalem, constituting 8 percent of the city's total population (12 percent of the Jewish population). </li></ul>JIIS
  26. 26. Migration Movements – Internal migration <ul><li>The first decade after reunification was characterized by positive migration rates of Jews to the city; that is, more Jews moved to Jerusalem than left it. </li></ul><ul><li>In the second decade a low negative migration balance was recorded, while the third decade saw relatively high negative rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1988 Jerusalem has been losing about 5,000 to 8,000 residents a year, largely due to an increase in the number of residents leaving the city. </li></ul>Jerusalem 1993-2002 165,500 1993-2002 97,200 JIIS
  27. 27. Migration to Suburbs <ul><li>The proportion of Jerusalem residents who are moving to the area around the city is on the rise, currently standing at about 50 percent of the migrants from the city. This trend has strengthened and developed Metropolitan Jerusalem. </li></ul><ul><li>The migration processes among the Arab population have not been studied adequately, and the available figures are unreliable. Nevertheless, it should be emphasized that such migration is taking place among the Arab population in Jerusalem as well as among West Bank Arabs. The result is the growth of the settled Arab areas around Jerusalem. </li></ul>JIIS
  28. 28. Population Projection <ul><li>If these demographic trends continue, the share of the Jewish population in Jerusalem can be expected to go on declining, while the share of the Arab population will continue to rise </li></ul>62 71 29 38 JIIS 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Total 38% 36% 35% 33% 29% Arab (and other non-Jews) areas 62% 64% 65% 67% 71% Jewish areas 2020 2015 2010 2005 1995  
  29. 29. Terrorism JIIS 18 37 125 577 35 148 357 1,559 1967 - 1999 2000 - 9.2003 Haifa and Environs Tel Aviv and Environs Jerusalem and Environs Israel: Total Attacks 186 677 1,495 4,166 2000 - 9.2003 75 684 1,141 3,843 1967 - 1999 Wounded 53 90 251 915 2000 - 9.2003 14 153 249 1,004 1967 - 1999 Fatalities Casualties
  30. 30. Palestinian Jerusalemites <ul><li>With the outbreak of the first Intifada (at the end of 1987) and again in the second Intifada (which erupted at the end of September 2000), restrictions were placed on the movement of Palestinians in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, impairing their earning ability, which had been based on employment in economic transactions with Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the Palestinian inhabitants of Jerusalem continued to enjoy freedom of movement, and with it broader and more varied job opportunities compared to those whom closure, curfew, or the separation barrier prevented from crossing the Green Line. </li></ul>JIIS
  31. 31. Palestinian Jerusalemites <ul><li>The city's Palestinian inhabitants acquired economic advantages compared to Palestinians in the adjacent localities. </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time, though, the cost of housing in Jerusalem rose sharply. Many Palestinians left the city. Nevertheless, Jerusalem's unique economic and geopolitical situation prompted them to maintain their official address in Jerusalem even after they left the city, in order to retain their coveted &quot;blue ID card&quot;. </li></ul>JIIS
  32. 32. Metropolitan Jerusalem From City to Metropolis JIIS
  33. 33. Metropolization <ul><li>Out-going migration, mainly to suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to the image of the city </li></ul><ul><li>Deterioration of tax base </li></ul>Acute issues JIIS
  34. 34. Metropolitan Jerusalem <ul><li>The city of Jerusalem constitutes the core of the settled area around it, and as such acts as the economic, social, cultural, and also political center for the Arab and Jewish communities in and around the city. </li></ul><ul><li>The development of the Jerusalem area as one space, until its partition in 1948 and since its reunification in 1967, has brought into being a unitary urban system bearing a common infrastructure and strong attachments between the Israeli and Palestinian neighborhoods and localities, particularly in the city proper and in the inner ring of surrounding localities. </li></ul>JIIS
  35. 35. Surrounding Population <ul><li>The origin of much of the population that currently resides in the localities around Jerusalem is actually the city of Jerusalem. Migration to the outlying localities is under way by Jews and Arabs, by Haredis and secular Jews. Many of those leaving the city are seeking cheaper or more spacious housing, but they continue to work in Jerusalem and to avail themselves of services in the city. </li></ul>JIIS
  36. 36. Multi-Centered JIIS
  37. 37. Decentralized Focus JIIS
  38. 38. Strong Focus JIIS
  39. 39. Israel and the Palestinian Authority <ul><li>Today two political entities, Israel and the Palestinian Authority, coexist in geographical proximity in the Jerusalem area. </li></ul><ul><li>Because Jerusalem is interlocked with the area around it, any discussion of its future must take into account the fact that strengthening Jerusalem and strengthening the metropolitan area are intertwined and will benefit both the Jewish and the Arab populations in the city and in the surrounding area. </li></ul>A A A B Jerusalem JIIS
  40. 40. The Security Fence Reality and Alternatives JIIS
  41. 41. The Security Fence Fence configuration – approx. 57 miles in the Jerusalem area. Around Maale Adumim: 23 more miles Wall configuration – approx. 8 miles in the Jerusalem area Source: ministry of defense JIIS
  42. 42. The Route, Crossing Points Currently Executed Route Fence separating Palestinians from Palestinians, creating conflicts JIIS
  43. 43. Israel's Supreme Court Map submitted on an appeal by Beit Surik and others against the route JIIS
  44. 44. The Current Route As decided by the Israeli government on Feb. 20 th , 2005 (post Israeli High Court decision) JIIS Betar Illit Efratha Maale Adumim Bethlehem Givat Zeev Ramallah Source: Ministry of Defense Old City Original route (2002) New (corrected) route Fortified road Tunneled road Ma'ale Adumim area 1949 armistice line
  45. 45. Demographic Alternative JIIS
  46. 46. Life Pattern Alternative JIIS
  47. 47. Metropolitan Alternative JIIS
  48. 48. Jerusalem: A City in Transition Population and Spatial Relations JIIS Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies