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Nursing ethics in Euthanasia

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Nursing ethics in Euthanasia

  1. 1. NURSING ETHICS Euthanasia Prepared by : Jihad Olwan Fadi Almagadma Yahya Abu Alqomsan Mohammed Basal Abdul Rahman Faraj Osama Haniya Siraj Albooa Supervised by : Dr. Hamza M . Abdeljawad 10/2013 1
  2. 2. Introduction: What is Euthanasia? Euthanasia is the termination of a very sick person's life in order to relieve them of their suffering.  The term is derived from the Greek word euthanatos which means easy death  Euthanasia, sometimes known as « mercy killing », is the intentional ending of a patient’s life by a physician, usually by lethal injection, over-doze or withdrawal … 2
  3. 3. Types of Euthanasia :  1/ Active Euthanasia: Taking specific steps to cause patient’s death  Some thing is done.  2/ Passive Euthanasia: Withdrawing medical treatment deliberately causing death.  Some thing is not done.  3/ Voluntary Euthanasia : Patients request an action to be taken to end their life . 3
  4. 4.  4/ Non-Voluntary Euthanasia : Death without the patient’s knowledge .  5/ Assisted : The doctor provides the patients the means to end their own life .  Sleep without any treatment . • Unbearable pain • Right to commit suicide • People should not be forced to stay alive Arguments For Euthanasia: • It provides a way to relieve extreme pain • It provides a way of relief when a person's quality of life is low • Frees up medical funds to help other people ( Teleology ) • It is another case of freedom of choice(Autonomy ) Arguments Against Euthanasia: 4
  5. 5. • Euthanasia devalues human life • Euthanasia can become a means of health care cost containment • Physicians and other medical care people should not be involved in directly causing death • There is a "slippery slope" effect that has occurred where euthanasia has been first been legalized for only the terminally ill and later laws are changed to allow it for other people or to be done non-voluntarily. possible solution • Pain management therapy. • Valorization of life through the reinforcement of values. • Psychological rehabilitation for the patient and his/her family. • A law (or permit) similar to the one that allows people to donate their organs when they die. I suggest option - eliminating pain - because it is consistent with the theory Deontology and the principle of beneficence to the patient Ethically Speaking Through my point of view • Involuntary euthanasia of all kinds is regarded as deeply morally objectionable It complies with theory Teleology, inconsistent with the theory of Deontology In addition to that it is incompatible with the patient's right to life and self-determination and the principle of autonomy, and the principle of Beneficence , also the principle of Nonmaleficence . 5
  6. 6. • Active euthanasia is usually taken to be less morally problematic than passive euthanasia • There are obvious cases where passive euthanasia seems morally worse than active euthanasia • No voluntary euthanasia is highly ethically controversial • Statistics • The places in the World where Euthanasia or Assisted Suicide are legal are: • Sweden • Netherlands • Belgium • Luxembourg • Oregon and Washington. allow it for other people or to be done non-voluntarily. Muslim view on euthanasia Life is sacred and holy “Allah is the one who gave you life, than shall he ordain you to die, then shall he give you your life again, truly mankind is ungrateful (Qur’an 22:66) “Take not life which Allah has made sacred.” Qur’an 6:151 The European council for Fatwa and Research stated “It is forbidden to end deliberately or to hasten the death of any person.” “Do not kill yourselves, for verily Allah has been to you most merciful.”  Everything that happens in life is a test  “No one dies unless Allah permits it.”  Muhammad (pbuh) said all forms of suicide are wrong  M. Tells of a story about a soldier with a wound who widened it to hasten his death and Allah said he did not permit him to enter paradise  Allah said “fortify yourselves with patience and prayer. Allah is with those who are patient.” 6
  7. 7. The Case Study Terri Schiavo • Theresa Schindler was born on December 3rd, 1963 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. When she married her husband, Michael Schiavo, they moved to Florida. On February 25, 1990, Terri collapsed in her Florida home from an “ice tea diet” which was related to her bulimia that was the result of a potassium deficiency. • Due to the potassium deficiency, Terri had tremendous brain damage. This brain damage was permanent and made Terri go into a vegetative state for the last fifteen years of her life. Doctors said that there was no chance that she would return to normal someday, and the controversy to keep her on life support would begin… • Michael Schiavo stated that Terri’s wish was to be taken off life support because she did not want to live her life on machines that would keep her alive. Due to her wishes, he wanted the feeding tube to be removed which would cause Terri to die of malnutrition and dehydration. Her parents, did not want this, and wanted to keep their daughter alive no matter what. 7
  8. 8. • Bob and Mary Schindler brought the issue to Florida courts many times, but every time they ruled that it was Michael Schiavo’s decision . Bob and Mary would not accept the verdict and they kept on fighting to keep their daughter alive. • On April 24, 2001 Terri’s feeding tube was removed for the first time, but then it was reinserted on April 26 after the Schindler’s protested. The court made the Schindler’s hire two doctors, Michael Schiavo hire two doctors, and the court hire one to examine Terri’s medical records, brain scans, and Terri. Three of the doctors claimed that Terri was in a vegetative state, and two of the other doctors claimed that she was in a minimally conscious state. 8
  9. 9. PreferencesIn 2003, the Schindler’s began to involve the public in their battle. On October 15, 2003, Terri’s feeding tube was removed for the second time. Within a week, Florida legislatures passed “Terri’s Law”, giving the governor, Jeb Bush authority to intervene in the case. He ordered to have Terri’s feeding tube reinserted once again. “Terri’s Law” was found unconstitutional. On March 18, 2005, the removal of Terri’s feeding tube was attempted, but it was postponed. • On March 26, 2005, Bob and Mary Schindler declared that their legal options had be exhausted. On March 31, 2005, Terri Schiavo’s feeding tube had been removed for the last time and she had passed away. 9
  10. 10. • • Many people around the world had taken a part in this argument. Many people were on the Schindler’s side to fight for Terri’s life. People even offered money to Michael Schiavo to walk away from this case, but he rejected the money. Many pro-life groups and disability-rights groups protested for the life of Terri Schiavo. Even people who were on Michael Schiavo’s side voiced their opinion. Millions of people, either on Michael Schiavo’s side or the Schindler’s side listened and waited for the developments in this great drama. • 10
  11. 11. References Many slide from http://www.slideshare.net  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euthanasia http://www.euthanasia.com/argumentsagainsteuthanasia.h tml The Case Study Terri Schiavo By: Amanda Kaufmann 11

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