Week 4 Basic Cooking Principle & Mise En Place

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Week 4 Basic Cooking Principle & Mise En Place

  1. 1. Week 4 Basic Cooking Principle and Mise en Place . 2248 email: tpavit@wu.ac.th 1
  2. 2. Outline – Basic Cooking Principle • Heat and Food – Effect of Heat on Foods – Heat Transfer – Cooking Times • Cooking Methods – Moist-Heat Methods – Dry-Heat Methods – Combine Methods • Building Flavor – Building Flavor Profile – Seasoning and flavoring ingredients – Using Herbs and Spices 2
  3. 3. Outline – Mise en Place • Planning and Organizing Production • Using Knife and Knife Skills • Basic Knife Cuts • Preliminary Cooking and Flavoring • Preparation for Frying 3
  4. 4. 1 Heat and Food 4
  5. 5. 1.1 Effects of Heat on foods 5
  6. 6. 1.1 Effects of Heat on foods • Effects of Heat on foods – Food are composed of proteins, fat, carbohydrates, and water, plus small amount of other compound such as vitamins, pigments, and flavor element. – It is important to understand hoe these components react when heated or mixed with other foods. – In other words, when you know why foods behave as they do, you can understand how to get them to behave as you want them to. 6
  7. 7. 1.1 Effects of Heat on Foods • Carbohydrates • Fruit and Vegetable Fiber • Proteins • Fats • Mineral, Vitamins, Pigment, and Flavor Components • Water 7
  8. 8. 1.2 Heat Transfer 8
  9. 9. Heat Transfer 1. Conduction 9
  10. 10. Heat Transfer 2. Convection ( ) Conduction 10
  11. 11. Heat Transfer 2.1 Natural 2.2 Mechanical 11
  12. 12. Heat Transfer 3. Radiation 3.1 Infrared Cooking Salamander 3.2 Microwave Cooking 12
  13. 13. 1.3 Cooking Times 13
  14. 14. Cooking Times • It takes to heat a food to a desired temperature, the temperature at which a food is “DONE”. This time is affected by three factors: 1. Cooking Temperature 2. The Speed of heat transfer 3. Size, Temperature, and individual characteristic of the food. 14
  15. 15. 2 Cooking Methods 15
  16. 16. Cooking Methods 2.1 Moist-Heat Methods 2.1 Moist- ( ) Dry- 2.2 Dry-Heat Methods 2.3 2.3 Combination Methods Moist-Heat Methods Dry-Heat Methods 16
  17. 17. Moist- 2.1 Moist-Heat Methods 1. Poach, Skimmer, Boil, Branch 1.1 Boil (100 OC) 17
  18. 18. Moist- 2.1 Moist-Heat Methods 1.2 Simmer (85- 96OC) 1.3 Poach (71-82OC) 18
  19. 19. Moist- 2.1 Moist-Heat Methods 1.4 Blanch 1. 2. 19
  20. 20. Moist- 2.1 Moist-Heat Methods 2. Steam • • Steamer 100 OC • Pressure Steamer 20
  21. 21. Dry- 2.2 Dry-Heat Methods 1. Roast and Bake Roast Bake • • Conventional Oven 21
  22. 22. Dry- 2.2 Dry-Heat Methods 1. Roast and Bake (Cont.) • Barbecue • Smoke-Roasting 22
  23. 23. Dry- 2.2 Dry-Heat Methods 2. Broil 23
  24. 24. Dry- 2.2 Dry-Heat Methods 3. Grill, Griddle, Pan Broil Grilling Griddling Pan- Pan-Broil 24
  25. 25. Dry- 2.2 Dry-Heat Methods Using FAT 4. Saute 5. Pan-Fry Pan- 6. Deep-Fry Deep- 175-190 OC 175- 25
  26. 26. 2.3 Combination Methods 1. Braise • • dry-heat Moist-heat 26
  27. 27. 2.3 Combination Methods 2. Stew Braise 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. Summery of Cooking Terms 1. Bake 13. Pan broil 2. Barbecue 14. Pan fry 3. Blanch 15. Parcook 4. Boil 16. Poach 5. Braise 17. Reduce 6. Broil 18. Roast 7. Deep-fry 19. Saut 8. Deglaze 20. Sear 9. Fry 21. Smoke 10. Glaze 22. Steam 11. Griddle 23. Stir-fry 12. Grill 24. sweat 29
  30. 30. 3 Building Flavor 30
  31. 31. 3.1 Building Flavor Profiles • Food offer complex experiences for the senses. When composing a new dish. A cook must first of all understand that more than just taste should be considered. • The senses of sight, smell, taste, and touch all come into play. • Consider how we perceive these characteristics of a dish: 31
  32. 32. Building Flavor Profiles • Appearance (color, color contrast, shape, shine, arrangement) • Aroma • Taste • Mouth feel (texture, moistness or dryness, softness or crispness and temperature) 32
  33. 33. General Concepts in Flavor Building • Every ingredient should have a purpose • Ingredients can work together by harmonizing or by contrasting • When two ingredients contrast, be sure they balance • Consider not only the component of the single recipe but also other items that will be served with it on the plate 33
  34. 34. Classic Flavoring Combinations 34
  35. 35. 3.2 Seasoning and Flavoring Ingredients • Seasoning Enhance the natural flavor of food • Flavoring adding new flavor to food and change the original flavor 35
  36. 36. Seasoning and Flavoring Ingredients 36
  37. 37. Seasoning 37
  38. 38. Flavoring 38
  39. 39. 3.3 Using Herb & Spices *** pls see the Kitchen Staple 39
  40. 40. Mise en Place to put in place / everything in its place 40
  41. 41. PLANNING AND ORGANIZING PRODUCTION • Even on the simplest level, pre-preparation is necessary. If you prepare only one short recipe, you must first: 1. Assemble your tools 2. Assemble your ingredients 3. Wash, trim, cut, prepare, and measure your raw materials 4. Prepare your equipment (preheat oven, etc) 41
  42. 42. The Problem 1. There is far too much work to do in a kitchen to leave until the last minute, so some work must be done ahead. 2. Most food are at their best quality immediately after preparation, and they deteriorate as they are held. 42
  43. 43. The Solution 1. Break down each menu item into its stages of production 2. Determine which stages may be done in advance 3. Determine the best way to hold each item at its final stage of preparation. Holding temperature is the temperature at which a product is kept for service or for storage. Holding temperatures for all potentially hazardous foods must be outside the food danger zone 43
  44. 44. The Solution (Cont.) 4. Determine how long it takes to prepare each stage of each recipe. Plan a production schedule beginning with the preparation that take the longest 5. Examine recipes to see if they might be revised for better efficiency and quality as served 44
  45. 45. The Goal • The goal of pre-preparation is to do as much work in advance as possible without loss of quality. Then, at service time, all energy can be used for finishing each item immediately before serving, with the utmost attention to quality and freshness. 45
  46. 46. Mise en Place: The required tasks 46
  47. 47. Using the Knife 47
  48. 48. Using the Knife 48
  49. 49. Using the Knife: The Steel 49
  50. 50. Using the Knife: Handling the Knife 50
  51. 51. Using the Knife: Handling the Knife 51
  52. 52. Using the Knife: Handling the Knife 52
  53. 53. 53
  54. 54. Basic Knife Cuts & Shapes 54
  55. 55. Basic Cuts and Shapes 55
  56. 56. Basic Cuts and Shapes 56
  57. 57. Basic Vegetable Cuts and Dimensions 57
  58. 58. CUTTING STICKS & DICING 1. Julienne (ju-lee-en) - 3 .x3 .x5 . 2. Batonnet (bah-toh-nah) - 6 .x 6 .x 5 . 3. Brunoise (broo-nwaz) - 3 .x3 .x3 . 4. Small Dice - 6 .x6 .x6 . 5. Medium Dice 1.2 . x 1.2 . X 1.2 . 6. Large Dice - 2 .x2 .X 2 . 7. Paysanne (pahy-sahn) - 1.2 .x 1.2 .X 3 . 58
  59. 59. SLICING 1. Chiffonade (Chef-fon-nahd) – 2. Rondelles (ron-dellz)- 3. Diagnals - 4. Oblique cuts (oh-Bleek) - 5. Lozenges – 6. Butterfly - 59
  60. 60. CUTTING STICKS & DICING 1. Coarse Chopping - Mirepoix 2. Chopping Herbs - 3. Mincing - - TOURNER (toor-nay) = to turn - ก ก กก PARISIENNES - ก ก/ F กก 60
  61. 61. 61
  62. 62. 62
  63. 63. 63
  64. 64. 64
  65. 65. Cutting Techniques 65
  66. 66. 1. Slicing 66
  67. 67. Brunoise, Batonnet, 2. Cutting dice, Brunoise, Batonnet, allumette and Julienne 67
  68. 68. 3. Cutting Paysanne 68
  69. 69. 4. Cutting Lozenges 69
  70. 70. 5. Dicing an Onion 70
  71. 71. 6. Chopping mirepoix 71
  72. 72. 7. Chopping Herbs 72
  73. 73. 8. Cutting parisienne 73
  74. 74. 9. Cutting Tourneed 74
  75. 75. Mise en Place ( - - ) to put in place/ everything in its place / mise en place 1. 2. 3. 4. / 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 75
  76. 76. Mise en Place 1. / 2. concasse 3. 4. / Bouquet garni 5. (clarified butter) 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Ice bath 11. refresh 12. garnish 76
  77. 77. Preliminary Cooking and Flavoring 77
  78. 78. Preliminary Cooking and Flavoring 78
  79. 79. 79
  80. 80. 80
  81. 81. 81
  82. 82. 82
  83. 83. Preparing Bouquet Garni 83
  84. 84. Preparing a Standard Sachet d’Epices 84
  85. 85. Onion Pique and Brule 85
  86. 86. Clarifying Butter 86
  87. 87. Preparing Stocks 87
  88. 88. Preparing Stocks 88
  89. 89. Preparing Stocks 89
  90. 90. Mise en Place for White/Brown Stocks 90
  91. 91. Preparing Roux 91
  92. 92. Preparing for Frying 92
  93. 93. Preparing for Frying 93
  94. 94. Preparing for Frying 94
  95. 95. Procedure for Proper Breading 95

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