19TH CENTURY ART
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists. Their
independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s, in spite of harsh opposition
from the conventional art community in France. The name of the style derives from the title of aClaude
Monet work, Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), which provoked the critic Louis Leroyto coin the
term in a satirical review published in the Parisian newspaper Le Charivari.
Impressionist painting characteristics include relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, opencomposition,
emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage
of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and
experience, and unusual visual angles. The development of Impressionism in the visual artswas soon followed
by analogous styles in other media that became known as impressionist music andimpressionist literature.
Claude Monet, Haystacks, (sunset), 1890–1891,Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Alfred Sisley, View of the Saint-Martin Canal, Paris, 1870, Musée d'Orsay
Claude Monet, Woman with a Parasol, (Camille and Jean Monet), 1875
ARTS & CRAFTS MOVEMENT
The Arts and Crafts Movement was an international design movement that flourished between 1880 and 1910,
especially in the second half of that period, continuing its influence until the 1930s. It was led by the artist and
writer William Morris (1834–1896) during the 1860s, and was inspired by the writings of John Ruskin (1819–1900)
and Augustus Pugin (1812–1852), although the term "Arts and Crafts" was not coined until 1887, when it was
first used by T. J. Cobden-Sanderson at a preliminary meeting of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society.
The movement developed first and most fully in the British Isles, but spread across the British Empire and to
the rest of Europe and North America. It was largely a reaction against the perceived impoverished state of
thedecorative arts at the time and the conditions in which they were produced. It stood for traditional
craftsmanship using simple forms and often applied medieval, romantic or folk styles of decoration. It
advocated economic and social reform and has been said to be essentially anti-industrial.
William Morris design for "Trellis" wallpaper, 1862 William Morris's Red House in London
"Artichoke" wallpaper, by John Henry Dearle The Robert Owen Museum, Newtown, by Frank Shayler.
Art Nouveau or Jugendstil is an international philosophy and style of art, architecture and applied art—
especially the decorative arts—that was most popular during 1890–1910. English uses the French name Art
nouveau ("new art"), but the style has many different names in other countries. A reaction to academic art of
the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, not only in flowers and plants, but also in
curved lines. Architects tried to harmonize with the natural environment.
Art Nouveau is considered a "total" art style, embracing architecture, graphic art, interior design, and most of
thedecorative arts including jewellery, furniture, textiles, household silver and other utensils and lighting, as
well as thefine arts. According to the philosophy of the style, art should be a way of life. For many well -off
Europeans, it was possible to live in an art nouveau-inspired house with art nouveau furniture, silverware,
fabrics, ceramics including tableware, jewellery, cigarette cases, etc. Artists desired to combine the fine arts
and applied arts, even for utilitarian objects.
Although Art Nouveau was replaced by 20th-century Modernist styles, it is now considered as an important
transition between the eclectic historic revival styles of the 19th-century and Modernism.
Table Lamp by François-Raoul Larche in gilt bronze, The Peacock Skirt, by Aubrey Beardsley, (1892)
with the dancer Loïe Fuller as model
20th CENTURY ART
Art Deco (/ˌɑrt ˈdɛkoʊ/), or Deco, is an influential visual arts design style that first appeared in France
after World War I and began flourishing internationally in the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s before its popularity
waned after World War II. It is an eclectic style that combines traditional craft motifs with Machine
Age imagery and materials. The style is often characterized by rich colors, bold geometricshapes, and lavish
Deco emerged from the Interwar period when rapid industrialization was transforming culture. One of its
major attributes is an embrace of technology. This distinguishes Deco from the organic motifs favored by its
predecessor Art Nouveau.
Historian Bevis Hillier defined Art Deco as "an assertively modern style [that] ran to symmetry rather than
asymmetry, and to the rectilinear rather than the curvilinear; it responded to the demands of the machine and
of new material [and] the requirements of mass production".
During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour, exuberance, and faith in social and technological
Art Deco spire of theChrysler Building in New York City
Raymond Duchamp-Villon, 1912, La Maison
Cubiste (Cubist House) at the Salon d'Automne