Enbe report

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Enbe report

  1. 1. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 1 Better Cities of the Future ELYSIUM Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 FNBE FEB 2014 Taylor’s University
  2. 2. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 2 Content: 1. Introduction 3 2. A City: Investigation on Better City Guidelines and Issues 4-6 3. Investigation & Data Collection: Ancient and old cities 7-10 4. Investigation & Data Collection: The present city 11-14 5. Investigation & Data Collection: The future city/cities 15-18 6. The New “X” City / Or the new name 19-24 7. The Conclusion 25 8. References List 26
  3. 3. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 3 1.0. Introduction For our final ENBE (Elements of Natural and Built Environment) project, we students will have to pretend that we are the mayor of the “X” city and propose a new layout for the new “X” City as the people there require a new city because of reasons that it is no longer livable. This final project is divided into two parts, where the first part (Part A) is an individual component where we have to make a short video and a detailed report regarding our city based on certain given guidelines; whereas the second part, being Part B, is a group component where we have to make a model of the selected city within our group on a maximum of three A2 board. The idea of this project is for students to understand the components and elements of a city and what makes a better future city.
  4. 4. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 4 2.0. The City 2.1. The City Definition By definition, “City” (noun, Pronunciation: /ˈsitē/) is a large town. It is a center of population, commerce and culture; a town of significant size and importance. 2.2. Brief History of Cities Cities have had a long history and played an important role throughout the whole as they act as central places of trades for the benefits of the citizens living in close proximity to others which facilitates interaction of all kinds. Accordingly, cities first appeared in the Neolithic era when the crops and food sources yield large enough to sustain a permanent and growing population due to the development of the agricultural technology. Cities turn up increasingly after the middle ages under the political control of centralized government and served the interests of nation-state. However, it was only during the Industrial Revolution and the rise of automobile that massive population and urbanization started to advance. 2.3. What Makes a City Cities are broken up into precincts and each of them contains its own councilmen who decide the budget and assign people for many other positions that are elected in a town government. Cities tend to have a denser population compared to their surrounding areas. Currently, over half of the world’s population resides in cities. Cities provide various services to their citizens, typically food distribution, transportation, utilities, sanitations and road systems. However, the population in the city does not grow its own food but rely on other sources instead. Also, citizens are required to pay taxes, often for the construction and maintenance of public buildings and spaces. Oftentimes, the creation and production of arts, literature and sciences are centralized within cities.
  5. 5. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 5 2.4. What Makes a Good City There are more to a city than just the amount of its buildings; a good city should be a sustainable and have a solid and stable politic, social and economy to ensure that the future generation can live in a comfortable and safe environment. And hence, a good city should include the following:  A secure water and electric supply  Open public spaces or rest area where people can hang out and congregate  Accessible and efficient public transportation network on every level  Affordable housing  Affordable medical and social services for all its citizens  A built in arts and culture environment  Wide range of education and business opportunities  Promote walkability by providing large footpaths along its roads  Mixed used neighborhood  Low-carbon urban transportation to reduce air pollution  Pro-active planning and management of the government  A community spirit
  6. 6. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 6 2.5. Future City Over the next decade, cities will evidently grow larger and more rapidly as technologies will adapt in various ways to meet local needs. As such, there are much to look forward into the future cities as the use of “smart” technologies that can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of urban system will be assimilated into our future cities, such as: I. Smart Mobility Moving and travelling within the smart city combines car sharing, carpooling, and shared vehicles with the interconnectedness of transportation and other infrastructures. Mobility-on- demand and fleet-management-tools can fill the gaps in public transit. Many opportunities can arise from Smart Mobility to improve the daily commute of workers as well as the needs for citizens to move around the city. Smart Mobility includes:  Intelligent Transport System The transport system will be interconnected which allows for different public transports to be coordinated and to provide information in real time.  Smart Parking There will be systems of which they will alert the drivers when there is a parking slot available. Finding a parking slot will no longer be a hassle and the air pollution will be reduced as drivers do not have to go around the car parks looking for a parking slot.  Traffic Management Monitoring road systems will inform drivers the best route to use at any given time. II. Smart Transaction Mobile Money and Mobile Payments technologies are very efficient and convenient in both B2C (Business-to-Consumer) and B2B (Business to Business) sectors. One of the smart transaction that is hoped to be seen in the future is the Digital-Signage. Via the Digital-Signage, urban ads will be tailored to each citizen and advertising will provide services. Whereas now we see many concert posters around the city, in the future the customer will have the chance to actually buy the ticket via the billboard. III. Smart Buildings Media facades and interactive landmarks convey situated information through their exterior skin. Reactive architecture and buildings respond to the environment and people flows. They can mimic biologic structures for sustainability, energy saving and innovative human habitats purposes. IV. Smart Sociality Cities are social platforms and physical locations that contribute to the organizing logic of social interactions. Location-aware mobile technologies strengthen the feelings of connection to our surrounding space and nearby people, allowing us to connect information to places and communicate with others.
  7. 7. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 7 Investigation & Data Collection: Ancient Cities Athens
  8. 8. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 8 3.0. Ancient City 3.1. History The city of Athens, Greece is one of the world’s oldest cities with a history spanning approximately 3,400 years. According to Greek mythology, the city was named after the goddess Athena after she won a competition with Poseidon over who would become the protector of the city. The city’s location (in the fertile plains of Attika between the Parnitha, Penteli, and Hymettos mountains), proximity to the Saronic Gulf, and its mild climate were probably the main reasons why the founders of the city chose to live there. Under the rule of Pericles during the 5th century BC was one of the most glorious periods in Athenian history and laid the foundations of western civilization. It was during this Golden Age that the Parthenon was built, and the fields of art, philosophy, and drama developed significantly. The Peloponnesian wars between the Athenians and Sparta brought an end to the Golden Age, but Athens continued to be an important cultural and intellectual center for centuries to come. Athens remained a center for learning and philosophy during its 500 years of Roman rule. The conversion of the empire to Christianity ended the city’s role as the center of pagan learning and the schools of philosophy were closed in AD 529 marking the end of the ancient history of Athens. After the Greek Revolution of 1821, Greece was established as a modern independent Greek state in 1830 by the Treaty of London and Athens was made the capital. Athens was chosen as the capital of Greece for historical and sentimental reasons. Once the capital was established, a modern city plan was laid out and many public buildings were erected. After WWII, Athens began to grow as people migrated into the city looking for work. Greece joined the European Union in 1981 which brought in many new investments to Athens, but also increased social and environmental problems. At the time, Athens had some of the worst traffic congestion and air pollution in the world which posed a great threat to the ancient monuments. Traffic vibrations weakened the foundations and the air pollution corroded the marble. Because of the environmental and infrastructure problems, the city failed to secure the 1996 centenary Olympic Games even though it was the host of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896. Since the failed attempt to secure the 1996 Olympics, the city and the Greek government, aided by the European Union funds, started major infrastructure projects such as building a new Athens Airport and a new metro system. The City of Athens also restricted the use of cars in the city center to reduce the air pollution problem. As a result of its efforts, Athens was rewarded the 2004 Olympic Games which were a great success and brought renewed international prestige to the city.
  9. 9. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 9 3.2. Reasons Why Athens Is a Significant City and Its Details Athens, the birthplace of democracy is a significant city in terms of its architecture. Ancient Greek architecture is best known for its temples, and so it is not surprising that the temples of ancient Greece were the biggest and the most beautiful. Ancient Greek architecture is distinguished by its highly formalised characteristics, both of structure and decoration. This is particularly so in the case of temples where each building appears to have been conceived as a sculptural entity within the landscape, most often raised on high ground so that the elegance of its proportions and the effects of light on its surfaces might be viewed from all angles. The Greeks developed three architectural systems, called orders, each with their own distinctive proportions and detailing. The Greek orders are: The Doric style is rather sturdy and its top (the capital), is plain. This style was used in mainland Greece and the colonies in the Southern Italy and Sicily. The Ionic style is thinner and more elegant. Its capital is decorated with a scroll-like design (a volute). This style was found in eastern Greece and the islands. The Corinthian style is seldom used in the Greek world, but often seen on Roman temples. Its capital is very elaborated and decorated with acanthus leaves.
  10. 10. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 10 3.3. Conclusion Athens had proved itself to be the backbone for the birth of arts, literature, sciences and philosophy. This shows that in order for a city to reach its peak, it is also important to take note of what is inside of the city rather than just its physical being. 3.4. Elements that are used for the Future City Among the elements and characteristics found in the city planning of Athens, there are some important elements that can be used for the future cities: I. Large Public Areas  The Ancient Agora of Athens as the center of commerce, religious, political and military activity proved that public area is important and served many purposes in a city  Large public areas are able to carry out many functions which will further enhance relationship between people and thus create a healthy social environment II. Hierarchy in City Planning  A city planning that is arranged according to its roles of importance  The centre of the city is the home to the city’s most important buildings, including the town hall and government buildings  Buildings that play smaller roles in the city are placed further away from the central area of the city
  11. 11. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 11 Investigation & Data Collection: Present Cities Chicago
  12. 12. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 12 4.0. Present City 4.1. History The Chicago area’s recorded history starts with the arrival of missionaries, traders, and French in the late 17th century. The city was founded by the Americans in 1833, and hence was claimed by the United States in the late 18th century where it was inhabited by the Potawatomi Indians during that time. In the 1830s, the city was founded and advanced from real estate speculation and controlled access from the Great Lakes into the Mississippi River basin. As Chicago grew, its residents raised many of the streets and buildings five to eight feet to install a sewer system. The streets, sidewalks and buildings that were made of wood were burned to the ground in the Great Fire in 1871. The city grew exponentially despite the Great Fire which destroyed the central business district and soon became the nation’s major centre of finance, commerce and manufacturing. 4.2. Present City – Chicago Chicago, located on the Southwestern shores of Lake Michigan, is one of the cities in the state of Illinois of the United States of America. The history and economy of the city are closely linked to its proximity to Lake Michigan. Most of the early buildings began around the mouth of the Chicago River when the city was founded. Even though the Chicago Loop is the central business district, the city is also a city of neighbourhoods. Chicago is famous for its greenery and contains some famous parks along the waterfront of the city which includes the Burnham Park and Lincoln Park.
  13. 13. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 13 4.3. Reasons Why Chicago Is a Significant City and Its Details Chicago may be the third most populous city in the United States. However, what truly makes it a significant city is its drive and approach towards being a more sustainable city. As such, various concepts and systems are applied into the city: I. Application of Green Roof  Reverse urban heat island effect  Provide wild life habitat  Absorb rainfall  Insulate buildings  Extend the life of the roof membrane  Increase property values  Improve urban aesthetics  Creating a self-sustaining city II. Streetscape  Wide streets  The streets of the city are arranged in a grid system  Grid’s regularity provides an efficient means to develop new real estate property  Most of the streets have wide patch of grass at the pavement itself  Has effect of keeping pedestrians walking away from the street traffic  Encourages the safety of citizens III. LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)in Eco building  A set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings, homes and neighbourhoods  Having buildings with environmentally friendly features are a geothermal heating system, a green roof, ceiling tiles made of recycled newspapers, and floors of recycled carpeting and cork IV. Urban Agriculture Urban Agriculture is the practice of harvesting, processing, and distributing food in the city. The energy and cost used to transport food is greatly decreased when urban agriculture can provide cities with locally grown food. Urban farmers who obey the sustainable agriculture practice will not only help to build local food system infrastructure, but also help improve local air, water and soil quality.
  14. 14. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 14 4.4. Conclusion As one of the greenest city in the United States, Chicago is evidently paying much focus on its development of green roof and working towards a more sustainable city. As a present city, Chicago is currently paving a path towards a green and sustainable environment. 4.5. Elements that are used for the Future City Among the elements and characteristics found in the city planning of Chicago, there are some important elements that can be used for the future cities: I. Green Roof Technologies  Create a self-sustaining city  Save urban land spaces by using rooftops as area of agriculture  Lower the temperature around the city II. Wider Streets  Promotes walkability  Reduce the amount of vehicles along the road and thus reduce pollution Wide Walkway
  15. 15. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 15 Investigation & Data Collection: Future Cities h O2+ scraper
  16. 16. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 16 5.0. Future Cities 5.1. Future City - h O2+ scraper The h O2+ scraper is an autonomous floating unit of liveable, functional and self-sustaining space which will function, in a collective manner, as a floating city. The h O2+ scraper proposes to break free of the urban fabric and adapts to the sea and operate completely autonomously: supplying itself and generating its own resources without exploiting the environment. The main components of the programme for the h O2+ scraper consists of resource generation (i.e. air, food, power etc), play, work, living, waste treatment and maintenance. The programme is spread evenly in accordance to the proximity of any specific required external resource i.e the living areas are placed just below sea level where the natural light is the best, the wind generators are placed on the roof garden island, the livestock farming component is also placed there etc. The major part of the building is, like an iceberg, under water. On the visible, green surface food could be produced through agriculture and aquaculture. A forest, solar panels and wind turbines are visible signs of the underwater town.
  17. 17. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 17 5.2. Reasons Why h O2+ scraper is a Significant City and Its Details The h O2+ scraper is considered a significant city as it is able to function as a self-sufficient ambassador in the sea because it contains: I. Green technologies:  Wave  Wind  Current  Solar  Bio II. Ability to generate its own food; through:  Farming  Aquaculture  Hydroponics III. Ability to be kept upright; using:  A system of ballast tanks (placed at the lowest portions to create proper counterforce)  Balancing tanks  Tentacles (by constantly moving with the rhythm of the tide) The surface of the submerged skyscraper sustains a green space of which it will provide food and oxygen, while the lower structure would provide its inhabitants with housings, work spaces, and areas for recreation. The bioluminescent tentacles around the floating city, which is multifunctional, serve as a habitat for the sea faunas. Through the movement of the tentacles, the building will be kept upright also when the waves are stronger and generate energy at the same time. Such sustainability strategies aim to ultimately create and provide an oasis with ‘Zero’ negative impacts to the environment, not only that but also improves on it hence the ‘Plus’.
  18. 18. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 18 5.3. Conclusion The h O2+ scraper expands the concept of a floating island into a full-fledged underwater skyscraper that harvests renewable energy and grows its own food. The h O2+ scraper is considered as an ideal future city as it utilizes a variety of green technologies. It is a city that does not consume nature but creates and produces nature. 5.4. Elements that are used for the Future City Among the elements and characteristics found in the city planning of the h O2+ scraper, there are some important elements that can be used for the future cities: I. Green technologies  Promote sustainable management of resources  Reduce pollution towards the environment  Use of renewable energy II. Urban Agriculture  Self-sustainable  Decrease energy and cost used to transport food III. Ballast Tank  The ballast facilitates hydrodynamic stability by moving the centre-of-mass low as possible, placing it beneath the air-filled buoyancy tank.
  19. 19. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 19 6.0. The New Elysium 6.1. Reasons of it being on the Water The change of global climate in recent years had caused the sea level to rise rapidly. According to the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the current rise of sea level is about 3mm/year worldwide, which is a significantly larger rate than the sea-level rise averaged over the last several thousand years, yet of which the rate may still be increasing. The main reason of Elysium being a floating city is to curb such issue. In the case where the sea level will keep on rising until it floods the city, the best way is to build a city where it can sustain itself and float at any given volume of water. Aside from the main and obvious reason, it is also because a floating city is  Close to the major human need: water  Able to portray characteristics of an island which allows the citizens to be more comfortable with the new setting of the city  Uses lesser materials to build the city
  20. 20. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 20 6.2. The Important Characteristics and Elements A city cannot stand alone without any characteristics or elements to support it. As such, the city of Elysium contains several characteristics and elements that helped build the city into what it is, which includes: I. Hierarchy in City Planning The buildings in Elysium is arranged according to its role of importance, where the buildings that portray themselves as of higher importance (i.e. government buildings, city hall) are arranged in the centre of the city; whereas the buildings that contributes lesser are placed further away from the central area of the city. II. Green Roof Technology Through the application of green roof technologies, rooftops have become the focus of a steady and quiet revolution. Even the thinnest green roof can efficaciously reverse the urban heat island effect, provide wildlife habitat, and absorb most rainfall events. Green roofs can also extend the life of the roof membrane, increase property values, insulate buildings, and improve urban aesthetics. The installation of green roofs are mainly to create a self- sustaining city and lower the temperature around the city. As such, most of the buildings in Elysium will be a green roof-covered building due to obvious reasons. III. Urban Agriculture The urban agriculture in Elysium uses the urban vertical farming concept, and also the generative system for a vegetable growing infrastructure. It uses the omega hydroponic garden to get 5 times as much food per watt. With limited land space and the population of the world being expected to increase in the future, the generative system is built upwards into the sky. IV. Green Technologies With its goal being a self-sufficient city, Elysium will be using sustainable energy generation technologies such as the solar panel and wind turbine to generate energy. With the use of these green technologies, not only will it reduce pollution towards the environment, the city will also be in for the long run as the energy generated can be replenished. V. Ballast Tank Elysium will be using the ballast tank as its floating mechanism. Ballast tanks provide the city with the air they need to float in the water instead of sinking. By emptying and filling the ballast tanks, the effective surface area of the city can be changed. The more effect surface area there is, the more buoyant the city will be, allowing it to rise in the water.
  21. 21. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 21 VI. Movable City Units In the city of Elysium, there are two sub units of the city which are movable. The units are propelled by turbines so they can attach or detach from the main body of the city at will. VII. Green City As Elysium is working its way towards a greener city, most of the city grounds are covered with lots of green, be it ground covers or shrubs.
  22. 22. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 22 6.3. Zoning According to the hierarchy city planning system, the City Centre and Government Buildings are placed at the heart of the city to allow easy access for the citizens in Elysium. The Business Area and Commercial Area (with the Commercial Area being spread out by a bit) being secondary of importance to the city, is placed on the outer ring of the central area. The Residential Area are not concentrated and are located all over the city with the Services Area such as police stations, fire stations, and hospitals alongside it to ensure quick respond and rescue when needed. The Educational Area and the Religious & Culture Area are placed on both sides of the circle to ensure that citizens from both ends are able to have easier access to the facilities. The park located next to the Educational Area serves as a field for students to play and for the schools to carry out open-air functions and activities. The Industrial Area and Port & Shipping Area are under the movable subunits of the city. This is to ensure that they cause minimum pollution towards the main city. The Technology Research Centre, Agriculture, and Water Treatment Area are place at the most outer part of the city to ensure that they receive minimum disturbance from the human population.
  23. 23. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 23 6.4. Transportation Network System 6.4.1. LRT 6.4.2. Route System
  24. 24. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 24 6.5. Overall Layout of Elysium 6.6. Conclusion As a city that is built for the people that are escaping and seeking refuge from the aftereffects of the global warming caused mainly by the humans themselves, Elysium is propelling towards a more sustainable, self-sufficient, and environmental friendly direction.
  25. 25. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 25 7.0. Conclusion After numerous weeks of researching regarding urban planning, city layout and the city itself, I have come to a realization that being an urban planner is not an easy task after all, which is contrary to my old mindset. In fact, it requires many thinking and consideration as one must have the ability to foresee possible problems ahead. Through all the research about the cities above, I have learnt that a good urban planner should always place the people as their first priority. It is the future. It is about the people. At times, the urban planner should stop thinking about the technology or infrastructure and keep the people in the center. Aside from that, as our earth is at the peaking point where pollution is now a major problem, the surrounding green environment should always take into account during a city planning. If our future cities can achieve a self-sufficient, and sustainable condition, surely the quality of life of the human population will be improved as well.
  26. 26. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Individual Report Ong Jia Hui | 0317752 | Group D | FNBE 022014 | Taylor’s University 26 a. Reference Links 1. http://www.ask.com/question/what-makes-a-city-a-city 2. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/city 3. http://designmind.frogdesign.com/articles/envisioning-the-city-of-the-future.html 4. http://www.iftf.org/our-work/global-landscape/human-settlement/the-future-of-cities- information-and-inclusion/ 5. http://periarthur.wordpress.com/2011/02/20/brief-history-of-athens-greece/ 6. http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Art/ 7. https://www.boundless.com/art-history/ancient-greece/high-classical-period/urban- planning/ 8. http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/about/history.html 9. http://www.asla.org/meetings/awards/awds02/chicagocityhall.html 10. http://commons.bcit.ca/greenroof/faq/why-green-roofs-benefits/ 11. http://architecture.mapolismagazin.com/bda-building-design-art-ho2-scraper-malaysia 12. http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2010-03/concept-water-scraper-brings- monumental-architecture-open-sea 13. http://blog.geogarage.com/2010/05/water-scraper-self-sufficient-city-at.html 14. http://allgraphical.blogspot.com/2010/11/water-scraper.html 15. http://www.evolo.us/competition/water-scraper-underwater-architecture/ 16. http://www.ehow.com/how-does_5562372_ballast-tank-works.html 17. http://inhabitat.com/underwater-skyscraper-is-a-self-sufficient-city-at- sea/waterscraper-ed04/

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