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Progressive Era


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Progressive Era

  1. 1. Progressive Era Brought to you by One Crazy Lady with a Hatchet Damn the Demon’s Rum “ Men are nicotine soaked, beer besmirched, whiskey greased, red-eyed devils."
  2. 2. <ul><li>Big business excesses strain environment, economy & people </li></ul><ul><li>Huge trusts created by industrial capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Many immigrants forced to work in sweatshops </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants living in squalid conditions in crowded cities </li></ul><ul><li>Threats to the natural resources and wildlife by the industrialists </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting right of the black vote (eliminate Jim Crow laws) </li></ul><ul><li>End child labor </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate factory working hours and conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibition of Alcohol (Demon’s Nectar) </li></ul>What Needs Reforming
  3. 3. Goals of Progressivism <ul><li>Protecting social welfare </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting moral improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Creating economic reform </li></ul><ul><li>Fostering industrial & gov’t efficiency </li></ul>However, Its Not a Unified Movement <ul><li>Some progressives concentrate on business regulation </li></ul><ul><li>No single objective or set of objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Some focus on laws to protect labor and the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Other seek municipal-government reform and social control </li></ul>
  4. 4. I’m the Government and I’m Here to Help! <ul><li>Liberalism </li></ul><ul><li>Government should be more active </li></ul><ul><li>Social problems are susceptible to government legislation and action </li></ul><ul><li>Throw money at the problem </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1. Protecting Social Welfare <ul><li>Social Gospel and settlement house movements sought to help the poor </li></ul><ul><li>YMCA offered activities to city dwellers </li></ul><ul><li>The Salvation Army fed the poor and cared for children </li></ul><ul><li>Illinois Factory Act prohibited child labor and limited women’s working hours </li></ul>
  6. 6. Protecting Working Children Cigar Makers
  7. 8. 2. Promoting Moral Improvement Women’s Christian Temperance Union led crusade for prohibition <ul><li>Women supported </li></ul><ul><li>Households where women didn’t work could be put in economic jeopardy by males abusing alcohol </li></ul>
  8. 9. 3. Creating Economic Reform <ul><li>American Socialist Party forms in opposition to capitalist system </li></ul><ul><li>Muckrakers expose corruption in business and public life </li></ul>
  9. 10. 4. Fostering Efficiency in Industry and Government Scientific Management Progressives attempt to be &quot;scientific&quot;--conduct social research, gather statistical data and expert testimony to back demands for reform The attempt to make workers more productive and efficient
  10. 11. Pioneered Assembly Line Production Model T Production 1910: 12 hours 1913: 2 Hours Henry Ford “ I want to pay my workers so that they can afford my product!” Henry Ford & the Model T Ford dispensed with consumer choice: Buyers can have “any color so long as its black .”
  11. 12. “ Model T” Prices & Sales
  12. 13. The Reorganization of Work Frederick W. Taylor The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) “ Taylorism” Breaking down manufacturing into simple, repetitive tasks. The Assembly Line : Workers as Machines
  13. 15. • City government becomes more efficient • State & Federal governments become more democratic
  14. 16. Reform Governor Robert M. La Follette <ul><li>Governor of Wisconsin </li></ul><ul><li>Ended party boss control – direct primaries to nominate candidates </li></ul><ul><li>Made state taxes more fair and equitable </li></ul><ul><li>Closed business loopholes, and strongly regulated railroad rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Sought presidency in 1908 (Taft nominated) </li></ul>“ The will of the people shall be the law of the land.”
  15. 17. Citizens Directly Create Laws Initiative - A procedure whereby ordinary citizens could propose laws for consideration by their state legislatures or by the voters directly. (Think Question 1: Wine Sales in Grocery Stores) Referendum - A procedure whereby citizens could vote directly on whether to approve proposed laws. (Think Question 1: Wine Sales in Grocery Stores) Recall - A procedure by which a public official could be removed from office by a direct vote of the citizens.
  16. 18. Secret Ballot <ul><li>A procedure by which citizens could keep their votes secret </li></ul><ul><li>Previously, voting was a public act witnessed by others. The voting records of individual citizens were recorded and made public </li></ul>
  17. 19. Seventeenth Amendment <ul><li>A procedure to allow the citizens in each state to directly elect their Senators </li></ul><ul><li>Previously, Senators were chosen by the state legislatures </li></ul>
  18. 20. Progressive Presidents Theodore Roosevelt William H. Taft Woodrow Wilson 1901 - 1909 1909 - 1913 1913 - 1921