Htm 3050 week 3 class notes


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Htm 3050 week 3 class notes

  1. 1. Supervision and Training Hans van Wees [email_address]
  2. 2. Planning, Job Analysis, Job Description, and Organizing What does planning mean to you?
  3. 3. The Nature of Planning <ul><li>Mission driven: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once the mission & goals have been set the next step is planning the appropriate human resources to meet or exceed the goals. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Levels of Planning <ul><li>Top Level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes long-range strategic plans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This includes setting organizational mission, goals, & strategies to meet or exceed the goals, & policies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This level of planning is called strategic planning . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Levels of Planning <ul><li>Middle managers with long-range plans typically make annual plans (& sometimes plan for longer periods). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These plans carry forward the strategies, tactics, & programs of the strategic plans within a manager’s own function & area of responsibility. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Levels of Planning <ul><li>As plans move down through channels to first-line supervisors at the operating level, management translates them into specific supervisory duties & responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Here the planning period is typically 1 month, 1 week, 1 day, or 1shift. </li></ul><ul><li>Plans deal with getting daily work done. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Exercise Types of plans in hotels/restaurants
  8. 8. The Planning Process <ul><li>Steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the goal, purpose or problem & set goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect & evaluate data relevant to forecasting the future. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop alternative courses of action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide on the best course of action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry out the plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control & evaluate results. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Goals & Goal Setting <ul><li>A goal is a desired outcome for individuals, groups, or entire organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals should be relevant to the vision & mission, specific, clear, challenging yet achievable & made with employee input. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals should also be written down along with strategies for how to reach the goals. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Goals & Goal Setting <ul><li>Goals are set in each of the key result areas of a business: HR, marketing, finance, operations, product, & service quality. </li></ul><ul><li>HR goals include but are not limited to labor costs, staffing levels, guest service, training, employee compensation & benefits, employee turnover. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal setting is an important because it establishes “ where we are now & where we want to go & when we want to be there. ” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Goals & Goal Setting <ul><li>Goals have 4 key ingredients: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals should be specific & measurable . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals should have time limits . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance feedback . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking: the search (amongst competitors) for the best method of doing something & implementing the method to improve performance & meet or exceed goals. </li></ul>
  12. 12. SWOT Analysis <ul><li>Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, & threats (SWOT) analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>This forces management to look carefully & objectively at strengths & weaknesses (internal) & opportunities & threats (external) aspects of its operation to identify areas of opportunity & concern. </li></ul><ul><li>A major goal of a SWOT analysis is to identify core competencies. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Forecasting <ul><li>Find out what happened in the past to estimate what will happen today. </li></ul><ul><li>If no conditions change, you can predict what can reasonably be expected to happen in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Controls staffing, purchasing, & production decisions. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Managing Risk <ul><li>The future is always more-or-less uncertain. </li></ul><ul><li>You reduce the degree of uncertainty, the risk , when you collect the relevant data & apply it to your forecast. </li></ul><ul><li>If you have less than 1% of the relevant data, conditions are completely uncertain & the degree of risk is 99%. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Risk Factor <ul><li>In some foodservices the degree of certainty about tomorrow is high (nursing home, cruises). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Airline catering is preplanned according to number of seats reserved & is updated as boarding passes are issued. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hotel occupancy is also fairly predictable, since most people make reservations ahead. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In planning repetitive work, most of the data are known or predictable, the risk factor is low. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can reduce the risk by having an alternative plan in reserve (a contingency plan), keeping records, & consulting with people with more experience . </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Qualities of a Good Plan <ul><li>Provides a workable solution to the original problem & meets the objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Is comprehensive; raises all relevant questions & answers them. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimizes the degree of risk necessary to meet the objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Is specific as to time, place, supplies, tools, & people. </li></ul><ul><li>Is flexible/can be adapted. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Standing Plans <ul><li>Established routines, formulas, blueprints, or procedures used in recurring/repetitive situations (i.e. daily reports, procedures manual, recipe). </li></ul><ul><li>Any standing plan will simplify a supervisor’s task of planning & organizing. </li></ul><ul><li>If the situation recurs every day, the supervisor’s need to manage is reduced to seeing that the workers meet the standards set & to dealing with the unexpected events. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is known as management by exception . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most workers are happier with standing plans than they are being dependent on the supervisor. </li></ul><ul><li>Large companies usually have them, but smaller operations may not. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Standing Plans <ul><li>Every hospitality operation must have standing plans & policies for dealing with matters affecting health & safety (i.e. sanitation, fires, & accidents). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The law requires such plans. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually, they consist of 2 parts: preventive routines & standard emergency procedures. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Standing Plans <ul><li>Standing plans have certain potential drawbacks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigidity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes often evolve in practice but written plans are not kept up to date. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Single-Use Plans <ul><li>One-time plan developed for a single occasion. </li></ul><ul><li>Often, the purpose of a single-use plan is a major change of some sort. </li></ul><ul><li>For such changes the planning must be very thorough. </li></ul><ul><li>The risks must be carefully assessed & the effects of each alternative weighed carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>May involve a change in the way the work is done </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes a supervisor is required to make a departmental budget, another kind of single-use plan. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A budget is an operational plan for the income & expenditure of money by the department for a given period. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparing the budget requires forecasting costs of labor, food products, supplies, & so on. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Day-by-Day Planning <ul><li>Planning the day’s work has top priority for the first-line supervisor. Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling may be planned by the week & updated daily as necessary. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Day-by-Day Planning <ul><li>Some advice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan before the day begins. Make it a regular routine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established routines simplify planning but do not take its place entirely. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wherever possible, reduce risks by increasing predictability (more facts) & flexibility (more options). </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Management by Objectives (MBO) <ul><li>Planning goal setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees jointly set goals & plan strategies as to how to meet or exceed them. </li></ul><ul><li>Progress toward the goals is monitored & rewards are given for outstanding performance. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Management by Objectives (MBO) <ul><li>5 key ingredients in an MBO program: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal specificity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who will do what </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance feedback </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Planning for Change <ul><li>Most people resist change. </li></ul><ul><li>Change upsets the environment, routines, habits, & relationships, it creates anxiety & insecurity in those affected. </li></ul><ul><li>People also resist change if it means a loss for them: less status, less desirable hours, etc. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Planning for Change <ul><li>The 1 st essential for dealing with resistance to change is a climate of open communication & trust. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers must feel free to express their feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t oversell the change. </li></ul><ul><li>Your people should feel that you want to make the change as easy for them as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Involve your workers in planning & carrying out the change. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People will respond positively to being included in planning changes that concern them. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Case Study Case study: Dealing with change
  28. 28. Dealing with change <ul><li>Describe a situation at work or at home where you were faced with change </li></ul>
  29. 29. Dealing with change <ul><li>What was your initial reaction, or of those around you? </li></ul><ul><li>How did you deal with this change? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the outcome? </li></ul><ul><li>What worried you most? </li></ul>
  30. 30. 5 Steps of dealing with change <ul><li>Define problem and set objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Gather relative data from past, present what future might be </li></ul><ul><li>What alternatives are there? What are their pros and cons? What risks and benefits does each have? </li></ul>
  31. 31. 5 Steps of dealing with change <ul><li>4. Choose alternative most suitable weighing off: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk versus benefit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feasibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting objectives </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. 5 Steps of dealing with change <ul><li>5. Implement the plan (what may be involved? Training? Meetings? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Planning your own time
  34. 34. Planning Your Own Time <ul><li>There is never enough private time for planning & reflective thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>There are never enough long blocks of time in which to plan your time. </li></ul><ul><li>Your job requires that you spend the time in your day in several different ways. </li></ul><ul><li>There are certain parts of the day when the job controls your time, when customer needs & demands are high, you must be at the disposal of anyone & everyone who needs you. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Planning Your Own Time <ul><li>If you analyze the ways in which you spend your time now, you can probably find ways to spend it better. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep a running log for at least 1 typical day, several if possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next, see what the record shows. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total the time you spent in each activity, & divide by the number of days to figure your daily average for each. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get rid of activities that waste time or are not worth the time they take. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Planning your own time <ul><li>Exercise: </li></ul>
  37. 37. 5 Major Reasons for High Turnover & Low Productivity <ul><li>1. Workers don’t know what they are supposed to be doing. </li></ul><ul><li>2. They don’t know how they are supposed to be doing it. </li></ul><ul><li>3. They don’t know how well they are doing it. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The supervisor has not given them any direction. </li></ul><ul><li>5. They have a poor relationship with the supervisor. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Job Description <ul><li>Describes the job as a whole. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance standards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How well are you doing it </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Job Description <ul><li>Job Title: the name of a job. </li></ul><ul><li>Job Summary: a brief summary of the major duty & purpose of this job. </li></ul><ul><li>Units of Work: work sequences that together comprise the content of the given job. </li></ul><ul><li>Job Setting: conditions under which the job will be done. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Environment: the extent of interpersonal interaction required to perform the job. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Organizing for Success <ul><li>Long-range plans that will help you solve time problems will also result in your unit running more efficiently & effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Setting everything up to run efficiently is organizing . </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping it running efficiently & effectively is managing. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Organizing for Success <ul><li>A well-organized & efficient unit is one in which: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines of authority & responsibility are clearly drawn & observed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jobs, procedures, & standards are clearly defined & followed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People know what to do & how to do it & they do it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards of quality, quantity, & performance are clearly set & met. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Organizing for Success <ul><li>Set out to organize things better: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find out what you need to know about your own job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find out where poor organization is causing problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chain of command </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job content & procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation & controls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standing plans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan what you will do to improve the organization & efficiency of your operation. </li></ul></ul>© 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  43. 43. Next class <ul><li>Recruitment, Selection and Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Read: Chapter 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Homework: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 141 review questions 1, 3, 4, 8 and 9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time management exercise: </li></ul></ul>